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i 







1 .•■ 



« 



NAMES 

AND 

THEIR HISTORIES 



A Handbook of 
HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 

and 
TOPOGRAPHICAL NOMENCLATURE 



BY 

ISAAC TAYLOR, MA., LittD., Hon. LLD, 

CANON OF YORK 

AUTHOR OP 'words AMD PLACBS ' 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED 



RIVINGTONS 

JCING STREET, CO VENT GARDEN 

LONDON 

1898 



I 



Cr- 









PREFACE 

The favour accorded for more than thirty years to 
successive editions of a volume entitled Words and 
Places has encouraged me to undertake another work 
on the same subject, but written on a different plan, and 
with a different intention. 

The object of the former book was to show how an 
acquaintance with the etymology of local names may 
be of use to students of such sciences as Ethnology, 
Mythology, or History. 

Regret has frequently been expressed that I did not 
venture beyond the definite plan I had proposed to myself, 
and especially that I had left several classes of local names 
without explanation. The object of the present book is 
to supply some of these omissions by giving an account of 
certain names, especially those of philological interest or 
of geographical importance, whose origin or etymology has 
been ascertained, and then tracing historically the changes 
which have taken place in their forms or in their geo- 
graphical significance. Such names, for example, as 
America, Austria, Scotland, Saxony, Africa, or Peru have 
now a very different application from that which they 
originally possessed, and the history of their migrations, 
extensions, or transformations is a subject of investigation 
not destitute of interest 

Changes of this class are legitimate, being due to the 
regular operation of natural causes ; but it is otherwise 
with Ghost-names, which owe their existence to the 

3o8i82 



iv NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

blunders, conjectures, misconceptions, or perversities of 
scribes, map-makers, or explorers. Among the more 
notable Ghost-names are Madagascar, the Hebrides, the 
Grampians, San Remo, Morocco, Mogador, Moldavia, 
Ararat, Ceylon, Canton, Texas, Yucatan, California, 
Canada, and Young Island ; with the rivers Congo, Cam, 
Isis, Rom, Penk, Eden, Lett, and Nogoa. The study of 
geographical names might have supplied the materials for 
a noteworthy chapter in Mr. Caxton's great History of 
Human Error. 

In order not to add to geographical perplexities I have 
carefully endeavoured to avoid that common and fertile 
source of error, mere etymological guesswork based upon 
the modern forms of names. I have therefore made it a 
rule to exclude from consideration names whose earlier 
forms are unknown, and whose signification cannot there- 
fore be historically determined. In a few important cases, 
such as London, Britain, or Berlin, where the meaning 
is not ascertainable, an exception has been made, and it 
has seemed expedient to enumerate the more probable 
conjectures which have been made by competent authori- 
ties. On the other hand, in order not needlessly to swell 
the bulk of the book, I have left unnoticed thousands 
of obscure places mentioned in Cartularies and similar 
documents, as being more suited for discussion in local 
monographs. Such, for instance, are the Icelandic farms 
and hamlets whose origin is recorded in that unique 
document, the Landndma-bSk of Iceland, which tells the 
Story of the first settlement of the Island by emigrants 
from Norway. But a typical selection of English village 
names, as they appear in early Charters or in Domesday, 
has been given in the Appendix. 

I have treated with great brevity classes of names 



PREFACE V 

which have been discussed in competent and accessible 
monographs, such as those of Forstemann, Grandgagnage, 
Gatschet, Joyce, and Sibree, writers who have systemati- 
cally explained the local nomenclature of Germany, 
Belgium, Switzerland, Ireland, and Madagascar. 

I have also omitted many recent names in the Arctic 
regions and in Australia, whose significance is known 
from the published journals of explorers, as they will 
mostly be found in Egli's Nomina Geographical a valuable 
though not always trustworthy work. Useful as this com- 
pilation has proved, I have, in most cases, thought it best 
to refer directly to the books he quotes, and to which his 
work serves as a sort of Index. For this reason it has 
seemed needless to increase the size of this volume by 
constant references to authorities, since they are usually 
cited by Egli, whose book will naturally be consulted by 
the few readers who may have occasion to go more deeply 
into the history of any particular place. But I have 
appended for the use of students a bibliographical note 
enumerating a few standard works on the subject I 
have also drawn up a prologue or short introduction 
pointing out some of the more curious and interesting 
names, which, to facilitate reference, have been arranged 
in alphabetical order in the Glossary which follows. 

I have to render my warm thanks to Mr. Cecil Bendall, 
of the British Museum, who has revised the notices of 
Indian names, and to Mr. Henry Bradley, the joint-editor 
of the new Oxford Dictionary, who has performed the 
same service for the remainder of the book, and to 
whom I am indebted for numerous corrections, and many 
valuable suggestions, only a few of which have been 
acknowledged in the text. 

I. T. 

Settrington, NovemUr 1895. 



ADVERTISEMENT TO THE SECOND EDITION 

This Edition has been carefully corrected and revised ; 
also in compliance with numerous requests, an Index has 
been added, chiefly of the names (2059) which occur in 
England. 



CONTENTS 



THE PROLOGUE, .... 

GLOSSARY, .... 

APPENDIX— 

L Indian Nomenclature, 
II. Turkish Nomenclaturb» 

III. Magyar Names, 

IV. Slavonic Nomenclature, 
V. French Village Names, 

VI. German Nomenclature, 

VIL English Village Names — 

§ I. Survivals of Grammatical Inflexion, 

§ 2. Personal Names, . 

§ 3. Occupations and Status, • 

§ 4. Hundreds, Shires, and Parishes, 

§ 5* Towns and Townships, • 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Index of Names in England, 



ffAGB 
I 

37 



303 
315 
321 
322 

33« 
340 

345 
JSO 
^S 
358 

391 
393 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

THE PROLOGUE 

The investigation of the etymology of local names is beset with 
peculiar difficulties, arising from the fact that, unlike other words, 
they constantly outlive the languages from which they are de- 
rived, while successive races transform the old names which 
they have received so as to make them significant to them- 
selves. Hence speculation as to the meaning of a name, without 
reference to its primitive form or to its subsequent history, is 
always futile, and frequently misleading, as it may have been 
orally transmitted from people to people, continuing in vernacu- 
lar use long after the language in which it was significant has 
been altered by dialectic change, or has been supplanted by 
some other tongue. 

Italy is the only land in which language and civilisation have 
been so continuous as to permit any considerable number of 
names to be transmitted, practically unchanged, for two thousand 
years. Roma, Capua, Mantua, Ravenna, Nola, Ostia, Cortona, 
are still called by the names which they bore in the time of the 
republic, and in other cases the change has been very slight. 
Thus Perugia was Perusia, Chiusi was Clusium, Rimini was 
Ariminum, Sorrento was Surrentum, Salerno was Salernum^ 
but even in Italy the difficulty is not wholly removed, as many 
of these names are not significant in Latin, but must be referred 
to the lost languages of prehistoric races. 

In other lands names have rarely come down to us with so 

A 



3 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

little change. Even in the countries of neo-Latin speech, barbarian 
invasion, followed as usual by dialectic change, has curiously 
transformed names derived from Latin sources. In France, for 
instance, it would be difficult, without documentary evidence, to 
recognise in the village name Glisolles a corruption of ecclesiola, 
the 'little church,' or to understand how silvagium has been 
converted into Servais, basiliccB into Bazolles, podium into Le 
Puy, tres vice into Treviers, or mutationes into Muison. In 
France, moreover, numerous Celtic and Teutonic names have 
survived the effacement of Celtic and Teutonic speech ; Vernon 
and Vernay, for instance, being from the Celtic wernos^ an alder 
tree, Cond^ from condate^ a confluence, while Quillebeuf answers 
to our English Kilby, Quittebeuf to Whitby, and Cherbourg 
to Scarborough. 

In England we have the same descent of local names from 
languages or dialects no longer vernacular. In Welsh afon 
means a * river,' and* cwm a * hollow,' and the fact that we have 
an Avon and a Combe in Hampshire proves that Welsh was 
once spoken in that part of England. Cornishmen now speak 
English, and have forgotten that the name of Garrick signified \ 
a * rock ' in the old Cornish speech. Even names of undoubted j 
Anglo-Saxon or Scandinavian origin cannot usually be explained/ 
off-hand from the resources of modern English. It is not! 
obvious, for instance, that the first syllable of Redbridge referred 
to * reeds,' or that of Redriff to *oxen,' much less that sucH 
forms as Howsham, Welham, and Welwyn are really due to, 
dative plurals. 

In some parts of Germany Celts have been succeeded by 
Wends, and Wends by Teutons, with the result that Celtic, 
Slavonic, and Teutonic names are strangely intermixed. With- 
out some knowledge of historical ethnology, it would be 
difficult to explain the fact that many names in Germany, 
such as Ratisbon, Mainz, Bonn, and Trier, can only be 
explained from Celtic sources, that others, such as Dresden, 
Leipzig, or Mecklenburg Strelitz, are of Slavonic origin ; while 



PROLOGUE 3 

for a few, such as Cologne, Coblentz, or Cassel, we have to 
resort to the speech of an Italian city. Sometimes, as in the 
case of Brandenburg, a name apparently Teutonic proves to be 
a Celtic or Slavonic designation which has assumed a Teutonic 
shape so as to becomef significant in German ears, just as in 
Wales a name like Barmouth, apparently English, is really 
Welsh, while in Ireland Money-sterling is partly Greek and 
partly Gaelic, and in Scotland Loch Long is a Celtic name 
accommodated so as to bear an English signification. 

How rapidly such a stratification of names can be effected is 
shown in the case of North America, where we find a layer of 
Indian names, like Massachusetts, Niagara, Canada, Quebec, 
Erie, or Ontario, overlaid by Franco-Indian terms like Huron 
or Illinois, or pure French names such as Vermont, Lake 
Superior, or Montreal, by Dutch names like Brooklyn or 
Hoboken, with a Spanish stratum such as Florida, Colorado, 
Montana, or Rio Grande, and the whole overlaid by such 
pure English names as Westpoint, Maryland, or Springfield. 

Even when the etymology of a name is manifest, a knowledge 
of historical geography is often needed in order to explain its 
modern application. France, for instance, is named from the 
Franks, a German tribe who only obtained a footing in a portion ' ^y 
of the country; Burgundy, Lombardy, and Andalusia from / 
three other German tribes now completely absorbed. For ■ 
more than a thousand years there have been no Huns in 1 
Hungary, and Saxony has never been inhabited by men of 
Saxon race. Russia, a typically Slavonic land, owes its name 
to a band of Swedish vikings, and Prussia, typically German, 
to a remote Lithuanian province which was conquered by an 
order of Teutonic knights. A Celtic tribe which has long 
vanished from history has bestowed a name on Bohemia, 
which is peopled by Slaves, and on Bavaria, inhabited by men 
of German speech. No less difficult would it be to discover the 
origin of names which have been derived from the heraldic bearings 
of medieval lords, as in the case of the old French province 



4 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

of Dauphiny, or of the town of Leonberg in Wiirtemberg. Some 
knowledge of history is needed to understand how it is that 
an insignificant village has been able to give its name to 
Switzerland, or how the vast region which we call Siberia was 
named from another village which has totally vanished from 
our maps. 
^ The vitality of a name is lost when the meaning is no longer 
/ generally understood. It then becomes specially liable to cor- 
ruption, which frequently results in an assimilation of the form 
to that of other names which are more familiar, or which still 
remain significant. It follows that names apparently similar or 
identical often prove to have different etymologies ; while 
dissimilar names may come from the same source, as in the 
case of Temi and Teramo in Italy, both of which are corruptions 
of Interamna, * between the rivers.' It might be supposed that 
the first syllable of the county names Carmarthen, Cardigan, 
and Carlow, all of which are of Celtic origin, jire from the same 
source. The Car in Carmarthen and Carlisle is the Celtic 
caer^ a 'fortress' or *city,' in Cardigan it is part of a personal 
name, while in Carlow it is the numeral cether^ * four.' Or, to 
take a French example, Chalons-sur-Marne is a tribal name, a 
corruption of the dative plural Catalaunis, while Chalon-sur- 
Saone is from Cabillonum^ 2l name of totally different origin. 
Again, Holland, Holstein, and Holderness have nothing to do 
with hollows, and it is only by research in obscure archives, 
without which the most ingenious speculation as to the mean- 
ing of these names would be futile, that scholars have ascertained 
the ancient forms, which prove that they all refer to districts of 
primeval forest. 

In the same way English names have frequently been so 
perverted or obscured by corruption or assimilation, that 
without the aid of documentary evidence it would be impos- 
sible to arrive at correct conclusions as to their significations. 
Thus Alton in Hants is not, as we might expect, the ' old tun,' 
but, as is proved by the Anglo-Saxon name ^weilun, the * tun 



PROLOGUE 5 

at the cnvel^ the source of water from which the celebrated Alton 
ales are brewed, but Aldborough in Yorkshire, occupying the 
site of the Brigantine city of Isurium, was rightly named the 
'old burgh,' and Aldborough in Suffolk is the burgh on the 
River Aide. Aldershot and Alresford in Hants are named 
from the alder tree, while Alderbury in Wilts and the Isle of 
Alderney are both from personal names. 

The suffix -ham, so common in English village names, has 
two distinct significations, the meaning to be assigned to it 
depending on the quality of the vowel in Anglo-Saxon, which 
was lost as early as the Norman Conquest ; while Ham- as a \ 
prefix is usually derived from an adjective of entirely different / 
signification. So the common suffixes -ton, -don, -den and 
-stone are constantly assimilated or interchanged, and the same 
has frequently occurred with -ford and -worth, -head and -hithe, 
-grove and -grave, -ham and -holm\ Durham, to take a well- 
known example, being a corruption of Dunholm, while the 
meaning of such common names as Hampton, Hinton, Burton, 
Bolton, Grafton, Harley, and many more, can only be deter- 
mined with certainty by early documentary evidence. In the 
case of Whittlesea, Mersea, and Hornsea, the last syllable 
means in one case, * lake,' in another, * island,' while in the third 
it is derived from an obsolete grammatical inflexion denoting 
the dative singular. In like manner the sign of the dative plural 
has frequently lapsed into -holm or -ham. Whether the first 
syllable of such names as Fulbeck, Fulmere, and Fulham signifies 
full, foul, or fowl, can only be determined by a knowledge of 
the primitive forms, which is also requisite to enable us to deter- 
mine whether such a name as Wotton or Wootton refers to 
woods, weeds, width, or wheat ; whether Widford and Widcombe 
refer to willows, width, or whiteness ; Linton to limes or flax ; 
Shipton and Skipton to ships or she«p ; Hambledon or Himble- 
don to sheep or hops ; Ashton and Aston to the ash or to the 
east ; and Gatton, Gaddesden, and Gateshead to gates or goats. 
Melbourne may be the mill burn or the middle burn, an 



6 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

ambiguity which apph'es also to Milton and Melton, while the 
names of Harrow, Harrogate, and Harrowby are all derived from 
entirely different sources. Such ambiguities may suffice to show 
how useless, or rather how misleading, it is to guess at the mean- 
ing of a name unless the ancient form can be recovered from 
charters or similar evidence. Unfortunately not a few names, 
and those often of considerable importance, have been handed 
down in popular parlance from times so remote that their primi- 
tive forms can only be matters of ingenious conjecture. Thus a 
considerable but mostly futile literature has gathered round the 
name of Berlin, which has been explained in turn from Celtic, 
Slavonic, and Teutonic sources. It is doubtful whether the 
name of Spain is Phoenician or Basque, the etymologies usually 
accepted of Rome and London are probably wrong, while as to 
the name of Britain scholars are hopelessly at variance. 

ijlistorical materials have sometimes come to light, which 
have made it possible to unravel, with greater or less success, 
the meaning of names whose etymology had been given up as 
hopeless, or of which an erroneous interpretation had been 
usually accepted. This has been the case with Lichfield and 
Maidenhead, where myths originating in popular etymologies 
have taken graphic form on the corporation seals?) In the case 
of Madagascar, a hearsay report of Malay or Arab sailors, mis- 
understood by Marco Polo, or by the scribes who took down 
the great traveller's tale, has had the effect of transferring a 
corrupt form of the name of a portion of the African continent 
to the great African island ; while the modern names of the 
Hebrides, the Grampians, and lona are due to the adoption of 
erroneous readings of manuscript texts by the editors of early 
editions of Latin writers. To errors in the interpretation of 
ancient authors we owe such blunders as the names of Odessa, 
Pomona, and Morecambe Bay, while the names of the Cam 
and the Isis must be attributed to erroneous philological specu- 
lation. Glerawly, the second title of Lord Annesley, is a name 
due to th^ blunder pf a clerk, who, in making out the patent 



PROLOGUE 7 

for the peerage, wrote Glerawly by mistake for Glenawly, origi- 
nally Clanawley, the family estate in Fermanagh. 

The names of imaginary saints have occasionally been evolved 
out of geographical names by popular etymology. Thus a 
village in Belgium called Saint-Fontaine appears in a document 
of 13 1 3 as Centfontaines, evidently from terra de centum fon- 
tanis^ the land of a hundred springs; while Saint Plovoir, a 
place in Limburg, is a corruption of simplex via, Sentiniacus, 
which signified the estate of Sentinius, has become Saint Igny, 
S. Petrus de Villa is now St. Peraville, S. Petrus in Via is now 
St. Peravy, while S. Remigii Mons has become St. Remimont. 
The reverse process may occasionally be detected. In the 
duchy of Luxemburg there is a place called Sandweiler, which 
would ostensibly signify a dwelling on the sand, but which is 
really a corruption of S. Valerius, while S. Nectarius has become 
Senneterre, and S. Casius is now Sommecaise. 

Owing to the mistakes of explorers, clouds or icebergs have 
been entered on maps as islands or mountain ranges, and have 
sometimes remained on the charts for centuries, to the confusion 
of geographers and sailors. Peninsulas have been marked as 
islands, and land-locked bays as the mouths of rivers, as in the 
case of Rio, the capital of Brazil, which is not situated on a 
river, as the name would lead us to suppose. The most endur- 
ing of these errors are the names of the West Indies and of the 
State of Indiana, both ultimately due to the delusion of Colum- 
bus, who died in the belief that the lands he had discovered 
formed a part of Asia. 

The origin of other names which seem inappropriate or 
absurd is explained when the history of the name is known. 
Sometimes an essential portion of the name has fallen into dis- 
use, as with the names of Hull, Leith, Thame, and Frome, all 
of which are properly names of rivers, and not, in the first 
instance, of the towns by which the river names have been 
appropriated. The name of Honduras is derived from a Spanish 
word rn^aning *deep,' which ^a§ originally given to a river; 



8 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

and Brazil is from a Portuguese word denoting glowing coals ; 
Penang is the Malay name of a certain tree, and Canada is an 
Indian word signifying a collection of huts or wigwams. The 
huge mountain mass of the Camaroons bears a Portuguese name 
which means shrimps, while in the case of the Congo a native 
word which signifies mountains has been transferred to a great 
African river. 

Not unfrequently, as in the case of Africa, Asia, India, Borneo, 
Italy, Greece, or Portugal, names have received an enormous 
extension of their original significance, while others, as Peru, 
Saxony, Westphalia, or Northumberland, have been shifted far 
from the district to which they originally referred. 

Imaginary names of another class have been derived from 
popular legend, or from works of fiction supposed at the time 
to be veracious narratives. Bimini, described in the fictitious 
travels of Mandeville as a land containing the fountain of per- 
petual youth, in search of which the adventurous expedition 
which led to the discovery of Florida was equipped, has found 
a local habitation in one of the Bahamas ; and it is now known 
that the * golden State ' derived its name from a romance whose 
author invented the name of California for the long-sought El 
Dorado whose discovery he described. Manitoba is so called 
from an Indian legend which there localised the habitation of 
the spirits of the dead, and to a similar Cornish legend of a 
land of Goire, the bourne from which no one could return, we 
may probably attribute the name of Gower, the peninsula seen 
dimly looming across the Severn Sea. 

Old Greek legends are embodied in names which remain upon 
the map. On the south coast of the Black Sea we find a Cape 
Yason, which represents the Greek lasonion, where the myth of 
Jason and the Argonauts was localised by Milesian sailors. 
Odessa was founded on a site wrongly supposed to be that of 
the Greek city of Odessus, which may have been so named to give 
a local habitation to a legend of the hero of the Odyssey, whose 
visit to Circe was localised on the coast near Naples at a plac^ 



PROLOGUE 9 

marked on our modem maps as Cape Circeo. On the same 
lovely shores we find the islands of the Sirens, where it requires 
no great amount of imagination to transform the white surf 
playing round the rocks awash with the waves into the white 
shoulders of maidens floating in the sea. The islands of the 
Hesperides with their golden apples are known to all winter 
visitors to the Riviera, the spear of Polyphemus is the name 
given to a pointed rock which stands erect beside a cave at the 
back of Capri, and the name of Acis will be found on the 
Sicilian coast not far from Scylla and Charybdis. Plato's ac- 
count of the island of Atlantis may have helped to give currency 
to the name of the Atlantic Ocean, while the Greek myth of 
Atlas, the giant who bore the heavens on his shoulders, is re- 
called to mind when the traveller who approaches Gibraltar sees 
a low belt of cloud resting on the shoulders of the hill called Atlas 
by the Greeks, which is itself an outlier of the chain to whidi 
we have transferred the name. When the ancient legend tells 
us how Europa, a Phoenician damsel, was carried by a bull 
across a strait which still bears the name of the Bosphorus, the 
* passage of the bull,' it is impossible to determine how far the 
name arose from the legend or the legend from the name, but 
it would seem that the legend points to the remote period, when, 
owing to astronomical causes, the constellation which was the 
leader in the procession of the Zodiacal signs was not Pisces or 
Aries, but Taurus, in which capacity he would conduct Europa, 
the * broad -faced moon, in the diurnal progress from the 
Eastern land of Asia to the region of the sunset. In any case 
the names of Europe and Asia for the two great continents 
could only have arisen when the land connection was unknown, 
and the ^gean and the Euxine were believed to divide the 
world into two parts. * To the same mythical era we must 
assign the old name of the River Po, to which the Greeks gave 
the name of the constellation Eridanus, apparently identifying 
the earthly river with the heavenly river of the Babylonian 
^tronom^. Another astronomical n^me is that of fh^ AfCtic 



lo NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

Ocean, which reminds us that the Greek term for the north 
was derived from the constellation of the Great Bear. It may 
also be noted that in the Swedish district of Thielemarken we 
may probably find a local habitation for the extreme northern 
land dimly known by hearsay as Ultima Thule to the ancient 
world. 

In the names upon the map we find a host of survivals of 
various kinds — ethnological, historical, ecclesiastical, biographical, 
and philological. 

Bygone institutions or jurisdictions are commemorated in 
such names as Dingwall, Walsoken, Galton, or Buckrose; and 
forgotten tenures or ancient modes of tillage in Theale, Oundle, 
Huish, Buckland, Fifehead, Sixpenny Handley, Pennygown, and 
Unganab. 

But what we may call ethnological survivals are of greater 
value, since local names may furnish valuable evidence as to 
the geographical position of races or tribes now vanished or 
absorbed. 

The name of Venice long remained a solitary memorial of the 
Veneti, an ancient tribe whose affinities were unknown, and it 
is only within the last few years that the prehistoric cemeteries 
of Este and Padua have yielded inscriptions from which we 
gather that the Veneti were an lUyrian people, who must have 
crossed the Adriatic and takeii possession of lands previously 
held by the Etruscans, to whom we assign the names of Mantua 
and Ravenna, while Milan, Como, and Genoa are among the 
names due to the Celtic inroad which transformed Northern 
Etruria into Cisalpine Gaul. The names of Florence, Piacenza, 
and the Emilia speak of the Roman dominion, Lombardy of 
the latest Teutonic invasion, while Cimiez and the Ciminian 
mountains are believed to be vestiges of the pre-Aryan population 
of the Italian peninsula. The names of Rumelia, Roumania, 
and perhaps of Erzeroum remind us that the New Rome founded 
on the Bosphorus became the capital of the Roman Empire, 
the province of Romagna being so called because for a time it 



I 



PROLOGUE II 

remained the sole Italian possession of the Roman Emperors in 
the East. Austria is a name which carries us back to the time 
when an Eastern marquisate had to be erected as a frontier to 
resist the Magyar horsemen, and the Bavarian province still called 
the Pfalz is a record of the dismembered fief once held by the 
Count of the Palace, one of the great official dignitaries of the 
Holy Roman Empire of the West. 

It sometimes happens that the names of kingdoms, provinces, 
or tribes survive only in the name of some physical feature, or of 
an insignificant village. The Pentland Firth and possibly the 
Pentland Hills bear witness to the extent and position of the 
great kingdom of the Picts, and th6 kennels of the Pytchley 
hounds remind us that in one of their destructive inroads they 
penetrated as far south as the county of Northampton. The 
situation of the seven provinces of the Pictish realm, and of the 
earldoms into which they merged, are also indicated by obscure 
names. Braemar and Cromar, both in Aberdeenshire, belonged 
to the great prehistoric earldom of Mar, while" the position of the 
earldom of Buchan is indicated by Buchan Head : that of Moray 
by the Moray Firth, and of Athole by Blair-Athole. The earl- 
dom of Angus is now miscalled Forfarshire from the county 
town of Forfar, but the older name is retained by Coupar- Angus 
and Fetter- Angus. The county of Fife preserves the old name of 
one of the Pictish provinces, but if, as in other cases, the name had 
been changed, the position of the province would still be marked 
by Cupar- Fife and Fifeness, as has happened in the case of the 
province of Caith, where the name is preserved by Caithness, the 
curious Picto-Scandinavian name of its northern promontory 
which has been adopted for an existing county. The position 
and extent of Fidach, another of the Pictish provinces, 
is historically unknown. The name is believed to have 
meant the * forest ' (Gaelic fid^ Welsh gwydd\ and the province 
seems to have been part of the territory afterwards included in 
the earldoms of Mar, Moray, and Buchan, and hence we may 
probably recognise the nam^ in Glen Fiddich in Baijffshir^. In 



12 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

like manner the position of the district called Manu (genitive, 
mannann) is indicated by the names of Clackmannan, the * stone 
of Manu,' and Slamannan, the ' mountain of Manu.' 

Dunmyat, a hill near Stirling, is believed to have been the 

* dun ' or fort of the Meatae, a Caledonian tribe mentioned by 
Tacitus. Dumbarton and Dumfries are also the names of tribal 
fortresses. Dumfries was the fort of Frisian settlers, while 
Dumbarton, formerly called Dunbretane and Dumbriton, the 

* fort of the Britons,' was a northern outpost of the British king- 
dom of Strathclyde, a part of which has retained the name of 
Cumberland, the * land of the Cymry,' the more southern portion 
being overlooked by Ingleborough, the border fortress of the 
Angles, which crowns a commanding summit of the Pennine 
chain. The further progress of Anglian conquest is marked by 
the name of Englefield, formerly called Englafield, a Berkshire 
battlefield between Angles and Saxons, the most southern point 
at which the English, as distinguished from the Saxons, can be 
traced. There are a few similar records of intrusion or extrusion, 
such as Britford in Wiltshire, the * ford of the Britons,' doubtless 
a ford by which Welsh cattle raiders invaded Wessex ; or Exton, 
in Hampshire, a corruption of East-Sexna-tun, which shows that 
a body of East Saxons must have migrated from Essex to this 
West-Saxon village. Conderton in Worcestershire is a still more 
singular name, being a corruption of Cantwara-tiin, the * tun of 
the Cantware ' or men of Kent, whose capital was at Cant- 
warabyrig, now Canterbury. 

Similar migrati ons. or conquests, but on a much larger scale, 
have, from historical causes, had the curious result that the names 
of large countries are frequently derived from a small portion of 
the inhabitants. The name of France is a case in point, though 
not so extreme as those of Germany, Russia, and Africa. Scot- 
land is an excellent instance of the way in which the extension of a 
national name may be due to dynastic causes. In early documents 
the terms Scoti and Scotia always refer to Ireland. This Irish 
sept, having crQs$ed the narrow sea, conquered fpr themselves 



PROLOGUE 13 

a new home in Argyle, which then, as the name implies, became 
the borderland of the Gaelic invaders. The kings of the Scots, 
having obtained the Pictish throne by marriage, became powerful 
enough to incorporate the northern part of the Welsh kingdom 
of Strathclyde, and to annex the English district of the Lothians 
in the South, and in the North the Scandinavian earldoms of 
Caithness and Orkney. Hence it has come to pass that we 
apply the inappropriate name of Scotland to a composite realm, 
of which only a small part has ever, except in a dynastic sense, 
been a land of the Irish adventurers who alone can properly be 
called Scots. Somewhat similar is the history of the dynastic 
extension of the Prankish name to ancient Gaul, or of the Eng- 
lish name to ancient Britain. Owing to the succession of Eadgar, 
an Anglian king, to the throne of Wessex, it has come to pass 
that the Angles, and not the Saxons, have given their name to 
England, though it might easily have been otherwise, as is 
shown by the fact that the Welsh still give to all Englishmen 
the name of Saesneg, from the name of the foes they first 
encountered. 

In numerous instances a tribal nam e^has become territorial, 
the name of the tribe or people being used as the designation 
of the land they occupy. A simple case is that of the northern 
and southern divisions of the East-Anglian folk, whose territories 
we now call Norfolk and Suffolk, without noticing that such 
names must originally have designated not a district, but its 
inhabitants. In like manner E^sex, Middlesex, Sussex, and 
Wessex, as well as Somerset and Dorset, are plural forms, 
denoting primarily the settlers, and not the district in which 
they settled, the changed usage being probably due to the 
alderman or earl of the tribe acquiring territorial jurisdiction, and 
so becoming the alderman or earl of the district. 

Wales, the modern form of the Anglo-Saxon word fVealas, 
which means * foreigners,' still retains the sign of the plural, which 
has disappeared in the name of Cornwall, owing to its name 
having been derived from Cornweala, the genitive plural, and 



14 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

not from the nominative plural Cornwealas, which would have 

given Cornwales, the * Welsh of the horn/ as the name of the 

county. 

These tribal names distinguish from the shires those counties 
which are not shires. We do not speak of Essexshire or 
Cornwallshire ; and Dorsetshire and Somersetshire, though some- 
times used, are incorrect. The distinction is still kept up in 
peasant parlance; an Essex labourer, for instance, will talk of 
going *into the shires.' While such counties as Northumber- 
land, Cumberland, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Middlesex, Sussex, 
Kent, Somerset, Dorset, or Cornwall were originally kingdoms or 
tribal settlements, the shires, which take their names from towns, 
were administrative districts, into which such larger kingdoms 
as Wessex and Mercia were divided by Alfred arid his successors. 

We have an historical distinction of the same sort in Scotland, 
where Argyle and Fife are properly counties, while Inverness- 
shire, Stirlingshire, and Dumfriesshire are shires. In Ireland, 
Meath, Kerry, Tyrone, and Fermanagh belong to one class, 
Sligo, Waterford, and Wexford to the other; but here, 
unfortunately, owing to the policy of the English conquerors 
in breaking up the authority of the tribal chiefs, the names 
of the old sub-kingdoms, such as Thomond, Desmond, Ormonde, 
Ossory, Tirconnel, Offaly, or Oriel, have disappeared, or survive 
only in the titles of Irish peerages. 

In England we have in local names a few such memorials 
of kingdoms or of tribal dominions which did not survive as 
counties. When the great Northumbrian kingdom, which at one 
time extended from the Humber to the Forth, had shrunk into 
the narrow limits of the present county of Northumberland, the 
severed southern portion, to which by right the name North- 
Humberland should have appertained, became the kingdom of 
Deira, with its capital at York, and this kingdom of Deira has 
bequeathed a curious memorial of its existence in the name of 
the earldom or county of Hol-der-ness, which signifies the ness 
or promontory of the Deira holt or forest. The British 



PROLOGUE 15 

kingdoms of Elmet and Loidis, which for a time remained 
independent of the kings of Deira, are localised by the names 
of Sherburn in Elmet and Leeds, while Skipton in Craven and 
Nether Hallam preserve the memory of Cravenshire and Hallam- 
shire, the old name of Howdenshire being happily revived for 
one of the new electoral divisions. Henley-in-Arden localises 
the forest of Arden, while at Bridgenorth, a corruption of 
Bridgemorfe, was the bridge over the Severn which led to the 
great forest of Morfe. 

Many of the old French provinces, like the English counties, 
bore tribal names. Armorica obtained the name of Brittany 
when it became the refuge of the Britons who fled across the 
channel from the Saxon invasion. Burgundy was the land 
settled by the Burgundians, a Teutonic tribe who had marched 
with the Goths from the shores of the Baltic across the Danube 
and the Alps. Normandy was the coast land ceded to the 
Northmen who came from the same region by another route. 
The Pictavi or Pictones, a Celtic tribe, left their name in 
Poictou, the Andecavi in Anjou, the Cenomani in Maine, the 
Petracorii in Pdrigord, and the Bituriges in BerrL It is worthy 
of note that while in Southern Gaul the great cities have, as a 
riile, retained their ancient names, Toulouse, for instance, 
being Tolosa, Lyons being Lugdunum, and Marseille being 
Massilia, in the north they have frequently acquired the 
names of the Gaulish tribes whose capitals they were, the chief 
town of the Ambiani becoming Amiens, that of the Remi becom- 
ing Rheims, of the Seni becoming Sens ; while Lutetia, the 
capital of the Parisii, is now Paris. 

In Germany the shiftings of population have seldom permitted 
the retention of the tribal names. We have, however, a 
memorial of the Celtic Treviri in Trier or Trfeves, of the Boii 
in Bavaria and Bohemia, of the Chatti in Hesse, of the Eastern 
Franks in Franconia, of the Suevi in Swabia, of the Thurings in 
Thuringia, and of the Huns in Hungary. 

Among religious and ecclesiastical survivals the foremost 



i6 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

place must be assigned to the Are records of pre-Christian 
heathendom. How the name of Athens came to be associated 
with that of the virgin goddess is a question not easy to 
determine. The principality of Monaco takes its name from a 
temple of Hercules Monoecus. The Bourbons derive their name 
from a place dedicated to the worship of Borvo, a Gaulish 
deity ; while Oisemont recalls the name of Esus, one of the 
deities of Lucan's Celtic triad. Famars is a corruption of Fanum 
Martis, Alajou, in the Herault, of Ara Jovis, and Ntmes of the 
sacred grove called Nemausus. In England the name of 
Lydney, and as some have thought, of Leicester, London, and the 
Dee may be connected with the worship of Celtic deities, while 
Arram, Lund, and Weighton in Yorkshire, and Harrow in 
Middlesex, were sites of the worship of the heathen English. 
The Wansdike in Wilts bears the name of Woden, while at the 
town called Odinse in. Denmark there stood, in historical times, 
a great temple of Odin. India i§,full of aames. derived from 
shrines and temples, among them are Bombay, Seringapatam, 
Cawnpore, Cape Comorin, and the River Jumna. In other 
lands Macao, Mexico, and Lima derive their names either from 
deities or their temples. 

In Europe ecclesiastical names are chiefly found among the 
Celtic races. In Ireland and Scotland we have numerous 
names beginning . with Kil^ such as Kildare, Kilkenny, or 
Kilmore, whith denote a monastic cell or a church, answering 
to the Welsh or Breton names in Llan-y such as Llangollen or 
Llanfair, the second part of the name frequently containing the 
name of the saint to whom the church was dedicated. In 
England, saint names, such as St. Albans or Peterborough, 
usually derived from great monasteries, are rare, but they are 
more frequent in France, as at St. Omer or St. Malo. In 
the North of England and in the South of Scotland the word 
i^/>^ enters into the composition of names, as Kirkcudbright, 
Falkirk, and the numerous Kirbys. Names like Holyhead, 
Halifax, and Penzance have also to be noted* Downpatrick 



PROLOGUE 17 

reminds us of the apostle o^ Ireland ; the canton of St. Gallen 
of one of his Irish followers who evangelised Switzerland ; Cape 
St. Vincent of a hermit who established himself in that desolate 
eyrie ; while, more curious than all, Glasgow has been explained 
from an affectionate nickname given to St. Kentigern. In the 
New World we have similar memorials of the Franciscan and 
Jesuit missions, among the more notable being San Francisco, 
Sacramento, and St. Louis, while Los Angeles takes its 
name from a mission dedicated to Santa Maria Reyna de los 
Angeles. 

The calendar frequently dates the discovery of capes and 
islands. The Virgin Islands were sighted by Columbus during 
his second voyage on October 21st, the feast of St. Ursula and 
the eleven thousand virgins. Natal was discovered on Christmas 
Day, Florida at Easter, while St. Helena, Ascension, Easter 
Island, Christmas Island, and Mount St. Elias were named 
from the day of discovery. Maio, one of the Cape Verd 
islands, was discovered on the ist of May, and Rio Janeiro 
on the I St of January, The stages of the notable voyage, 
during which the long line of the Brazilian Coast was traced 
in 1 50 1 by Amerigo Vespucci, are chronicled by a fringe of 
names still retained by the more notable capes and rivers 
which he sighted. Thus we find the record of his landfall in 
Brazil at Cabo de San Roque, which he discovered on St. 
Roque's Day, August i6th; pn August 28th, St. Augustine's 
Day, he had reached Cabo de San Augustino ; on Michaelmas 
Day, September 29th, he was at the Rio de San Miguel ; on the 
next day, September 30th, St. Jerome's Day, he named the Rio 
de San Jeronymo. He reached the Rio de San Francisco on St. 
Francis' Day, October 4th ; the Rio das Virgens on the feast of 
St. Ursula, October 21st ; the Rio de Santa Lucia on St. Lucy's 
Day, December 13th ; the Cabo de San Thom^ on St. Thomas' 
Day, December 21st; the Bahia de San Salvador on Christmas 
Day; the Rio de Janeiro on January 1st; and the Angra dos 
Reis on January 6th, the festival of the Three Kings. 

B 



i8 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

Numerous islands, capes, and bays bear the names of the 
ships by which they have been discovered, and many reefs and 
shoals perpetuate in like manner the memory of notable ship- 
wrecks. Columbus set the -example by giving to one of the 
Antilles the name of the Marigalante, the ship in which he 
sailed on his second voyage. The great Columbia River and 
British Columbia through which it flows obtained their names, 
not in honour of Columbus, but from the Columbia^ a Boston 
merchant vessel. The names of the Heemskirk^ the Arnhem, 
the Zeehaan, the Duyfhen, and the Geelvtnk^ in which Tasman 
and the early Dutch explorers sailed, are duly entered on the 
map, as well as those of Cook's ships, the Endeavour^ the 
Resolution^ the Adventure, and the Discovery, together with 
the Giographe and the Naturaliste, the ships of his French 
rivals in Australian discovery. The Hecla, the Griper, and the 
Fury, the Erebus and the Terror, the Dolphin and the Union, 
the Herald and the Blossom, in which the great arctic and 
antarctic explorers made their perilous voyages, are found 
upon the scene of their exploits. Pitt Island and the Chatham 
Islands were named, not from those statesmen, but from the 
ships by which they were discovered, as is the case with the 
Asia Islands, America Island, Ocean Island, Amsterdam Island, 
Bounty Island, the Phoenix Islands, Pioneer Island, and many 
more, not forgetting those named after surveying vessels, such 
as the Beagle and the Investigator, 

More numerous and more interesting than the names derived 
from ships are those which commemorate the services of their 
officers and commanders. Thus it is not a mere barren cata- 
logue of geographical names that we find written upon our 
ocean charts, but a story of daring and endurance, replete with 
human interest. The Atlas, if rightly read, forms a sort of 
Libro d^Oro, inscribed with the names of the world's great 
explorers, recalling the adventurous deeds, the glorious lives and 
the heroic deaths of the navigators who, in their tiny barques, 
explored strange coasts and first ventured across unknown 



PROLOGUE 19 

oceans. We may thus discover an absorbing biographical 
interest even in the dry study of geography. 

First, perhaps, in order of interest, though not of time, we 
are reminded how Henry Hudson, who had given his name to 
a great American river, was cast adrift with his little son in a 
small skiff by his mutinous and starving crew, and found his 
grave in the great inland sea whose name forms his imperishable 
monument. The name of Davis Strait is a no less worthy 
memorial of a still earher arctic and antarctic explorer, who, 
after a long life of strange adventure, was treacherously 
murdered by Japanese pirates whom he tried to succour. 

Coming to Baffin's Bay, we are reminded of another English 
worthy, who, after exploits hardly less notable, was killed 
by a chance shot at the siege of Ormuz in the Persian Gulf. 
Nor must we forget Martin Frobisher, the earliest of our arctic 
navigators, who, in the tiny Gabriel^ discovered the Bay which 
bears his name, and afterwards, in command of the Triumph^ the 
largest ship in the British Navy, led the attack on the Spanish 
Armada. The memory of those Elizabethan merchant princes at 
whose charges the expeditions of the early arctic explorers were 
equipped is perpetuated by the names of Lancaster Sound, 
Smith's Sound, Jones' Sound, Wolstenholm Sound, Sanderson's 
Hope, and Cape Dudley Diggs, while Boothia Felix and Grinnell 
Land record the munificence with which their example was 
followed at the time of the second epoch of arctic discovery, 
when Parry, Ross, Franklin, M*Clintock, and M*Clure, were 
leaving their names in regions which Davis, Baffin, and Hudson 
had failed to reach. Nor have we to search in vain for 
the name of Raleigh, courtier, adventurer, and martyr, or of 
Cavendish and Drake, the first Englishmen to follow in the 
track of Magellan, and circumnavigate the globe. The straits 
that bear the names of Magellan, Bering, Torres, Juan de Fuca, 
and Cook, the islands called after Tasman, the most adventurous 
of Dutch navigators, and after Houtman, Jan Meyen, Fernando 
Noronha, Fernando Po, Vancouver, Gilbert, and Marshall are 



20 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

all memorable among the biographical records of the map. 
Neither must we overlook the causes owing to which the great 
Western Continent acquired the name of Amerigo Vespucci, the 
Florentine pilot, who first made its existence known to the 
wondering world. It may be regretted that the name of the 
Sea of Cortez no longer attaches to the Gulf of California, 
although we are not altogether without a geographical memorial 
of the bold adventurer, since Malinche, a conspicuous peak in 
Mexico, was so named by the Spaniards from the resemblance 
of the outline to the profile of Malinche,. the devoted mistress 
of Cortez, who rendered him such invaluable services as an 
interpreter. 

Sometimes we discover more than the mere names of the great 
explorers, and find what we may call biographical survivals, 
recalling notable incidents, fortunate or unfortunate, in their 
careers. The map occasionally records their perils and their 
escapes, their failures and their successes, their hopes and their 
spring of action. In such names as Point .Turnagain, Cape 
Disappointment, Disaster Inlet, Cape Farewell, Massacre Bay, 
the Bay of Despair, or Port Famine, which are so numerous on 
the map, we have miserable records of heart-breaking disaster 
and baffled enterprise. 

Other names are less dismal. In the Antilles the islands 
of Trinidad, Antigua, and Montserrat recall the religious 
mysticism, the prayers and vows of Columbus, Cape Gracias-a- 
Dios tells us of his reliance on the divine protection, and San 
Domingo of his filial piety. The name of the Pacific Ocean 
records the tranquil seas over which, by a happy fortune, 
Magellan sailed in the vessel, which alone, of all his squadron, 
succeeded in weathering the continual tempests which had beset 
him in the strait which bears his name, while the name of 
the Ladrones commemorates the plunder of his starving crew at 
the islands which were his first landfall after leaving the land of 
fire, on the unexampled voyage in which, for the first time, the 
world was circumnavigated. 



PROLOGUE 21 

It was the discovery of the mariner's compass which paved 
the way for the great extension of maritime enterprise which 
began in the fifteenth century. That the Portuguese led the way 
is proved by the Portuguese names in Brazil, and by those which 
fringe the coast of Africa from Cape Nun, Cape Verd, and Sierra 
Leone to Fernando Po, the Camaroons, Saldanha Bay, and 
Natal ; while the monumental name of the Cape of Good Hope 
speaks of the spirit of undaunted enterprise which made these 
discoveries possible, and records the tenacity with which the king 
of Portugal, Dom Jao ii., clung to the belief that a sea route to 
India would ultimately be found, the fulfilment of this good hope 
being witnessed by names in the furthest East, like Ceylon, 
the Moluccas, Japan, Macao, the Boca Tigris, and Formosa, 
which are either Portuguese, or show by their forms that they 
must have reached Europe by Portuguese channels. Next in 
succession come the Spaniards, who have filled with Spanish 
names such a large portion of the habitable globe ; followed by 
the Dutch in the Eastern seas, by the French in Canada and 
Louisiana, and by the English in America, Australasia, and the 
arctic regions. 

But though the greater number of what we may call names of 
discovery belong to the last four centuries, there are not wanting 
records of exploration which carry us back to epochs of much 
remoter date. The Phoenicians, who were the fathers of maritime 
enterprise, have left, dotted over and even beyond the Mediter- 
ranean coasts, a fringe of Semitic names which testify to their 
persevering search, first for the oyster which yielded the dye for 
the Tyrian purple, and then for tin, a necessary constituent of 
bronze, and also for the tunny fish, on which the population of 
their great cities so largely subsisted. Samos and Samothrace, 
Catania and Syracuse, Cape Boeo and Malta, Port Mahon and 
Marseilles, Malaga, Tarragona, Cartagena, Ceuta, Cadiz, Seville, 
and Lisbon are all Phoenician names. The Phoenicians were fol- 
lowed by the Greeks, their pupils in the art of navigation, whose 
distant colonies are marked by the names of Messina, Palermo, 



22 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

Cumae, Naples, Nice, Antibes, and the Balearic Islands, while 
names like India, the Indus, Java, and Socotra, show by their forms 
that the knowledge of these Eastern lands first came to Europe 
through Hellenic channels. Ampng the numerous memorials of 
the Arab empire in Spain we note Gibraltar, Trafalgar, Almeria, 
Alcala, Medina Sidonia, the Guadiana, and the Guadalquiver, 
while Marsala, Caltanisetta, and Caltagirone testify to their rule 
in Sicily, and the For^t des Maures near Fr^jus to the footing 
they obtained in Southern Gaul, which was extended as far as 
the Mont Cenis, as is proved by St. Jean de Maurienne, the 
capital of the old county of the Maurienne. 

The large number of geographical names derived from those 
of emperors and kings form what we may call dynastic survivals. 
Among the names of states included in this class are Chiua, 
Lorraine, Lodomeria, the Herzgovina, Louisiana, Virginia, 
Georgia, Carolina, the Philippines, and the Carolines. The 
names of Alexandria, Scanderoon, and Candahar, of Nicaea, 
Philadelphia, Eupatoria, Latakieh, Seleucia, and Ptolemais tell 
us how Greek arms and Greek culture extended into two con- 
tinents under Alexander and his successors. The name of 
Provence records the position of the first province acquired by 
the Romans beyond the Alps. We find the name of Augustus in 
Autun, Augsburg, and Zaragoza, of his successors at Grenoble, 
Orleans, Adrianople, and Constantinople, wfiile the records of 
later European kings, such as Edinburgh, Oswestry, Charleston, 
Christian ia, and Ludwigshaven are too numerous to specify. 
Dauphiny is an almost unique instance of a name derived from 
an heraldic bearing. 

Records of colonial governors are not uncommon. There are 
a few of early date, such as Lake Champlain in America, the 
Marquesas, and the Island of Mah^, but they are most numerous 
on the map of Australia, where we find the names of most of the 
successive governors, beginning with Captain Philip, the first 
governor, and Captain Hunter who succeeded him, followed by 
Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, General Sir Thomas Brisbane, Sir 



PROLOGUE a3 

Ralph Darling, Sir George Gipps, Sir Charles Fitzroy, Captain 
Hindmarsh, Captain Davey, Colonel Sorell, and Colonel Gawler, 
with colonial statesmen like Mr. Torrens. We have the names of 
Sir £. D'Urban and Lord C. Somerset at the Cape, and of Lords 
Amherst, Dalhousie, and Canning in India. 

It is curious to note the way in which the names of English 
towns and villages have been indirectly transferred to remote 
comers of the earth, not, as in the case of New England towns like 
Boston, by repeating in the new'' country the name of the domicile 
of the original settlers, but owing to their having been the source , 
of territorial surnames or titles borne by statesmen or by naval or \ l^ 
military commanders. One of the earliest instances is Baltimore 
in Maryland, so called, not from the Irish town, but from Lord 
Baltimore, an Irish peer, who took his title from the town. So 
Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, takes its name from an Earl of 
Halifax and not from the town. The names of New York and - 
Albany were derived from the territorial titles borne by James ii. 
before his accession to the throne. Through the Earl of Auck- 
land, the Dukes of Wellington and Marlborough, Lord Sydney 
and Viscount Melbourne, the New Zealand capitals of Auck- 
land, Wellingt6n, and Marlborough, and the Australian capitals ■ 
of Sydney and Melbourne derive their names in the same in- j 
direct manner from English villages in Durham, Somerset, Wilts, j 
Kent, and Derbyshire. So the name of Melville, the obscure j 
Scotch village which gave a title to Henry Dundas, a first Lord , 
of the Admiralty, has been transferred to a great Arctic Island, j 
The name of Palmerston, a village near Dublin, and of Bathurst, \ 
Grafton, Rodney, and Kimberley, in England, as well as those of • 
a few French castles such as Beaufort, Granville, and Albemarle, 
have thus been transferred to British colonies. By far the most 
notable case of the kind is that of the insignificant village of 
Washington, in Durham, whose name has been transferred to the , 
federal capital of the United States, to a great North-Western / 
territory, and to 320 counties, cities, towns, and townships in thej 
States. Just half this number, 160, bear the name of Lincoln, 



1 



U NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

derived indirectly from the English city through the American 
President of that name. The nomenclature of Western States 
and Territories bears curious witness to their date of settlement, 
and to the popularity of certain Presidents. Andrew Jackson, 
President from 1829 to 1837, comes next to Washington with 
313 names, followed by Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) with 204, 
and James Madison ( 1 809-1 8 17) with 2 24. Ulysses Grant has had 
156 places named after him, James Monroe (18 17-1825) following 
with 133, and General Harrison with 96. James Buchanan, 
(1857-61) comes last with 11, Fillmore and Tyler rival him, 
each with less than 20, Hayes has 22, Pierce 25, Van Buren 36, 
Polk 57, -and John Adams (1797-1801) has 88. The constant 
repetition in the United States of these Presidential names, 
though tiresome and perplexing, is not without significance, but 
the same cannot be said of other classes of names which abound 
in that land of incongruities, where we find, as Emerson com- 
plains in his English Traits^ that *the country is whitewashed 
all over by unmeaning names, the cast-ofF clothes of the country 
from which its emigrants came.' Still more unmeaning are the 
transferences of ancient names belonging to . countries from 
which no emigrants could have come, such, for example, as 
Troy, Memphis, Utica, Palmyra, Antioch, Syracuse, Babylon, 
and Carthage. 

Even worse are the odious hybrids, barbarously compounded, 
such as Minneapolis, Indianapolis, or the eleven places unhappily 
called Jonesville, names even more offensive than those of places 
which, as Emerson says, have been 'named at a pinch from a 
psalm tune,' or, as in Australia, from the nickname of a prize- 
fighter. Worst of all is the procedure adopted in the new State 
of Washington, where the counties were named by shaking the 
letters of the Alphabet in a bag and then emptying them, a few 
at a time, upon the floor, a process which has yielded such 
hideous monstrosities as Wankikum, Klickitat, and Snohomish. 
Compared with these we may regard a^ rational and inoffensive 
some of the * cast-off clothes' of thi Old World, when the 



PROLOGUE «S 

emigrants from a European town affectionately gave the name of 
the old home to their new domicile in the Western wilderness, 
as is the case with Boston, Ipswich, Worcester, and other New 
England towns, or when the names of Dutch villages, such as 
Hoboken and Brooklyn, are repeated by places near New York, 
a fashion unconsciously imitated from the practice of the Greek 
colonies of Cumse, Cyrene, Megara, and Rhodus, which repro- 
duced the name of the parent city. 

The names of New Spain, New Granada, New France, New 
England, and New Jersey set the fashion of such clumsy desig- 
nations as Nova Scotia, New Caledonia, New Holland, New 
Zealand, New Britain, New Ireland, and New South Wales, 
several of which must be laid to the charge of Cook, who, as a 
rule, was most happy in his nomenclature. 

In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies many repetitions of 
Old World names, apparently meaningless, have arisen from the 
dedication of churches or convents to localised saints, as in 
the case of Loretto in Peru from a dedication to our Lady of 
Loretto, or of Nazareth in Brazil from a dedication to St. Mary 
of Nazareth, while Belem, also in Brazil repeats the dedication 
of a famous convent near Lisbon to St. Mary of Bethlehem. 
More interesting are the names of two of the Antilles — Antigua, 
so named by Columbus in fulfilment of a vow which he had 
made before the altar of Santa Maria La Antigua in a chapel of 
the cathedral of Seville, and the neighbouring island of 
Montserrat, so called at the request of his chaplain. Father 
Boil, who' had been a monk in the convent of Montserrat in 
Catalonia. 

At the Cape of Good Hope we have a class of monstrosities, 
happily few in number, as bad as any in the United States, 
consisting of manufactured names which have been deliberately 
and often ignorantly compounded of disjointed fragments of 
personal names. The fashion was set by the Dutch in the case 
of Zwellendam, made up out of the name of a Dutch governor 
and the maiden name of his wife, a bad example which was 



26 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

followed in the case of Potcherfstrom and Pietermaritzburg, and 
of such English names as Harrismith and Ladysmith. At home 
we have a few instances nearly as bad ; Camberley is perhaps the 
vforst, followed hard by Ben Rhydding and Saltaire. A similar 
offence was committed in 1793 by a decree of the French Con- 
vention, which substituted names of Republican complexion for 
those which in any way savoured of the old regime. Thus it was 
ordained that the historic name of Guise should be replaced by 
Rdunion-sur-Oise, while Montmorenci, in compliment to Rous- 
seau, was altered to fimile. These fabrications fortunately failed 
to acquire currency, with the exception of the Isle of Bourbon, 
which was rechristened Reunion, and of a few street names in 
Paris, such as the Place Louis Quinze which was renamed Place 
de la Concorde. 

Less objectionable are the invented names bestowed on royal 
palaces or hunting-seats, such as Sans Souci, Quisisana, Fried- 
richslust or Carlsruhe, to which the Hague, Mecklenburg 
Strelitz, Bois le Due, and Richmond may be added. The 
happiest of these modern inventions are Polynesia, Australia, 
Australasia, Senegambia, Sehastopol, Pennyslvania, and Phila- 
delphia. Etruria, now a considerable town, was the name given 
by Wedgwood to the place in Staffordshire where he produced 
imitations of vases supposed to be Etruscan, but now known 
to be Greek. In America there are many similar names, as 
Galena, Silverville, Oil City, and Petrolia, 

In the lands of Teutonic settlement or conquest, village names 
derived from those of early settlers, such as EUesmere, Reading, 
Malmesbury or Hastings in England, Kissingen or Gottingen in 
Germany,, and S^vign^ or Aubigny in France, probably out- 
number those from any other source, with the possible ex- 
ception of names descriptive either of situation or of natural 
features, which abound in every land. From situation we have 
such names as Japan, Piedmont, Algarve, Surrey, and pro- 
bably Europe and Asia; from colour, Falkirk and Greenwich, 
Dublin, Lichfield, and Helvellyn, Greenland, Cape Verd, Monte- 



PROLOGUE 27 

negro, the Nilgherries, and Mont Blanc; with Turkish names 
like Ak-su and Kara-dagh, and two of the United States, 
Vermont and Colorado. From configuration we have Corfu, 
Spitzbergen, and Skye. Poland, Champagne, and Winchester 
speak of treeless plains ; Batak, Cork, Jarrow, and CuUoden of 
marshes ; Coblentz, Cond^, Conflans, Aberdeen, and Haltwhistle 
of the confluences of rivers ; Java, Holland, Funchal, Madeira, 
Madrid, Shrewsbury, Farnham, Auckland, Vernon, and Chatenay 
of vegetation ; while the names of the Azores, the Canaries, the 
Galapagos, Chili, and the Camaroons are derived from the 
animal kingdom. 

important towns frequently derive their names from the 
rivers- .^ir-wSicfi thiy^^^s t a od , a s , -ibr- example,' Moscow, Vienna, 
Schleswig, Amsterdam, Darmstadt, Innspruck, Laybach, Tilsit, 
Plymouth, Sheffield, Colchester, Lancaster, Doncaster, Exeter, 
Galashiels, Inverness, Tobolsk, and Omsk. India is the only 
great countr}' whose name has been taken directly, from that 
of a river, though if Moscovy, the older name of Russia, had 
been retained, we should have had another notable instance. 
Portugal is named from the port formed by the estuary of the 
Douro, and the name of the Argentine Confederation has been 
not unhappily invented for the state which lies on the banks 
of the river of the silver — Rio de la Plata. Most of the French 
departments have been named from rivers, as is the case with 
several of the United States, as Ohio, Missouri, Arkansas, and 
Minnesota. Among descriptive names derived from numerals 
we may county Ceuta, Zweibriicken, Sevenoaks, and Carlow. 
Near Walenstad, in the Upper Valley of the Rhine, there is a 
curious series of numeral names, six successive villages bearing 
the names of Primsch, Gons, formerly Seguns, Tertzen, Quarten, 
Quinten, and Sewes, which doubtless mark six successive posts 
or stations, Roman or perhaps Rhaetian. In like manner going 
eastward from Genoa along the Riviera de Levante towards 
Nervi, we find the villages of Quarto and Quinto, marking the 
positions of two of the Roman stations. At the fourth mile- 



28 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

stone on the Roman road from Nfmes to Beaucaire we find 
the village of Quart, which in a document of the tenth century 
is called villa Quarto, There are few modem names of the 
same class. In the Argentine Province of Cordova, after crossing 
the Rio Primero, * the first river,' and proceeding southwards, we 
come successively to Rio Secundo, Rio Tercero, Rio Cuarto, and 
Rio Quinto. Sailing along the Tasmanian coast from east to 
west we come to Ninth Island and Tenth Island, which were the 
ninth and tenth islands discovered by Flinders in 1798. 

English, like German names, are essentially prosaic. It has 
been well remarked that the local names in Ii^Iand and England 
accurately reflect the character of the Celtic and Teutonic races. 
In the one case the names are fossil poetry, in the other they 
are fossil history. Nothing can be more poetical than many 
Irish names, replete with legend and with allusions to the beauty 
of Nature. Carrigcleena is the *rock of Cleena,' the queen of 
the fairies ; Glennawoo means the *glen of the spectres,' Derry- 
evin is the ' beautiful oak grove,' Killykeen the * pleasant wood,' 
Gloragh the 'babbling brook,' and Coolkellure the 'recess of 
the warbling birds.' In English names hardly a trace of imagi- 
nation, or of any perception of natural beauty, can be dis- 
covered ; they record in the most prosaic manner the name of 
the earliest settler, or some fact as to the nature or situation of 
the place. We learn, for instance, that Meopham was the home 
of Meopa ; that Bentley was a field with long grass stalks ; while 
names like Newton, Norton, Middleton, or Sutton occur by 
scores in every county. Hence arises the miserable poverty of 
English village nomenclature, the same prosaic names occurring 
again and again with wearisome repetition. There are no less 
than one hundred and thirty villages called Newton, seventy- 
three called Sutton, sixty-nine called Charlton or Carlton, forty- 
nine called Preston; while Norton, Weston, Barton, Wootton, 
and Compton are nearly or quite as common. 

To remedy the confusion resulting from so many neighbour- 
ing villages bearing identical names they have frequently acquired 



PROLOGUE 29 

distinctive additions, derived in many cases from the name of 
the tenant in cqpite, ecclesiastical or lay. Thus we have Thorpe 
Basset, Thorpe Arch, Thorp Mandeville, Bishopsthorpe, Stapel- 
ford Abbots, and Melton Mowbray, while Bolton Percy and 
Wharram Percy both belonged to the great Yorkshire fief of the 
Percies. But an explanation is required of the curious fact that 
even in popular parlance the distinctive affixes acquired by many 
of these villages are derived either from Norman-French or from 
Latin. Thus we have such names as Stretton-en-le-Field, Sutton- 
le-Marsh, Barton -le- Street, Barton -le- Clay, Thorpe-le-Soken, 
Newton-le- Willows, Hutton-le- Hole, Hutton- Ambo, Luttons- 
Ambo, Newton-Regis, Stratford-sub-Castle, Ashby Magna, Ashby 
Puerorum, and Ashby-de-la-Zouch. As such affixes frequently 
appear in the names of city parishes, as St. Martin-le-Grand, 
St. Mary- le- Strand, or St Mary-le-Bourne, now Marylebone, 
it may be conjectured that the Latin titles arose from the 
necessity of distinguishing parishes of the same name when the 
parochial lists were called over at Episcopal or Archidiaconal 
visitations, the Norman-French additions being in like manner 
due to lists of parishes kept for fiscal or judicial purposes. It 
may be noted that these descriptive affixes, though later than 
Domesday, can usually be traced back as far as the thirteenth 
century. 

Such bilingual names are very simple cases of what we may 
call philological survivals, of which many kinds exist One class, 
whose meaning is usually obvious, consists of names with which 
the definite article has been incorporated. We still speak of 
The Hague, The Nore, The Chilterns, The Borough, The Wash, 
and The Curragh, and our grandfathers spoke of The Bath and 
The Devizes, where we say Bath and Devizes. It is less usual 
than it was to speak of The Lewis, The Tyrol, The Herzgovina, 
The Camaroons, The Breisgau, and The Salzkammergut. A 
Portuguese calls the town at the mouth of the Douro, O Porto, 
or in the genitive, Cidade do Porto, but more commonly Porto 
only, while on English maps we find not O Porto but Oporto, 



30 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

without any sign that the first syllable is merely the definite 
article. A different error is made when we speak of Brazil. 
Fifty years ago The Brazil was usual, and Southey entitled the 
most ponderous of his works A History of the Brazils^ usages 
both of which are incorrect. The original Portuguese name being 
Terra do Brazil, the * land of the brasil-wood,' the genitive, do 
Brazil, was supposed to imply O Brazil as a nominative, and this 
was translated as The Brazil, which has now become Brazil. It 
is to be hoped that we shall not fall into the analogous blunder of 
shortening Tierra del Fuego into Fuego. The German Feuerland 
is a translation of the name, and there are signs that Fuegia 
may ultimately become the English form. In French names the 
article is common, and has not unfrequently been incorporated ; 
thus the correct form LTsle has now given place to Lille, in 
which the consciousness of the article is lost, and the same is the 
case with the town of Lorient, and the villages of Laborie, 
Lalande, and Lor, called Hortus in 1184. We commonly speak 
of the Department of The Lot, without noticing that in so doing 
we are duplicating the article. In like manner the river which 
flows past Kilkenny is usually called The Nore, although in the 
n of Nore we have already a fragment of the Celtic article, which 
lias likewise been incorporated in the names of Nenagh, Newry, 
Nairn, Inverness, and Loch Nell. The old Egyptian article, setn 
in Thebes, survives also in the names of Philae and the Fayilm ; 
and we have the Arabic article in the names of Luxor, Algarve, 
Alcala, Alpuxaras, Almeria, Alcantara, Trafalgar, and the palace 
which we tautologically style the Alhambra. The Greek article 
has been incorporated in the names of Navarino and Negropont, 
and a German preposition, usually followed by the article, forms 
the first part of numerous names, such as Zermatt, Andermatt, 
Amsteg, Anspach Anbach, and Amwalde. The Greek name 
Spalato exhibits an incorporated preposition, common also in 
Slavonic names, such as Sabor, Zabrod, Zablatt, Potsdam, 
Pomerania, and Podgoriza. 

Not unfrequently, as in the case of Holstein, Hampshire, 



PROLOGUE ^1 

Hanbury, or Welwyn, the names have been derived from oblique 
cases in such a manner as to disguise the true etymology. It is 
necessary to remember that in early documents local names 
usually appear not in the nominative but in some oblique case, 
sometimes the genitive or the accusative, but more often in the 
locative, which we commonly call the dative. These oblique 
cases, thus commonly used in speaking of towns, came to be 
regarded as undeclinable nouns, or were themselves declined as 
nominatives. Thus the form Canterbury is derived from the 
dative Cantwarabyrig ; if it had been derived from the nomi- 
native, the modern form would hate been Canterborough, as in 
the case of Peterborough or Gainsborough. So while Newton 
represents a nominative, Newington and Newnton owe their 
forms to the dative. In Clackmannan we have the genitive of 
Manu, and in Rathlin of Reachra, Erin and Albion also being 
genitives from Eriu and Albiu, The place where the Roman 
road crossed the River Don was called ad Danum, and hence 
Danum was used as the Roman name of Doncaster. The station 
at the confluence of the Mosel and the Rhine was called by the 
Romans Confluentibus, a form which explains the modern name 
Coblentz. The final j, which appears in the name of so many 
French cities, may also usually be accounted for as the surviving 
vestige of a grammatical inflexion. In the North of France, as has 
already been explained, the tribal name in the dative plural 
usually became the name of the chief city of the tribe. Thus 
the capital of the Ambiani was called Ambianis, whence Amiens ; 
that of the Remi was Remis, whence Rheims ; that of the Meldi, 
was Meldis, whence Meaux ; that of the Bellovaci was Bellovacis, 
whence Beauvais ; that of the Catalauni was Catalaunis, whence 
Chalons ; that of the Cadurci was Cadurcis, whence Cahors ; that 
of the Tricassi was Tricassis, whence Troyes ; that of the Treviri 
was Treviris, whence Treves. 

It is probably from a false analogy that we have affixed a 
final s to the names of southern cities, which, being derived 
from some other source, do not possess it in French. Thus 



/ 



32 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

Lyon, anciently Lugdunum, we call Lyons, and Marseille, 
derived from Massilia, we call Marseilles. In like manner the 
French have added a sibilant to the names of foreign cities, 
making London into Londres, Dover into Douvres, and Genova 
into Gfenes. Occasionally, as with Bruxelles, Bruges, Malines, 
and Naples, we have followed the erroneous spelling adopted 
/ by the French. In some French names, such as Dijon and 
' Macon, the final « is a proof of derivation from an oblique 
case, and not from the nominatives Dibio and Matisco. 

Local dialectic tendencies have had a curious effect in trans- 
muting the same primitive words or syllables. The Celtic 
possessive suffix -ac has, for instance, assumed a variety of forms 
in different parts of France. Thus Albiniacum, which denotes 
the * estate of Albinius,' has become Aubign^ in the West, 
Aubigny in the centre, and Aubignay in the East, while in the 
South, the full stress falling on the syllable -ac^ it has been pre- 
served unaltered, and we have Aubignac. In Guienne, Auvergne, 
and the Lyonais, the suffix takes the forms -as^ -at, and -a^ while 
in the Pas de Calais we find -ecque. 

The effect of dialect is also seen in England. In the North ' 
Carlton, Skipton, and Skelton retain the original pronunciation, 
which in the South has been softened into Charlton, Shipton, 
and Shelton. The North retains -burgh^ as in Bamburgh or 
Edinburgh, in the Danish district it has become -^^v^w^^, as in 
Gainsborough, Scarborough, and Peterborough, while in the 
Sa.xon South we have -bury^ derived from the dative, as Banbury 
or Canterbury. But the most remarkable result of dialectic 
tendencies is seen in the variant forms assumed in different parts 
of the kingdom by the Anglo-Saxon ceaster^ a loan word from the 
Latin castra, acquired by the English before their arrival in 
Britain, and used to denote any Roman town. In the Vespasian 
Psalter, a Mercian ms., the West Saxon ceaster takes the form 
-cester, and accordingly in the old Mercian kingdom we find 
-^«/fr instead of -Chester^ as in the cases of Worcester, Gloucester, 
Cirencester, Towcester, Bicester, and Leicester. In the Scandi- 



PROLOGUE 33 

navian districts, especially Cumberland, North Lancashire, York- 
shire, Lincolnshire, Rutland, and Norfolk, ceaster becomes caster^ 
as in the case of Muncaster, Casterton, Lancaster, Acaster, 
Tadcaster, Doncaster, Castor, Ancaster, Brancaster, and Caistor. 
In the Saxon districts such as Wessex, as well as in Durham 
and the region north and west of the Scandinavian settlement, 
we find 'Chester, Thus we have Binchester and Chester -le- 
Street in Durham, Rochester, Outchester, and Hetchester in 
Northumberland, with Rutchester, Lanchester, Halton-Chesters, 
Little Chesters, and Great Chesters on the Wall. In South 
Lancashire and the adjacent counties we have Ribchester, 
Manchester, Chesterfield, and Chester. In Wessex and other 
Saxon districts we have Winchester, Silchester, Woodchester, 
Porchester, Dorchester (two), Chichester, Rochester, Colchester, 
Grantchester, Godmanchester, Archester, Chesterford, and Ches- 
terton (two). The line between Chester and castor is very sharply 
marked, Chesterton in Huntingdonshire being opposite Castor 
in the Danish county of Northampton, separated from it only 
by the River Nen. As we approach the Welsh border we get 
a clipped form, not however primitive, as in Ex-eter, Wrox-eter, 
and Mancetter, to which Gloucester, Worcester, and Bicester, 
and Cirencester have approximated in pronunciation since the 
time when the spelling became fixed. 

Naturally the first element in these names is often a fragment 
of the name of the Roman town. London has dropped the sufiix 
and no longer appears as Londonchester, but Venta became 
Winchester, Glevum became Glou-cester, Vriconium became 
Wrox-eter, Vinovium became Bin-chester, Portus became Por- 
chester, Mancunium became Man-chester, Manduessedum be- 
came Man-cetter, Epiacum became Eb-chester, and Corinium 
became Ciren-cester, and in other cases, such as Exeter, Tow- 
cester, Alcester, Ilchester, Grantchester, Colchester, Lancaster, 
Ribchester, Doncaster, and Leicester, the first syllable is derived 
from the name, usually British, of the river on which the town 
stood. 

C 



34 NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 

We find not only these curious dialectic variations in different 
provinces of the same land, but certain singular national 
usages or preferences. Thus, as to the name of countries, we 
differ in England from the practice both of France and Germany, 
frequently employing the Latin forms of the names, a usage 
probably originating with our older mapmakers, who, following 
the pattern of such names as India and Persia, commonly 
adopted the international Latin forms. Thus while the Germans 
have Oestreich, Preussen, and Russland, and the French use 
UAutriche, La Prusse, and La Russie, we prefer the Latin 
names, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, and write Bavaria and 
Bohemia instead of Bayern and Bohmen. We follow the same 
fashion in the case of Servia, Croatia, Transylvania, Istria, 
Styria, and Carinthia. Hungary is an Anglicised form, not of 
Ungarn but of Hungaria, Saxony of Saxonia, and Turkey of 
Turkeia, while Germany, which has replaced the older English 
name Allemagne, is an Anglicised form of the Latin name 
Germania. Australia, Polynesia, and Tasmania have been 
newly formed on the same principle, and it is to be hoped 
that Brazilia and Fuegia may yet take their places alongside of 
Patagonia. Polonia, or our own older form Polayne, would 
better represent the German name Polen than our irrational 
modern form Poland, which has been assimilated in a blunder- 
ing fashion to the Teutonic usage seen in such names as 
England, Scotland, Ireland, Holland, Lapland, Finland, Cour- 
land, Greenland, and Iceland. We call Vienna and Geneva 
by their Latin names, whereas in the case of Rome, Venice, 
Syracuse, Florence, Milan, and Naples we use the French 
names instead of the Latin or Italian forms, which would have 
been more correct. 

Sometimes we use a name which is neither Latin, French, or 
native, but distinctively Anglican, changing Livorno into Leg- 
horn, and Cape Hoorn into Cape Horn. Occasionally, as in the 
case of the Cape of Good Hope and the Black Sea, we have 
boldly translated the foreign names. Perhaps the most curious 



PROLOGUE 35 

case is that of Sweden. At the time of the Thirty Years' War, 
in which many English soldiers of fortune served, we dropped 
Swedeland, our older and better name, adopting and adapting 
the German plural form Schweden^ which, strictly speaking, 
denotes the Swedish people and not the Swedish land 



GLOSSARY 



Aachen, in French Aix-la-Chapelle, 
is a city of Rhenish Prussia, with hot 
sulphur springs. The Celto- Latin name, 
Aquis Granum or Aquis Grani, 'at the 
waters of the sun,' may be compared with 
Aqua Soils, the Roman name of Bath, 
Granos being the name of the Gaulish 
sun-god. In 972 the Roman name still 
survived, since we read in a document of 
that year, Aquisgrani vulgari vocabulo 
Ahha. From the O.H.G. Ahha we obtain 
Aachen, while Aii is from the Latin Aquis. 
To distinguish it from other places named 
Aix, it was called Aix-la-Chapelle, from 
the domed basilica, * quam captlla vacant,' 
erected by Charlemagne, in which he was 
interred. (See Aix. ) 

AstrgraUi one of the Swiss cantons, is the 
gau or ' district' on the River Aar. Aarau, 
the capital of the canton, is so called from 
having been built on an au or ' waterside 
meadow ' by the Aar. Aarburg, in 
Canton Aargau, is the ' castle on the 
Aar.' Aarberg, a town in Canton Bern, 
stands on a rocky island in the Aar. The 
Aar River is formed by the junction of 
two streams, called the Lauter Aar, or 
'clear Aar,' and the Finster Aar, or 
' dark Aar.' The Finster Aarhorn, 
the highest summit in the Bernese Ober- 
land. is not, as is sometimes said, the 
' Peak of the Black Eagle,' but the peak 
from which descends the glacier which is 
the source of the Finster Aar. Aar is one 
of a large class of river names, such as the 
Ahr, anciently the Ara, which joins the 
Rhine near Bonn; the Ohr, a tributary of 
the Elbe ; the Aire in Yorkshire, and 
many more, whose names are believed to 
have meant 'river 'or 'water' in some 
primitive form of Aryan speech. 

'Abarah, a ford over the Jordan below 
the Sea of Galilee, bears an Arabic name 
meaning a 'ferry' or 'crossing.' It is 
believed to represent Bethabara, the 
' house of the crossing,' where John the 
Baptist baptized. 

A.l)beokutar, ' under the stone,' is the 
chief town of Yoruba. The name refers 
to a cavern under a mass of porphyry, in 



which fugitives from Dahom^ concealed 
themselves. This place of refuge at last 
grew into a permanent settlement, and 
became a large town. (See Yoruba. ) 

Abbeville, a town on the Somme, called 
Abbatis vWa in Latin documents, was in 
the eighth century a vill belonging to the 
neighbouring abbey of St. Riquier. 

Abbotsford was a fancy name in- 
vented by Sir Walter Scott for his house 
on the Tweed, on the supposition that the 
abbots of Melrose used here to cross the 
river. 

Aber and Inver ar« common Celtic 
prefixes, denoting the mouth or conflu- 
ence of a river. In Ireland we only find 
Inver, in Wales only Aber. In Argyll, 
which was occupied by the Irish Scots, 
there are Invers, as Inveraray, bnt no 
Abers. In Inverness, Ross, Aberdeen, 
and Fife, Invers are more Mimerous than 
Abers ; in Perth and Forfar they are 
nearly equal, while Aber prevails in the 
Lothians and in Dumfries. Aber- 
gavenny, in Monmouthshire, stands at 
the confluence of the River Gaveney with 
the Usk. Aberystwyth, in Cardigan- 
shire, does not now stand on the River 
Ystwyth, but on the Rheidol, about a mile 
north of the Ystwyth, but the coast-line 
has receded, and the mouth of the 
Ystwyth has been driven further to the 
east, and the name of the town must have 
retreated with the site. Abercorn, in 
Linlithgowshire, gives a ducal title to one 
branch of the Hamiltons. It is on the 
site of a monastery founded by St. Wilfrid, 
which is called Aebbercurnig by Bseda. 
It stands near the confluence (aber) of the 
Midhope beck with a turn called the 
Cornar, formerly the Comae, which drains 
the Cornag moss. Abergeldie is at the 
confluence of the Gelder and the Dee. 
Abernethy is at the mouth of the 
Nethy. Aberdeen is at the confluence 
of the Dee and the Don. Arbroath, 
Forfarshire, is a corruption of Aber- 
brothoc, the 'mouth of the Brothach,' 
or 'muddy stream,* where William the 
Lion founded a monastery in 1173. 



38 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Abingdon, Berks, the seat of a wealthy 
abbey, is usually explained as the ' abbot's 
hill,* but j^bbandun, the oldest form of 
the name, shows that it was the dun or 
hill of a person named iEbba. 

Abraham's Islands, in the Aleu- 
tian chain, were discovered in 1741 by 
Bering on Oct. 29th, which in the 
Greek Calendar is the festival of the 
patriarch Abraham. 

Abrolhos (or 'wide-awake') Islands 

are dangerous reefs off the Brazilian coast. 
The name is from the Portuguese abre 
olhos, 'open your eyes,' or *keep your 
eyes open,' and is repeated in the 
Abrolhos, or Houtman's Rocks, 
which lie off the West Australian coast. 
Abreojos, the Spanish form of this 
name, has been given to two dangerous 
atolls north of the Philippines, and to 
Abreojos, on the western coast of the 
Californian Peninsula, a cape surrounded 
by dangerous reefs. 

Abruzzi, the name of three adjacent 
provinces in Southern Italy, is derived 
from Aprutium^ or AbruHum, the seventh 
century name of the town now called 
Teramo. The district was called by the 
Romans Interatnna Pratutiana, signi- 
fying the land of the Praetutii between 
the rivers. Praetutium, supposed to be 
the name of the chief town of the 
Praetutii, became first Aprutium, then 
Abrutium, and lastly Abruzzo, one of the 
three provinces called the Abruzzi, while 
Interanmo became Teramne, and then 
Teramo. Another Interamna, between 
the Nar and the Velinus, has become 
Term. 

Abyssinia, perhaps more correctly 
Habsesinia, is the Anglicised form of a 
Portuguese corruption of the Arabic 
name Habasha, which signifies the land 
inhabited by the Habash or Habish, a 
word meaning ' mixture ' or ' concourse,' 
applied to the mixed concourse of emi- 
grants from various Arabian tribes who 
settled in Ethiopia. The adjectival form 
of the Arabic name was corrupted by the 
Portuguese into Abassia for the country, 
and Abexim or Abaxinos for its people. 
The form Abvssinia for the land of the 
Abaxinos or Abashinos first appears in 
Johnson's Voyage to Abyssinia, published 
in 1735. 'Th® Abyssinians themselves 
call their country Ithiopia (Ethiopia). 

Acapulco, in Mexico, is said to mean 
the ' destroyed * or • conquered ' town. 

Accra or Akra, a British settlement on 
the Gold Coast, was so called from the 
native name of the white ant, the district 



abounding in ant-hills raised by the ter- 
mites. 
Acbeen, a state and town in North-West 
Sumatra, is called Ach6 by the Malays. 
Achem, the Portuguese form, was pro- 
bably derived from the Persian Achln. 

Acre, a town on the Syrian coast, appears 
in th« Book of Judges as A echo ^ 'the 
inclosed,' referring probably to the circuit 
or inclosure of the bay. It is now called 
'Akka by the Arabs. It received the name 
of Ptolemais on coming into the posses- 
sion of Ptolemy Soter. At the time of 
the Crusades it was held by the knights 
of St. John, and hence became known as 
St Jean d'Acre. 

Acunlia, an island in the South Atlantic, 
is usually called Tristan d'Acunha 
[q.v.). 

Adalia, in Pamphylia, represents the 
ancient Attalia, visited by St. Paul (Acts 
xiv. 25), so called from Attains Phila- 
delphus, from whom Philadelphia (now 
Allah Shehr) was also named. 

Adam's Peak, the highest mountain in 
Ceylon, obtained its name from the Mo- 
hammedan legend that from hence Adam 
looked out upon the world when driven 
from Paradise. His gigantic footprint, 
five feet long by two wide, is shown in the 
rock. The legend is, however, older than 
the Mohammedan conquest, as is shown 
by the Hindu and Buddhist names, Sama- 
nala and Sripada. Samanala means the 
'peak of Rama,' from the Singalese ala, 
a ' peak,' and Saman, a ' name of Rama,' 
while Sripada means the 'holy foot,' the 
Hindus affirming that the imprint is that 
of the foot of Rama, while the Buddhists 
hold that it was that of Gautama Buddha. 
The footprint is called Sivapada by the 
Siva wcwshippers, and revered by them as 
the foot of Siva. The English name is a 
translation of the Portuguese Pico de 
Adam. The chain of reefs and islands 
between Ceylon and India is called Adam's 
Bridge, from the Mohammedan legend 
that at low tide Adam crossed it from 
Ceylon to India. 

Add, a river on the west coast of Scotland, 
is a corruption of the Gaelic name Fhada 
or Avon fhada, the ' long river,' a name 
which Ptolemy, who calls it Longus, has 
manifestly translated. 

Adda, a rapid river which joins the Po, 
formerly the Addua or Adua, is believed 
to be a Gaulish name. 

Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, 
named in honour of Queen Adelaide, wife 
of William iv. ^ was so designated by an 



GLOSSARY 



39 



Act of Parliament passed in 1834. Ade- 
laide Bay, in Prince Regent inlet, was 
discovered by Ross on August 13th, 1829, 
the birthday of the Duchess of Clarence, 
afterwards Queen Adelaide. Her name 
is also borne by the Adelaide Range 
at the mouth of the Great Fish River, dis- 
covered by Ross in August 1834, and by 
Cape Adelaide close to the North 
Magnetic Pole. 

Aden, a British station in Yemen, near 
the mouth of the Red Sea, is the crater of 
an extinct volcano. It is the Adane or 
Athana of the ancient geographers, and 
is supposed to be the Eden of Ezekiel 
xxvii. 23, a name which would mean 
' delight' or 'pleasant place.' 

Adieu, Cape, in South Australia, was 
originally called Cap des Adieux, because 
here, in May i'8o2, the French Expedition 
imder Baudin took leave of the Australian 
coast. 

Adirondack Mountains, in the 

state of New York, are so called from an 
Algonquin tribe, who were derisively nick- 
named Adirondack, or * leaf-eaters,' by 
the Iroquois. Algonquin is a corrup- 
tion of Algomequin, which means ' those 
on the other side of the river,' ue, of the 
St. Lawrence. 

Admiralty Islands, a group north of 

New Guinea, discovered by Carteret in 
1767, were named after the British Ad- 
miralty, by which the expedition had been 
despatched. For the same reason Cook 
gave the name of Admiralty Bay to 
the harbotir in Cook Strait where he 
anchored in 1770, after having completed 
the circumnavigation of New Zealand. 
In the Arctic and Antarctic regions, in the 
Falkland Islands and elsewhere, this name, 
ultimately derived from the Arabic title of 
Emir, has been hberally bestowed on vari- 
ous bays and islands. 

Adrianople is the English form of 
Hadrianopolis. the * city of Hadrian,' by 
whom it was refounded. The modern 
Turkish name Edrene or Edirne repre- 
sents a further corruption of the Greek 
name. 

Adriatic Sea is so called from the 
town of Adria, Hadria, or Hatria, for- 
merly an important port, but now sixteen 
miles inland. The name of Hatria, if 
not Etruscan, may have been derived from 
the 'black' alluvial soil on which the 
town was built. 

Adour, a river which flows into the Bay 
of Biscay at Bayonne, is the Aturis of 
Ptolemy, the Atunis of Lucan, and the 



Atyr of Vibius Sequester. The name is 
referred by W. von Humboldt to the 
Basque ura, 'water,' whence iturria or 
Hurra, a 'source of water.' The River 
Adar in Mayo is probably from the Celtic 
eadar (pronounced adder), which means 
the river ' in the middle.' The Adder in 
Wilts and Berwickshire may be from the 
Anglo-Saxon €edre, a channel or ' water- 
course.' 

Advance Bay and Advance Bluff, 
in Arctic America, were named by Kane 
from the Advance, one of the ships com- 
posing the Grinnell Expedition. 

Adventure Bay, Tasmania, as well as 
Adventure Island, were discovered in 
1773 by Captain Furneaux, who com- 
manded the Adventure, the second slip 
in Cook's second voyage. Mount Adven- 
ture is a hill in Prince Albert Land, from 
which in October 1850 M'Clure, coming 
through Bering Strait, sighted Parry 
Sound, which had been reached from 
Baffin Bay, thus demonstrating the exist- 
ence of the impassable North- West Pas- 
sage. 

Afj^ll^Cnist^bl exhibits the Persian suffix 
-Stan, and means the , ' land of the 
Afghdns.' Afgh&n, not Afghan as often 
pronounced, is the general name of the 
predominant portion of the congeries of 
tribes beyond the North-West frontier of 
India. 

Afirica, according to Suidas, was the 
proper name of Carthage. In any case 
the name was obtained by the Romans 
from the Carthaginians, and originally 
denoted only the district round Carthage, 
and this district, the first Roman con- 
quest south of the Mediterranean, became 
the Roman province of Africa. 1 he name 
was gradually extended to the continent 
which the Greeks had called Libya, and 
the district round Carthage was then dis- 
tinguished as Africa Propria, just as the 
original district of Asia was called Asia 
Minor when the name Asia had received 
a wider signification. According to one 
theory the name Africa denoted the 
•greyish' colour of the sand, but more 
probably it is derived from the Phoenician 
word Afryqah, which denoted a * colony,' 
Carthage, the ' new city,' being a colony 
of Tyre. Mommsen considers the name 
related to that of the Hebrews, who are 
the ' emigrants ' or ' crossers.' The Arabs 
still give the name of Afrygah or Afrikiyah 
to the territory round Tunis, which repre- 
sents the primitive district of Africa. 
Libya, the older name of the continent, 
is the Greek form of the Semitic Lehabim 



40 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



(or Lubim in the Bible), which was the 
name of the tribe next to Egypt on the 
east. 

Agram, the capital of Croatia, is the 
Germanised form of the Slavonic name 
Zagrah, formerly Za-greb, 'behind the 
trench. ' 

Agrulhas Bank is a great shoal which 
extends round the southern extremity of 
Africa, from Saldanha Bay nearly to 
Natal. It takes its name from the ex- 
treme southern point of Africa, south-east 
of the Cape of Good Hope, called by the 
Portuguese Cabo das Agulhas, or 'Cape 
of the Needles,' because here, at the 
time of the discovery, the needle of the 
compass showed no deviation, but pointed 
due north and south. 

Alini^d^bcCd in Gujardt, the second city 
in the Bombay Province, bears the name 
of Ahmdd Shdh, king of Gujardt (1413- 
1443), by whom the walls were .first 
traced. 

Aigle or Aelen is a town in Canton 
Vaud. According to Gatschet the name 
is a corruption of the Low-Latin aquale, 
equivalent to aquarium, a * water-course ' 
or ' channel. ' 

Aigues-Mortes, the 'dead waters,' is a 
town in the Camargue, among the salt 
marshes and brine lagoons at the mouth of 
the Rhone, where much bay-salt is made. 

Ainos are the short hairy aboriginal race 
inhabiiing the Kurile Islands, Sakhalin, 
and the Japanese island of Yesso. In 
the language of the Ainos the word ainu 
means 'men' or 'people.' Aino, the 
Japanese corruption of the name, means 
' mongrel ' in Japanese, whence the Jap- 
anese legend of the canine descent of 
these people. 

Ainsty of York, a wapentake to the west 
of the city of York, is under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Lord Mayor and magistrates 
of the city. It was formerly a forest, but 
was disforested in 1208. In Domesday it 
is called Ainsti or Einesti, in 1208 
Aynesti, in 1253 Aynsty, and in 1280 
Annesty. The name, which has given rise 
to much discussion, may be from some 
well-known dnstige or * path ' where the 
moot was held, or it may be Scandi- 
navian, meaning the 'peculiar' or pro- 
perty of the city; O.N. eigen or eign^ 
'property,' 'possession,' 'patrimony,' 
that which is one's ' own * ; while the last 
syllable, sty or sH, may mean an ' en- 
closure,' a ' place set apart,' from an old 
word which we have in 'pigsty* (O.N. 
sti, A.S. stige), \ 



AiOSOluk {Aya Soluk\ the village which 
occupies the site of Ephesus, is believed to 
be a corruption of the medieval name of 
St. John (Hagios Tfuologos), 

Aisne, a department in the north of 
France, takes its name from the River 
Aisne, which is a corruption of the old 
name Axona, which d'Arbois de Jubain- 
ville considers to be a pre-Celtic name. 

AJTc is the name of several French towns 
with mineral springs. Just as Bath comes 
from theA.S. (BtBathum, ' at the baths,' 
so Aix is from aquis or ad aquas, ' at the 
waters.' Aix in Provence, eighteen miles 
from Marseilles, was the Roman Aqua 
Sextia, so called from the Proconsul 
Caius Sextius Calvinus, who founded a 
colony at the hot springs in 123 B.C. 
Aix-les-Bains in Savoy is so called to 
distinguish it from Aix in Provence. 
Dax, D'ax, or d'Acqs in the Landes, 
called Urbs Aquensis by Gregory of 
Tours, is a corruption of de aquis, Aix- 
la-Chapelle takes its name from a chapel 
erected by Charlemagne. {See Aachen.) 

Akabah, the name of the eastern arm of 
the Red Sea, is derived from a village and 
castle of the same name at the head of the 
gulf. It is an Arabic word denoting a 
' cliff' or ' slope,' and refers to the steep 
ascent by which the pilgrim road ascends 
the hills to the west of the village. 

Aky^Cb in Arracan takes its name from a 
pagoda containing a relic believed to be 
a part of Gautama's lower 'jaw,' which 
gave a name to the pagoda, and then to 
the adjoining village, which in 1825 was 
selected as the chief British cantonment 
in Arracan. 

Alabama, one of the United States, is 
traditionally believed to mean the ' land of 
rest,' literally ' here we rest' On the 
other hand, Hernando de Soto, in his two 
years' adventurous march with 600 men 
from Florida to the Mississippi in 1540, 
met with an Indian tribe called the Ali- 
bamu, who lived on the River Alabama 
which traverses the state. According to 
Gatschet, the best authority, Alibamu 
means a ' glade ' or ' thicket cleared of 
trees. * Probably the tribe took its name 
from the plain, the river from the tribe, 
and the state from the river. 

Alagroas, a Brazilian province, is called 
so from the town of the same name, which 
is a corruption of the Portuguese as lagoas, 
' the lagoons,' two inland lakes near the 
town. 

Alaska, a territory of the United States, 
is said to mean ' the great country/ from 
illapie, 'earth' or 'land,' and asco, 'great.* 



GLOSSARY 



41 



Albany is the English form of the Latin 
Albania, the name given to the kingdom 
of the Picts when it was inherited by the 
kings of the Scots, who, in the ninth cen- 
tury, began to be called kings of Alban. 
Just as Erin is the genitive of Eriu, Alban 
is the genitive of Albu, so that king of 
Albu would be a more correct title than 
king of Alban. Breadalbane is the 
breast or upland of Alban. From the 
Latinised form Albania we get the title 
borne by James, Duke of York and 
Albany, before his accession to the 
throne as Tames II. Albany, the State 
capital of Nev/ York, was founded by the 
Dutch in 1612-1615, ^^^ named Fort 
Oranien in honour of the Prince of 
Orange, and when the New Netherlands 
were conquered by the English in 1664 
the place was renamed from the Scotch 
title of the Duke of York and Albany, 
which was also given to the River 
Albany, which empties itself into Hud- 
son's Bay. Albany, in the Cape Colony, 
was settled in 1820, and named after the 
Duke of York and Albany, second son of 
George IIL The meaning of Albu, 
Alban, or Albania is unknown. The 
oldest known name of Britain, which 
occurs in a pseudo- Aristotelian treatise, 
was Albion, which would be the British 
pronunciation of the Gaelic Alban. 
Hence it has been supposed that Albion, 
originally a name of Southern Britain, 
gradually retreated into Scotland. Such 
names as Albium, Alba, and Albici, 
occur repeatedly in Italy and Southern 
Gaul, and Albania is the name of the 
mountainous rcjgion east of the Adriatic. 
If the name is Aryan, it may mean 
' white' (LoLtin alius), Britain being called 
Albion from the white chalk cliffs of Kent, 
and Albania from its snow-clad mountains. 
But more probably, as Helbig contends, 
the word is pre- Aryan, and may have 
signified hill or highland, which would 
explain the name of Alba Longa in Italy, 
as well as the other names. {SeeAip.) The 
Albanians of Epirus are called Arnauts. 
The Byzantine writers corrupted the name 
Albanitae (the people of Albania) into 
Arvanitae, and from this, by a Turkish 
corruption, we have Arnauts as the modern 
designation of the Albanians. 

Albatross Point, a New Zealand 
cape, was so named by Cook in 1770, 
from the multitude of albatrosses. Alba- 
tross Island, off Tasmania, was dis- 
covered by Flinders and Bass in 1798. 
To procure fresh provisions, George Bass 
landed on the island, which appeared 



white with birds, and returned with a boat- 
load of albatrosses and sea^s. 

Albemarle Sound, a large inlet in 

North Carolina, is a name that has a 
curious history. Albemarle, Aumarle, 
and AumAle are corruptions of Aubemare, 
the name of a border castle on the River 
Eu (now the Br^sle) in Normandy. The 
castle and its siurounding territory gave 
the title of Count to Stephen, nephew of 
William the Conqueror, and under the 
Plantagenets it became a royal dukedom, 
which in 1663 was bestowed by Charles ii. 
on General Monk as a reward for his ser- 
vices in bringing about the restoration. 
The earldom was revived by William iii. 
in favour of Arnold Joust Van-Keppel, 
one of his Dutch courtiers. Wliile the 
kings of England, styling themselves 
kings of France, claimed to bestow this 
barren honour, the actual lordship and 
territory of Aumftle came by marriage to 
the Guises in 1430, and in 1570 the mar- 
riage of the heiress of the Guises con- 
veyed it to the Duke of Montpensier, and 
through him it passed to the Bourbons, 
and then to the Orleans branch of that 
family, and finally the family title of Due 
d'Aum&le was bestowed on Henry, the 
fourth son of Louis Philippe. The name 
of this border castle, thus curiously con- 
veyed from Normandy to England, has 
now been transferred to America and to 
Africa. In 1663 Charles 11. granted the 
whole territory between Virginia and 
Florida to eight patentees, among whom 
were the Duke of Albemarle, Lord 
Clarendon, and Lord Ashley. In the 
same year, in honour of the senior pro- 
prietor, the River Chowan, at the head 
of Albemarle Sound, was renamed the 
Albemarle, the Ashley River and 
the CowPER River receiving their names 
from Lord Ashley, and the Clarendon 
River from Lord jClarendon. In the 
French form Aumale, the name has 
passed to Africa, having been given to a 
town near Algiers in compliment to the 
Due d'Auni&le, son of Louis Philippe. 

Albert N'yanza, an inland Nyanza or 
* sea,' forming one of the sources of the 
Nile, was explored by Sir Samuel Baker 
in 1864, and named after the Prince Con- 
sort, whose name has also been given to 
the Albert River, flowing into the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, discovered by Stokes in 
1841 ; to Prince Albert Land, adjoin- 
ing Victoria Land in the Arctic Archi- 
pelago, discovered by M'Clure in 1850 ; 
to Prince Albert's Mountains, in 
South Victoria Land, the site of the 



42 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



South Magnetic Pole ; and to Albert, a 
town in the Cape Colony. 

Alcamo, in Sicily, between Palermo and 
Trapani, is a place with hot springs. 
The name is a corruption of the Arabic 
aUHammahy 'the bath.' There are two 
places in Spain— one in the province of 
Murcia and the other in that of Granada 
— with hot springs, which are called 
Alhama. 

Alcantara, a town in the Spanish pro- 
vince of Estremadura, preserves the 
Arabic name, El-Kantarah, ' the bridge,* 
derived from one of the greatest of 
Roman works, the stupendous bridge 
thrown over the Tagus for Trajan in 
105 A.D. by the architect Caius Julius 
Lacer. Alcantara was the Norba Caesarea 
of the Romans, and afterwards belonged 
and gave a name to the military order of 
the knights of Alcantara. 

Alcatraz, or Bird Island, is in the bay 
of San Francisco. The original Spanish 
name was Isia dt los Alcatrazes, ' island 
of the Pelicans.' 

Alcazar, one of the Arabic names in 
Spain, means 'the castle.* We have the 
same word in Kasr - el - Kebir in 
Morocco, which means ' the great castle.' 

Aldeburgh, as well as Or FORD, in 
Suffolk, is on the River Aide or Ore. 

Ale^e, Porto, in Brazil, means in 
Portuguese the ' cheerful ' or ' pleasant ' 
harbour. 

Alemtejo, 'beyond the Tagus,' is the 
name of the Portuguese province south of 
the Tagus. 

Aleppo, a city in Syria, is an Italian 
corruption of the Arabic name Haled, 
which is the Khilibu of the hieroglyphic 
inscriptions. In the picture of the battle 
of Kadesh in the Ramesseum at Thebes 
we see 'the miserable king of Khilibu* 
drowned in the river Khal, now the Orontes, 
and his body held up by the heels. 

Alert Reef, in Torres Strait, was dis- 
covered in 1817 by the ship Alert, 

Alessa is an island near Rhodes. The 
name is a corruption of the Greek 
Elaeussa, the isle of ' olives.* 

Aletsch Horn, in the Bernese Ober- 
land, is the ' Avalanche Peak.' The local 
dialect word avalenz, or alenz, 'an 
avalanche,* is derived from the Low 
Latin ad-vallare, 

Aleutian Islands, a chain of small 

islands extending from Kamtschatka to 
Alaska, were discovered by Bering, the 
Russian navigator, in 1728, and explored 



by Krenitzen in 1760 by order of the 
Empress Catherine. The name is usually 
referred to a Russian word, aleut^ a ' bald 
rock,* but there is no such Russian word. 
Possibly it may be connected with the 
Tunugsic ala, a 'hill,' but it is more 
probably a tribe-name. 

Alexandria, the name given to at least 
twelve cities founded by Alexander the 
Great, is an early mstance of the prac- 
tice, afterwards so common, of cities being 
named after kings or conquerors. Such a 
formation had hitherto been confined to 
the names of deities, and the innovation 
was a logical consequence of Alexander's 
assumption of a divine parentage. After 
the conquest of Egypt, he descended the 
Canopic arm of the Nile to Racoltis, 
where Homer had localised the legendary 
raid by Ulysses upon Egypt, and from 
here he visited the temple of Amun-Ra 
(Jupiter Ammon), and there accepted 
from the priests their recognition of him 
as the son of the god, the Egyptians hold- 
ing the divine descent of all their lawful 
kings. Hitherto only the names of gods 
had been given to cities by the Greeks, 
and no effigies, except those of gods, had 
been placed upon coins, but now, as the 
son of Amun-Ra, Alexander ventured 
to place his own head, with the symbols 
of divinity, on his coins, and also, as a 
divinity, to found a city bearing his own 
name. The first and greatest of the 
cities called Alexandria was consequently 
founded at Racoltis in 332 B.C. Another, 
near Aleppo, is now called Iseandrun 
or SCANDEROON, the Turkish corruption 
of Alexandria. Alexandropol, Trans- 
caucasia, in the Government of Erivan, 
Alexandria, in the Government of Kher- 
son, and Alexandrov in the Government 
of Vladimir, all bear the name of the Czar 
Alexander L Alexandra Nile is an in- 
appropriate name given by H. M. Stanley, 
in honour of Alexandra, Princess of 
Wales, to the Tengure, a stream which 
flows into the Victoria Nyanza. Alex- 
andria, a district in Cape Colony, was 
named after Queen Alexandrina Victoria. 
Alessandria, a fortress in Northern 
Italy, built about 1170 by the Guelfs 
against the Ghibelines, was named in 
honour of Pope Alexander iii. 

Algrarve is a corruption of the Arabic El- 
Gharb, ' the west ' ; a name applied by the 
Moors to the whole region west of the 
Guadiana. It is now confined to the 
southernmost Province of Portugal. 

Algeciraa or Algeziras, a Spanish 
town on the Bay of Gibraltar, was the first 



GLOSSARY 



43 



place in Spain taken by the Moors under 
Tarik. A small islet formerly called 
Jezfrat-el-khadhra, the 'green island, ' which 
protects the harbour, explains the Arabic 
name, which means ' the island.' The 
ancient Mesopotamia, between the rivers 
Tigris and Euphrates, is now called 
Algezira, 'the island.' 

Algiers (called in French Alger) was 
founded by the Moors in 944, and called 
El-Jezair Beni Mezghanna, ' the islands of 
the children of Mezghanna,' from a rock 
in the harbour, now called Roche sans 
Nom, and other rocks on which the light- 
house stands, now joined to the mainland 
by the mole. 

Alicudi, one of the Lipari Islands, is a 
corruption of the name Encodes or 
Ericussa, so called from the heath {Erica) 
growing on it. 

AIJJOS or Los AlijOS, the ' lighters,' 
is the Spanish name of a group of rocks 
off the Californian peninsula. 

AliTVal, a district in the Cape Colony, 
was named from Aliwal on the Suilej, 
where Sir Harry Smith, Governor of the 
Cape, had gained a victory over the Sikhs 
in 1846. 

Allamanna-Gja, 'all men's rift,' in 
Iceland, is the place where the AUthing 
or common parliament was held. 

AUegrhanies are a range of hills in Penn- 
sylvania, from which flows the Alleghany 
River. The old etymology explains the 
word as the endless or ' boundless moun- 
tains,' but probably both the Alleghany 
hills and the Alleghewi tribe (who have 
been identified with the Cherokees) derive 
their name from the river, the word oolik- 
hanne meaning the ' best river ' in the 
dialect of the Delawares. 

Allier, a French department, is traversed 
by the River Allier, anciently the Elaver. 

Alligator Point, in the Victoria River, 
North Australia, was so called by Stokes 
because an alligator was here killed by 
his crew. The Alligator River, North 
Australia, was discovered by King in 1818, 
and so named from the alligators which 
abounded in it. 

Alma is a Tartar word meaning an ' apple 
tree. ' On the banks of the River Alma in 
the Crimea the allies gained their first 
victory in 1854. 

A Imaden, the name of the great cjuick- 
silver mine in Spain, is from the Arabic £/- 
Ma'aden, ' the mine.' New Almaden, a 
quicksilver mine in California, was named 
after Almaden in Spain. A fort opposite 
Lisbon is called Almada, gold having 



formerly been washed from the sands of 
the Tagus at this point. 

Alnwiok, Northumberland, is the ToicJk 
or ' village ' on the River Alne. 

Alp is a widely difiTused name which has 
been the subject of much controversy. 
The Romans naturally thought the Alps 
{A /pes) were so called because of their 
snowy summits, the name being connected 
with the Latin aldvs, ' white.' This ex- 
planation, which we find in Festus, has 
been adopted by Grimm and many other 
writers. In Switzerland the word a/p 
denotes, not the snowy summits, but the 
mountain pastures. Hence Graff con- 
tended that the root is a/, 'to nourish,' 
(Latin al-ere), and, according to him, the 
Alps are the high ' pastures.' But the 
belief now prevails that the name is a 
Ligurian or Iberian word loaned to the 
Latins at some period after 218 B.a, and 
that it meant a 'height.' To the same 
root we may refer the name of the Alban 
Hills near Rome, and of Alba Longa, 
whence tradition brought the settlers to 
pre-Aryan Rome. The Alban Hills do 
not reach the snow-line, and do not consist 
of chalk or limestone, but of dark volcanic 
rock. The name has been referred to an 
alleged obsolete Celtic word alp or ailp, 'a 
hill,' but as the existence of this word is 
doubtful, and as if it existed it would be 
isolated in the Celtic languages, we may 
probably assign it to pre-Aryan Iberian 
tribes. From this Iberian word we may ex- 
plain the name of the Albici or ' hill-men,' 
a tribe of mountaineers near Marseilles, 
and of two towns called Albium in 
Liguria, and of Albens, anciently Albin- 
num, in the mountains near Chamb^ry, as 
well as other hill-names, such as Albis, 
a range of hills near Ziirich, of Alpnach 
a town on the lake of Lucerne, standing 
on the Sarner-Aa, formerly the Alpen-aha 
or ' Alp Water,' and of Albi, anciently 
Albiga, a town near Toulouse which gave 
a name to the Albigenses. As the 
Iberian race preceded the Celts in Britain 
we may thus explain the name Albany 
[q.v.) and of Albion the oldest name of 
Britain. When in the fourth century B.C. 
Pytheas of Marseilles ventured into the 
northern seas the * Britannic isles ' were 
known as Albion and leme. 

Alpta-£l, 'swan river,' Alpta vatn, 
'swan lake,* and Alptanes, 'swan 
cape,' all in Iceland, are from the O.N. 
dlpta^ genitive pliu-al oidlpi, ' a swan.' 

Alsey, 'rope island,' one of the West- 
manna Islands off Iceland, was so called 
because men were let down over the cliffs 



44 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



with ropes to collect the eggs of sea 
fowls (O.N. dl, a strap or leatiber thong). 

Altai, a mountain range in Central Asia, 
rich in the precious metals, is called in 
Mongolian Altain ula, 'mountain of 
gold/ from ula, * mountain,' and altain^ 
genitive of alta^ 'gold.' Al-tai (for Al- 
ta^h) is the Tartaric form of the name. 
Hence the name Altaic which is applied to 
languages of the Mongol-Turkic class. 

Alta Vela, a solitary rock rising from 
the sea at the southern extremity of Haiti, 
is one of the names bestowed by Colum- 
bus which still remain upon the map. It 
was so called because it resembles a ship 
under full sail. 

Althorpe, the name of villages in North- 
ants and Lincolnshire, is from the Danish 
personal name Ale, as is indicated by the 
old forms Alethorp and Aletorp. The 
Northamptonshire village gives the title of 
Viscount to Earl Spencer, in whose honour 
the Althorpe Islands in Spencer Gulf 
{q.v.) were named. 

Alton, Hants, is not the * old tun,' but, as 
is proved by the form ALwel-iun, which 
occurs in an early charter, is the tun by 
the as-welm or ' spring of water ' from 
which the celebrated Alton Ales are 
brewed. The later form Aulton supplies 
the transition to the modem name. 

Altona, near Hamburg, stands on the 
Altenau, a small stream which divides it 
from Hamburg. The name is often ex- 
plained like the English Alton as the 
• old town,' or, according to the popular 
local etymology, as All-zu-nah, ' all too 
near* Hamburg. The Altenau is prob- 
ably named from the au or * meadow ' 
through which it flows, and the first part 
is probably a personal name, or may 
mean ' old.' 

Altorp, the capital of Canton Uri, is 
probably the ' old village.' 

Alvaredo, a coast town in Mexico, 
stands on the Rio de Alvaredo, which was 
discovered by the Spaniard Pedro de 
Alvaredo. 

Amazi^h, or 'freemen,' is the name of 
the Berber nomads of Northern Africa. 

Amazon, Amazons, or Ama- 

zonas is the great South American 
river whose mouth was discovered in 1500 
by Vicente Yaffez Pinzon, who called it 
Mar Dulce, the ' freshwater sea. ' The 
central portion of the river has been called 
the Orellana from the adventurous 
Spaniard Francisco de Orellana who, in 
1540, descended from Peru one of its 
tributaries, the Rio Napo, and finally 



reached the ocean after a voyage of 4000 
miles. The river is usually supposed to 
have been called the Rio das Amazonas 
from the female warriors who are said to 
have opposed Orellana. This etymology 
was put forward by Garcilasso de la Vega 
in his Royal Commentaries of the Incas, 
published in 1609. He says, ' the name of 
the river of the Amazons was given to it 
because Orellana and his people beheld 
the women on the banks fighting as 
valiantly as the men. It is not that there 
are any Amazons on that river, but that 
they said there were, by reason of the 
valoiu- of the women.* As Garcilasso was 
born in 1540, the year in which Orellana 
descended the river, and as he cannot 
have seen or conversed with Orellana, who 
died in 1549, it is possible that Garci- 
lasso's statement may be only a piece of 
folk etymology which may have grown up 
in the sixty-nine years between Orellana's 
adventurous voyage and the publication of 
Garcilasso's book. It has been conjec- 
tured that the real source of the name 
is the native term amassona, the ' boat 
destroyer,' used to designate the destruc- 
tive bore, from 12 to 15 feet in height, 
which rushes up the estuary at spring 
tides. This solution is supported by the 
fact that the Spanish name Rio das Ama- 
zonas originally applied only to the lower 
tidal portion of the river. A similar name 
is Kaiwaka, the * boat-eater,' given by 
the Maoris to a New Zealand river which 
has dangerous rapids in its course, and in 
like manner the Eider and perhaps the 
Humber take their names from their 
eagers or bores. The native name of the 
stream is Parana-AQU, which means the 
* great river.' The Upper Amazon is called 
the Maranon from the edible fruit of the 
Anacardium occidentaie, which grows 
abundantly on its banks. The name 
Marailon has also given rise to a folk 
etymology. It is said that when Pinzon 
in 1500 discovered the mouth of the river 
he asked the natives the question, mare 
an non f ' is it a sea or not ? ' an absurd 
etymology sufficiently disproved by the 
fact that the part of the river reached by 
Pinzon is some 1300 miles from the 
affluent called the Mara Ron. The 
Amazons of Greek fable also owe their 
name to folk etymology. Amazon in Greek 
would mean 'breastless,' and the Amazons 
were believed by the Greeks to be a nation 
of female warriors in Asia Minor, whose 
right breasts were excised to enable them 
the better to use the bow. The fable 
arose from the accounts of the priest- 
esses of the great Asiatic goddess, a 



GLOSSARY 



45 



lunar deity, whose name is explained from 
mazu, the Tcherkess name of the moon. 

Amboiso, near Tours, is a corruption of 
Ambacia, derived from the cognomen 
Ambactius. The Gaulish ambacios meant 
a client or servant. 

America is a name which, almost by 
accident, came to be adopted for the 
Western world. As in the case of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, the name was at first 
attached to a portion only of the continent 
to which it was gradually extended. It 
has frequently been contended that Colum- 
bia, commemorating the discoverer of the 
New World, would have been a more 
appropriate name. But without casting 
any slur on the brilliant achievement of 
the great Genoese, the name America is 
not altogether inappropriate, since, al- 
though Columbus led Uie way, a much 
larger portion of the coast of the continent 
was discovered by the person whose name 
it bears. Amerigo Vespucci was a Floren- 
tine in the Spanish, and afterwards in the 
Portuguese service. Considerable doubt 
rests upon what is called his first voyage, 
in which it is alleged that in the years 
1497-98 he was the actual discoverer of the 
American mainland. However this may 
be, his claim to bestow his name on the 
New World rests on what is called his 
third voyage, which was undertaken in 
consequence of the accidental discovery in 
1500 of a part of the Brazilian coast by 
Cabral on a voyage to India (see Brazil). 
Cabral took possession of the country, 
which he called the island of Vera Cruz, 
in the name of King Emmanuel of Por- 
tugal, and before proceeding on his voyage 
sent back one of his ships to Lisbon with 
the news. To explore the new possession. 
King Emmanuel, in May 1501, despatched 
an expedition with Amerigo Vespucci as 
pilot, which returned in September of .the 
following year, during which time the 
Brazilian coast from Cape St. Roque, five 
degrees south of the Equator, to the mouth 
of the Rio de la Plata, in 34° S. latitude, 
was traced. Thence striking across the 
South Atlantic, a land now believed to be 
South Georgia jn 54° S. latitude was 
reached. It was to this great southern 
continent, whose existence Amerigo had 
made known, and whose connection with 
the discoveries of Columbus was not sus- 
pected, that the name of America was for 
nearly half a century exclusively applied. 
Columbus himself died in the belief that 
the lands he had found were a part of 
Asia, and hence they received the names 
of India Major, * Greater India/ or Indias 



Occidentales, ' the West Indies,' a name 
which still cleaves to the islands visited by 
Columbus. But it was plain that the vast 
southern continent, the coast of which had 
been traced by Amerigo for 2000 miles, 
could not belong to India, which was 
known not to extend south of the Equator, 
much less could it be supposed to have 
any connection with North America, dis- 
covered by John and Sebastian Cabot in 
1497 and 1498, which was called the 
New Found Land, and supposed to be a 
Chinese peninsula. The region discovered 
by Amerigo lying entirely in the Southern 
Hemisphere was therefore recognised as a 
country unknown to the ancients, and 
hence it appears on early maps as Mundus 
Novus or Novus Orbis. Ajnerigo's dis- 
coveries were first made known in a letter 
describing his voyage, which he wrote in 
1503 to Lorenzo de Medici. This was 
translated from Italian into Latin, and 
published in Paris in 1504 with the title 
Mundus Novus, and in two years ran 
through nineteen editions. Meanwhile a 
French version of another letter written 
by Vespucci in 1504 to his school-fellow, 
Piero Soderini, giving a fuller account of 
his discoveries, had come into the hands 
of Martin WaJdseemiiller, Professor of 
Geography at the College of Saint-Di^ in 
the Vosges, who in 1507 published a geo- 
graphical treatise entitled Cosmographiae 
Iniroductio, in which, after describing 
Europe, Asia, and Africa, the three parts 
of the world already known, he goes on to 
say that a fourth part has now been found 
by Americus Vespucius, and that he does 
not see why it should not be called, after 
its discoverer, the land of Americus, or 
America. Quarta orbis pars quern quia 
Americus invenit^ Atnerigen quasi Amer- 
ici terrain sive Americam nuncupare 
licet. Owing to its convenience, and to 
its analogy with the names of the other 
continents, this suggestion rapidly won its 
way to acceptance, and on the maps of 
the sixteenth century we are able at once 
to trace the progress of the conception of 
a western continent, and the gradual 
adoption and extension of the name pro- 
posed by Waldseemiiller. The map of 
Johann Ruysch, published in 1508, ex- 
hibits a vast southern island nearly as 
large as Africa, which is called Terra 
Sancti Crucis sive Mundus Novus. This 
is separated by an ocean, containing the 
islands of Cuba, Spaniola, and Java, from 
Greenland, Labrador, and Newfound- 
land, which are joined to Tibet and India 
so as to form a great northern Asiatic con- 
tinent On the Lenox globe, c. 15 10, 



46 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



part of South America appears as a 
detached southern land, which is called 
Mundus Novus, to the north of which are 
three islands : Zipangu (Japan), Isabel 
( Cuba), and Spaniola ( Hayti). Four years 
pass, and the name of America is adopted 
for this island south of the Equator. On 
Boulanger's globe of 15 14 the ocean 
between Europe and Asia has four large 
islands, namely, Hayti, called Zipangu, 
because supposed to be Japan; Cuba; 
Java ; and a fourth island, south of Cuba 
and about the same size, which is called 
America. About the same date is a map 
attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, on which 
the name America appears upon a great 
Equatorial and South Ex[uatoria1 island, 
evidently meant for what we call South 
America. On a map of 1520 Brazil is 
called America vel Brasilia sive Papa- 
gain terra ; and a map of 1522 has 
Amtrica pravincia as the name of Brazil. 
In the next stage America ceases to be 
represented as a detached island in the 
Southern Hemisphere. On the Paris 
elobe drawn in 1531 by Oronce Fin6 
(Orontius Finaeus), North America is 
depicted as a peninsula attached to 
Cathay (China), and connected by an 
isthmus (Darien) with a great southern 
continent which bears the name of 
America. In Sebastian Miinster's map 
of 1540 SouUi America is called Novus 
Orbis, which is explained by a note as 
being insula Atlantica quam vacant 
Brazil et Americam. Up to this time 
the name had not been extended to any 
part of North America, but in Mercator s 
map of 1541 this great step was taken, 
and the word Ame-rica is spread 
out over both the northern and the 
southern portions of the continent, with 
the note, *a multis hodie Nova India 
dicta.' The final acceptance of the name 
America for the whole continent was due 
largely to its adoption in the great atlas 
of Ortellius, which appeared in 1570, but 
even at that date the name seems to have 
been unknown to Girava, a Spaniard, who 
in his Cosmographia, published in 1570, 
observed that some persons called ' India ' 
or the ' New World ' by the name oi India 
Major, 'greater India,' in order to dis- 
tinguish it from India Oriental, the ' East 
Indies,' a term which only came into use 
after Magellan's voyage. Even in 1608 
Acosta, in his History of the Indies, pre- 
fers the old Spanish designation of the 
Indies to the newer name America. 
Amerigo is one of the North Italian 
names due to Gothic or Lombardic con- 
quest, Amaric, found as early as 744, 



being a contracted form of Amalaric, 
' strong for labour,' the name of a Visi- 
gothic king who died in 531. America, 
which is thus a Latinised Teutonic name, 
is not inappropriate for a continent divided 
between Latin and Teutonic speech. The 
stars and stripes which appear on the flag 
of the United States of North America 
were derived from the armorial bearings 
of George Washington, three stars with 
stripes below, which may be seen on the 
monuments of the Washington family 
in Great Brington Church, near North- 
ampton. 
Amesbury, Wilts, a vast British earth- 
work containing some forty acres, was 
called Ambresbyrig (Ambresburh), by the 
Saxons, and Caer Enurys, ' the city of 
Emrys,' by the Welsh. It was the fortress 
and. capital of Ambrosius Aurelianus or 
Aurelius Ambrosius, Dux Britanniarum, 
a man of Roman family, who, after the 
departure of the legions in the fifth cen- 
tury, headed the Britons in their resistance 
to the West Saxon advance. 

Amiens, on the Somme, is first known 
to us by the Celtic name Satnaro-briva, 
* the bridge over the Samara ' or Somme, 
and afterwards as Ambianensium civitas, 
being the capital of the Belgic tribe of the 
Ambiani, the modern name Amiens being 
from the dative plural Ambianis. The 
Ambiani were either the 'numerous' or 
the • wealthy ' people, the stem atnbi de- 
noting the abundance either of goods or of 
people. 

Axninergrau is the district or gau of the 
Ammer, a tributary of the Isar, which 
was anciently called the Ambra, an old 
word denoting 'water,' cognate with the 
Latin imber. Another Ammer flows into 
the Neckar, and the Emmer flows into the 
Weser. 

Ammira^lio, a small stream near 
Palermo, is so called because crossed by 
the Ponte dell' Ammiraglio, a bridge built 
in 1 1 13 by the Sicilian Admiral, George of 
Antioch. 

Azuouxiderness, the ness or peninsula 
north of the Ribble, was formerly a portion 
of Yorkshire, taken to form the Duchy of 
Lancaster. The form Agemundemes, 
which occurs in Domesday, proves that the 
name was derived from some Scandinavian 
chief called Augmundr. 

Amoy, a treaty port in the Chinese pro- 
vince of Fokien, is called in the Mandarin 
dialect Hia-men, which means ' Hall-gate.' 

Ampthill, Beds., is probably the 'em- 
met's or ant's hill,' as is indicated by the 
Domesday form AmmcielU» 



GLOSSARY 



47 



Ampurias, in the north-east of Spain, is 
a corruption of the Greek name Emporiae 
or Emporium^ the market or trading 
port 

Amritsax, formerly written Umritsar, a 
to\vn in the Punjab, is a corruption of 
Amrita-saras, the 'pool of immortality,' 
so called from a great tank constructed 
in 1581 by Rdm Das, the Guru or Apostle 
of the Sikhs, who founded the city in 

1574. 
Aniste?, 'at the climb,' is a village in 

Canton Uri, where the St. Gothard road 

leaves the level plain, and the ascent 

begins. 
Amsterdain, formerly Amstelredam, is 

at the dyke or dam of the River Amstel, 

which here joins the River Y. 

Amsterdam Island, a volcanic cone 

in the Indian Ocean, midway between 
Australia and the Cape, bears the name 
of the ship Amsterdam, in which the 
Dutch navigator, Van Diemen, visited it in 
1633. New Amsterdam, a town in 
British Guiana, was founded and named 
by the Dutch. 

Amu Daria. the modern name of the 
Oxusf, means the ' Amu river,' from daria, 
a ' river,' and Amu or Amol, a town on its 
banks. 

Amur or Amoor is a corruption of the 
Mongolian name Tamur, which means 
the * great river * or • great water.' It is 
called Schilkan, * the river,' by the Buriat 
tribes ; Sagalin-Ula, ' the black river,* by 
the Manchus, and Che-Shui, 'the black 
water,* by the Chinese. 

Anahuac, the Aztec name of the pro- 
vince in which the city of Mexico is 
situated, means the 'lake country,* 
literally 'near or beside the water,' from 
atl * water,* a,nd nauac ' near.' The name 
was one given by the Aztecs to any region 
near the sea or a large lake. 

Anatolia, the ' Eastern land,' or land of 
the Rising Sun, is the Greek name by 
which a Turkish province in Asia Minor 
is still. known. 

Ancaster, a village in Lincolnshire, 
which gave a ducal title to the Bertie 
family, has been identified with the 
Roman station of Causennis or Causennae. 

Ancliediva, Angedivida, or Anjediva, 
is a small islajid on the Malabar coast, in 
15° N. lat. The name is a Portuguese 
coiruptionx)f a word meaning in Malaya- 
lim the ' five islands,' which is probably 
an endeavour to make significant an older 
name of which the meaning has been 
lost. 



Anoona^ in Italy, was the Dorian colony 
of Ankdn, so called from the 'elbow' 
made by the peninsula on which it stands. 

Anchor Island, in the province oi 
Otago, was so named by Cook in 1773. 
because on its eastern side was his first 
anchorage in New Zealand waters. 

Andalusia, the southern province of 
Spain, was called by the Moors Beldd- 
ai-Andalus, the ' land of the Andalus,' 
Andalus being probably a corruption of 
the Latin Vdndaios, ' the Vandals.' 

Andaman Islands, inhabited by 

dwarf savages of a very low type, pro- 
bably take their name from Hanuman, 
the monkey who in the R&mayana is com- 
mander of the army of monkeys. Handu- 
man being the Malay pronunciation of 
Hanuman, the islands are called by the 
Malays Pulo Handuman, the Handuman 
i^nds, whence the Elnglish name. 

AndaWi in Burma, which means the 
'sacred molar,' takes its name from a 
pagoda built in 761 A. D. as a receptacle 
tor a precious reUc, a double tooth of 
Gautama Buddha. 

Andermatt in Canton Uri. is a village 
' at the meadow ' which has been formed 
by the silting up of the bed of an ancient 
lake. 

Andemaoll, a town on the Rhine, 
the Antunnacum of the Antonine Itiner- 
ary, and the Anternacha of the Ravenna 
Geographer, is doubtless from the Celtic 
personsd name Antunnos, with the posses- 
sive suffix -ac, 

Anderson's Island in the Bering Sea. 
was so called by Cook in 1778 because 
here WiUiam Anderson, the ship's surgeon, 
died. 

Andes, properly 'Cordilleras de los 
Andes,' the 'chain of the Andes,' is a 
name of uncertain meaning. Garcilasso 
de la Vega says that it was derived from 
the Anti tribe near Cuzco. It has also 
been referred to a Peruvian word anfa, 
'copper.' Another proposed etymology 
is from ania, a ' tapir,' of which the Portu- 
guese plural would be antas, so that the 
Cordilleras de los Antas would mean the 
'mountains of the tapirs.' Possibly the 
Anti tribe may have had a tapir for their 
totem, or may have been called the copper- 
coloured men. 

Andover, Hants (A.S. Andefera), is on 
the banks of the Ande or Little Ann, a 
branch of the Anton. Andover may per- 
haps be Ande-o/er^ the shore or ' bank of 
the Ande,' or the last part of the name 
may be the Celtic defer, which we have in 



48 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Dover {g.v.), Andover in Massachusetts 
was so called because the first settlers 
came in 1643 from Andover in Hants. 

Aiig;ele8 or Los Angeles, a town in 

California, founded in 178 1 by Don Felij)e 
de Neve, the Spanish Governor, was 
called by him Le Pueblo de Nuestra SeHora 
la Reyna de los Angeles, * the town of our 
Lady the Queen of the Angels.' 

Anglesey, often called with needless 
tautology the Isle of Anglesey, is not, as 
is often said, ' the isle of the Angles.' but 
the O.N. onguls eg, *the isle of the 
strait' The old Celtic name Mona is pre- 
served in the last syllable of Carnarvon 
(q.v.). 

Angrola, a West African district, bears 
the name of Angola, a vassal of the king 
of Congo, who made Dongo an indepen- 
dent state, calling it Dongo - Angola. 
Dongo, the real name, was afterwards 
dropped, and the name of the ruler left as 
the designation of the territory. 

Angora or Enguri, a city in Asia Minor, 
famed for the wool of its goats, represents 
the Roman Ancyra. 

Angostura, the ' narrow place,' whence 
the Angostura bitters were obtained, is the 
Spanish name of a town built where the 
Orinoco narrows. It has now been offi- 
cially renamed Ciudad Bolivar after the 
liberator. {See Bolivia. ) 

Angouldme, the capital of the Charente, 
is a corruption of Iculisma or Engolisma. 
Its territory, called the Angoumois, was 
the pagus Engolismeruis, 

Anguilla, the ' eel,' is the Spanish name 
of one of the Antilles ; also called Snake 
Island, from its long and narrow form. 

Angus, one of the old Scotch earldoms, 
now the county of Forfar, is believed to be 
a Pictish name derived from Oengus, the 
Pictish king of the men of Fortrenn in the 
eighth century. 

Anhalt or Anholt, the town from 
which the Duchy of Anhalt takes its name, 
means 'at the wood.' According to the 
local folk-etymology the name refers to a 
castle constructed entirely of stone, * with- 
out wood,' which was built by Count Esiko 
von Ballenstedt. 

Anjou, one of the old French provinces, 
is a corruption of the name of the Gaulish 
tribe of the Andecavi or Andegavi, which 
means ' the confederates [cav- meaning a 
* bond,' while ande- is the intensitive par- 
ticle). Angevin is a corruption of Ande- 
cavensis, while Angers, the capital, is 
called Andegavis by Gregory of Tours. 



Ann, Cape, north of Cape Cod, was a 
name placed on John Smith's map of New 
England by Prince Charles in 1614, doubt- 
less in compliment to his mother, Ann of 
Denmark, the queen of James i. Anna- 
polis, the State capital of Maryland, was 
founded in 1649 under the name of Provi- 
dence, and in 1708 incorporated and re- 
named in compliment to Queen Anne, in 
whose honour Annapolis in Nova Scotia 
was named after the Peace of Utrecht, in 

1713- 
Annam, originally Ngan-nam, means the 
'peace of the south,' from ngan or an, 
* peace,' and nam, * the south.' 

Annobom, a small island ii tl.e GuIT of 
Guinea, was discovered by the Portuguese 
at the beginning of the year 14 71. In 
Portuguese New Year's Day is called Dia 
de Anno Bom, or simply Annobom, 

Anonyma, the * Nameless Isle,' is one oi 
the Caroline group. 

Anspaoh (or Ansbaoh) in Bavaria, is 
built on a stream called the Holzbach. 
Both the town and the river contain the- 
personal name Aunulf, both being corrup- 
tions of Aunulf s bach. 

Antakieh, in Northern Syria, represents 
Antioch, the capital of the Greek kings of 
Syria, one of the sixteen cities which 
Seleucus Nicator named after his father 
Antiochus. 

Antananarivo or Tananarivo, 

the capital of Madagascar, consists of 
numerous detached hamlets or groups of 
houses. The name means ' at the place 
of a thousand.' The prefix an is a pre- 
position meaning ' at,' and gives a localis- 
ing sense to the word it precedes. The 
second element, tana, means a ' place ' or 
' town,' as An-tana-malagar * at the 
famous town,' and the third element is 
arivo, a ' thousand,' which we have in 
Nosi-arivo, the * thousand isles,' or in the 
hill called Tsinjo-arivo, 'overlooking a 
thousand.' Antananarivo was so called 
either because it consisted of a thousand 
houses, or, according to the popular be- 
lief, because it includes within its circuit a 
thousand hamlets. 

Antibes, a town buiii on a peninsula 
between Cannes and Nice, was the Greek 
An ti polls, which is better preserved in 
Antiboul, the Proven9al form of the 
name. It was founded by the Greeks 
of Marseilles, and denotes, the ' city 
opposite' to Nice (Nicaea). The names 
of Nice and Antibes are interesting as 
abiding evidences of the Greek occupation 
of this coast long before the Roman con- 



GLOSSARY' 



49 



quest. Antiparos in the JEgesm is the 
island * opposite Paros.' 

.Ajlticosti, an island at the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence, is a corruption of the native 
name Natiscotea. 

AJl'fci^Tua, one of the West Indian islands, 
was discovered by Columbus on Nov. nth, 
1493. and named by him after a chapel in 
the Cathedral of Seville, called Santa 
Maria la Antigua (Old St. Mary). The 
Santa Maria was the name of the ship 
in which Columbus sailed. The name 
was also given by Balboa in 1510 to the 
town he founded on the River Darien, in 
fulfilment of a vow, which, in fear of the 
poisoned arrows of the Indians, he had 
made before the same miraculous image 
of Santa Maria la Antigua, to whose 
altar he dedicated a gift from the gold he 
had found. 

Antilles is the English form of the 
Spanish name Antilias, which was given to 
the West Indies soon after their discovery. 
In the map of Toscanelli, drawn in 1474, 
which Columbus had with him in his first 
voyage, we see marked in mid-Atlantic an 
imaginary island called Antilia, west of 
the Canaries. In this map, the imaginary 
islands of St. Brandan on the Equator, 
and of Brazil, some sixty miles west of Ire- 
land, were also marked. In the Portu- 
guese map of Cantino, 1502, the West 
Indies appear for the first time as has 
Antilhas, the Portuguese form of the 
Spanish name. The Antilles are now 
divided into two groups, the Greater 
Antilles, or Leeward Islands, comprising 
Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, and Puerto Rico ; 
and the Lesser Antilles or Windward 
Islands, which lie to the south-west. 

Antipodes, a small island south-east of 
New Zealand, discovered in 1800, was so 
named because it is nearly at the anti- 
podes of London. The antipodes of any 
place is where a line drawn through the 
centre of the earth comes out, so that the 
people would walk feet to feet. 

Antwerp, correctly Antwerpen, is usually 
explained from the Flemish aen't werpen^ 
* at the wharf.' But as early as the eighth 
century the name was written Andover- 
pum, and afterwards Andiverpa and 
Antwerpia, which Forstemann explains 
as 'opposite the dyke,' ant meaning 
' opposite ' or ' over against,' and the 

- word warp, war/, or wer/ signifying in 
Frisian names an aufwarf or bank, and 
hence a place protected from inundation 
by an embankment. In English to warp 
still means to make a sea bank. 



Anurddapura, the old capital of 

Ceylon, is the city of Anurddha, the 
minister of King Vijaya. 

Anydros, ' the waterless,' is an island in 
the iCgean, near Amorgo9. 

Aosta, a city in Piedmont, which gives its 
name to the Val d' Aosta, was the Roman 
colony of Augusta Praetoria, so called be- 
cause founded for 3000 colonists from the 
Praetorian guard of Augustus. 

Apaolie. in Colorado and in New Mexico, 
are places which preserve the name of the 
fierce tribe of the Apaches, or ' war- 
people,' from apa 'people,' and agwa 
' war. ' 

Apala.Ohe Bay in Florida, and the 
Apalachb River in Georgia, are so 
called from the Apalache tribe, whose 
name means 'those beyond the river,' 
literally the 'other side people." The 
Appalachian Range was a name given 
by the French to the Alleghany Mount- 
ains. 

Apennines is a name now used for the 
central mountain chain of Italy. The 
Roman term Mons Appeninus originally 
denoted the Maritime Alps near Genoa, 
the Mons Peninus signifying the Dauphiny 
Alps, more especially the part near the 
Great St. Bernard. The Romans ex- 
plained the Mons PeninuB or Pennine 
chain as the Poenine or Punic Mountains, 
most likely because Hannibal crossed 
them when he invaded Italy. But the name 
Mons Peninus doubtless con tarns the Cel- 
tic word /»^», 'head.' 'summit,' 'mountain,' 
and the Mons Peninus can hardly be 
separated from the neighbouring Mons 
Appeninus, which is probably the same 
word with a prefixed article or preposi- 
tion. 

Apollineuis, a spring near Neuenahr 
from which the Apollinaris water is ob- 
tained, is named after the neighbouring 
ApoUinariskirche, dedicated to St. Apol- 
linaris. 

Appenzell, a Swi^-s Canton, takes its 
name from its capital, the town of 
Appenzell, anciently Abtenzelle, in Latin 
documents Abbaiis cella and Abba 
cella, the town having been built round 
a monastic cell or church, founded 
in 1061 by Nortbert. Abbot of St. 
Gallen. 

Appin, a district in Argyll, was the terri- 
tory on the mainland which belonged to 
an abbey on the island of Lismore. The 
Latinised form Abthania points to the 
Gaelic abdhaine, 'abbey land,' as the 
source of the name. 



D 



so 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Appleby, Westmoreland, is a name of 
uncertain meaning, but if, as has been 
supposed, it occupies the site of the Roman 
station of Aballaba, it is probably a cor- 
ruption or translation of that name. The 
neighbouring Appleby in Wi^ownshire 
must be a Norse name, meaning apple 
(tree) house. 

Applecross, in Ross-shire, is an assimi- 
lated name, being a corruption of Apor- 
crosan. Here in 673 a church was built 
by Maelrubba, and named from a ' little 
cross ' {crosan) erected at the ' mouth ' 
{aber) of a small stream. 

Arabia is a name sometimes derived from 
the Semitic root ereb, the * west,' to which 
the name Europe is also referred. But 
more probably it means the • wilderness,' 
since ereb also means ' to be waste ' or 
- barren,' and the name Arabia seems 
originally to have been confined to the 
sandy desert between Palestine and Egypt. 
In like manner, the Wady Arabah. the 
dry and barren valley which extends from 
the Dead Sea to Uie Gulf of Akabah, 
doubtless means the 'wilderness.' 

Ara^on, now a Spanish province, repre- 
sents the old kingdom of the same name, 
the nucleus of which was the little realm 
of Sobrarbe (Sobre Arbe) in the heart of 
the Pyrenees, where the Goths took refuge 
from the Moors. In 1035 Sancho 11. 
divided his kingdom, and his son, Ramiro 
the Bastard, extended his own frontier as 
far as a tributary of the Ebro called the 
Aragon, which is now in the extreme 
north of the province to which it gave a 
name. 

Arakan or Arraoan, a district in 

Further India, is a European corruption 
of the native name Rakhaing, which is 
believed to be derived from the Sanskrit 
Rakshasa, ' ogres,' a term applied by the 
Aryans to the indigenous races, and 
by the early Buddhists to unconyerted 
tribes, 

Aral is an inland sea, east of the Caspian. 
Its eastern coast is fringed with small 
islands, and hence it obtained the name 
of Aral Denghis, which means in Kirghis 
the 'island-sea,' or 'sea of islands,' from 
the Tartar word aral, an ' island.' The 
Kalmuc name is Aral Noor, which means 
the same. 

Aram, the old name of Upper Syria, 
means 'the Highlands,' as contrasted 
with Canaan, ' the Lowlands.' Hence 
the terms Aramaic and Aramean which 
are used to denote the lan^ages, people, 
and script of Northern Syria. 



Ararat was originally the name, not of a 
mountain, but of the country afterwards 
called Armenia. In the cuneiform inscrip- 
tions of Assyria, Urardha is the name 
given to the district between the Araxes 
and the mountains south of Lake Van, 
whose capital was at Van. The name 
Urardha is explained as Hur-aredh, the 
'moon coimtry,' or country of Hur, the 
moon god. It was only after the Christian 
era that the name of Ararat was shifted to 
a mountain far north of the original terri- 
tory of Urardha, and appUed to the snow- 
clad volcanic peak which is called by the 
Turks either Aghri-Dagh, ' the painful or 
steep mountain,' or Ak-Dagh, the 'white 
mountain.' The Persian name is Kuh-i- 
Nuh, ' the moimtain of Noah.' 

Arawak, a South American tribe, bear a 
totemic name which signifies the 'tigers.' 
Arrowroot is not, as once believed, con- 
nected, but is a corruption of the Brazilian 
aru-aru, 'meal-meal,' i.e. the best meal, 
obtained from the root of an arum, 

ArohanfiTdli ^ town at the mouth of the 
Dwina, takes it name from a monastery 
dedicated to Michael the Archangel, 
founded in the twelfth century by Arch- 
bishop John. The correct name is Arch- 
angel sk, the suffix 'Sk being a Russian 
formative, 

Arohipelagro. which apparently means 
the ' chief sea, occurs in 1268 as a name 
of the iEgean, It is believed to be a 
Byzantine corruption of iCgeopelago, the 
* iEgean Sea,' to which the name strictly 
applies. But the iCgean contai n ing many 
islands, the word Archfpelago has come 
to denote any ocean tract studded with 
islands. The ^gean is supposed to have 
been so called from iEgeus, a name given 
to Poseidon in reference to the motion of 
the waves. 

Areola, near Verona, the scene of Napo- 
leon's victory in 1796, is the ' little bridge,* 
from the Low-Latin arcula, a diminutive 
of arcus, 

Arctic Ocean, which surrounds the 
North Pole, is so called from the Greek 
word arctos, * a bear,* the Greek word for 
the north referring to the constellation 
of the Great Bear with its seven stars, 
whence the corresponding Latin word 
septentrio, 

Ardennes, a forest in Belgium, is the 
Arduenna of Caesar. Fick and Holder 
refer the name to the stem ardu, ' high,' 
seen in the Latin ardu-us, and the 
old Irish ardda, ' heights,' and arddu^ 
•loftier.' The name of the old War- 
wickshire forest of Arden is preserved 



GLOSSARY 



SI 



■ inthenameofHehley-in-Arden. Ardros- 
SAN, in Ayrshire, is tlie 'spit-hill,' so 
named from a rocky knoll at ttie end of a 
tongue of land, rossan being the diminu- 
tive of ross, • a promontory. ' The prefix, 
meaning a 'hiil' or 'high,' is found in 
many Scotch and in 600 Irish names, 
such as Ardrishaig, the ' thorny hill,' 
and several places in Ireland called 
Ardeen, the ' little hill,' where the suffix 
is probably the common Celtic diminutive. 

Arenas, Punta, ' sandy point,* is the 
chief settlement in the Maf;ellan Strait. 

Arequipa, till destroyed by the earth- 
quake of 1868, was the second city of 
Peru. Here the Incas established a sta- 
tion for communication between Cuzco 
and the coast, and called it Ari-quepai, 

* Yes, rest here,* whence the name of the 
city of Arequipa, founded by Pizarro in 
1540. 

Argentina, ' the silver land,' also called 
the Argentine Republic, is the usual Eng- 
lish designation of the confederation offi- 
cially styled • the United Provinces of the 
Rio de la Plata,' the Latin argentum being 
used to translate or replace the Spanish 
vtordpiata, 'silver.' 

Argyle, or Argyll, is the part of Scot- 
land of which the Scots or Irish Gaels first 
took possession. The oldest forms of the 
name are Arregaithel, Erregaithle, and 
Errogeil, which have been explained either 
as Earr-gaidhel, the ' boundary of the 
Gael,' or as Airer-gaidhel, the ' district of 
the Gael.' That the first of these is the 
true explanation is indicated by the old 
Latin gloss, Margo Scoitorum, which is 
used to translate the name. 

Arisll, or, with the article, AL-'Arish, is a 
village on the coast between Egypt and 
Palestine, where the Wadi-el-Arlsh, the 
biblical ' river of Egypt,' a watercourse 
frequently dry, debouches on the Mediter- 
ranean. Arlsh, a corruption of an old 
Egyptian word meaning the ' boundary,' 
marks now, as of old, the frontier of 
Africa and Asia. 

Arizona, a territory of the United States, 
takes its name from an Indian pueblo at 
the 'little spring' {ari, ' small,' and son, 

* a spring or fountain ' ). 

Aljieh Dagh, a mountain 13.197 feet in 
height, is the loftiest summit in Asia 
Minor. The name is derived from the 
Greek Argaion Oros, the * white ' or 
' shining mountain.' 

Arkansas, one of the United States, 
takes its name from the Arkansas River, 
a tributary of the Mississippi, so called 



from the Kansa or Kaws tribe of Indians. 
Father Marquette on his adventu* ous ex- 
ploration of the Mississippi in 1673, on 
arriving at the confluence of the Arkansas 
River, found four villages of a tribe he 
calls the Akansea Sauvages, who have been 
identified with what are now called the 
Ka(n)se, Kaws, or Crow Indians, a Sioux 
or Dakota tribe, whose name is supposed 
to mean the 'handsome men.' Arkansas 
was formerly pronounced Arkansas, but 
the State legislature by a ' joint resolution 
has lately declared that Arkansdw, with 
the accent on the last syllable, is the right 
pronunciation, the initial A being a loca- 
tive, means 'at the Kansas.' 
Arlberg, a range between the Voralberg 
and the Tyrol, bears the name of a pass 
close to Schloss Arlen, built on slopes over- 
grown with the Arle [Pinus Montana). 

Aries, a city at the apex of the delta of the 
Rhone, was anciently Are-late or Are- 
latum t which according to Gltick and 
others means ' by the marsh ' or ' on the 
clay.' (Cf. the Welsh claith, ' that which 
is dark or humid.') The dry stony desert 
called La Crau extends as far as Aries, 
where the rich fertile soil begins. On the 
other hand, D'Arbois de Jubainville pre- 
fers a derivation from a personal name. 

Armagh, an Irish city which gives its 
name to a county, is not, as is sometimes 
asserted, a corruption of Ard-magh, thtt 
'high field,' but oi Ard-macha, ' Macha's 
height,' the name being explained by the 
legend that Armagh was the burial-place 
of Macha of the Golden Hair. 

Armenia is a name which does not occur 
before the time of Darius Hystaspes. In 
the Assyrian inscriptions the country is 
called either the Land of Nairi, the king- 
dom of Van, or the kingdom of Urardha, 
I. ^. of Ararat. Halevy explains the name 
Armenia as an Aryan word, Har-minni or 
Hara-Minya, which means the moun- 
tains of Minni, or Mount Minyas (old 
Persian arc, 'a mountain'). The Arme- 
nians were a Phrygian people who did 
not enter the country till after the fall of 
Nineveh. [See Ararat. ) 

Armorio, the name given to the Celtic 
speech of Brittany, is derived from Are- 
morica, a name which originally denoted 
the coast tribes of Ga'il from the Seine to 
the Loire. In the Middle Ages Armorica 
became restricted to Brittany. The Are- 
morici are 'those by the sea,' from the 
CtXXiQ. mor {tnfiri), 'sea.'^nd the preposi- 
tion are, which has lost the^ preserved in 
the Greek para. In Armoric ar-mor still 
means ' on the sea.' (See Arles.) 



5« 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Arnliem Land in West Australia was so 
called because discovered in 1623 by the 
Dutch ships, the Amhem and the Pera, 
equipped by the governor of Amboina. 
Arnhem Bay and Cape Amhem were so 
named by Flinders in 1803, in commemora- 
tion of this early voyage of discovery. 
Arnhem (Arnheim) in the Netherlands 
is 'the home of Arn,' a personal name 
meaning * eagle.' 

Aroleen, the capital of the Principality of 
Waldeck, is a corruption of the old name 
Adalolteshusum^ 'at Adelholt's houses.' 

Arran, one of the Western Isles of Scot- 
land, was anciently called Arann, which 
would be the genitive of Ara. Arann was 
also the old name of the Aran Islands in 
Gal way Bay, and Aran is the name of a 
mountain in Merionethshire. The mean- 
ing of Ara is obscure. It might mean 
•ploughed land,' or 'western land,' but 
most probably 'high land.' 

ArrOOhar in Dumbartonshire is the old 
Arachor, a Gaelic loan word derived from 
the Latin aratrum, corresponding to the 
Southern carucate or ploughland, the 
amount of land which could be ploughed 
in a year by a team of oxen. 

Arro-wsmith River and Point Arrow- 
smith in Australia, Mount Arrowsmith in 
New Zealand, and Arrowsmith Island in 
the Marshall Group, were named by their 
discoverers after the cartographer, John 
Arrowsmith. 

Arthur's Seat, more correctly Arthur 
Seat, the hi-ll overlooking Edinburgh, has 
been thought to be an English adaptation 
of the Gaelic Ard-na-said, the ' height of 
the arrows,' a name equivalent to Shooter's 
Hill. Arthur's Seat, a mountain in 
the Australian colony of Victoria, was so 
named by Lieutenant Murray from its 
resemblance to the Scotch hill. Arthur 
Strait, in the Arctic Archipelago, was 
named by Belcher in 1853 in compliment 
to Prince Arthur, now Duke of Connaught. 

ALrtillery Lake, in Arctic America, was 
so named by Back in 1833 in recognition 
of assistance received from officers of the 
Royal Artillery. 

ALTtois, one of the old French provinces, 
(in medieval times Adertisus Pagus,) pre- 
serves the Belgic tribal name of its 
Celtic inhabitants, the Atrebates, a name 
which means simply the ' inhabitants ' or 
'owners' of the soil. The name of 
Arras, the capital of Artois (formerly 
Nenutocenna or Netnetacum, from the 
Gaulish nemeion, a. * temple,') is a French 
corruption of the Flemish name Atrecht, | 



in which the name of the Atrebates is more 
plainly seen than in Artois. From the 
Belgic tribe we have curiously obtained two 
English terms, Artesian wells, and Arras for 
' tapestry,' as in Beaumont and Fletcher, 
where one of the characters makes his 
me^s ' in corners, behind Arrases on 
stairs.' 
ALrundel in Sussex stands on the River 
Arun, which, on old maps is called the 
Tarant. The name Arun may be a mere 
antiquarian figment to account for the 
name of Arundel, or possibly through such 
stages as Tarunt and Arunt the name 
Tarant may have been corrupted into 
Arun. Tarant is a corruption of Ptolemy's 
name Trisantona, a name which Tacitus 
also gives to the Trent (^.v.). 

Ascension, an island in the South 
Atlantic, was discovered in 1501, by Joao 
da Nova, a Portuguese mariner, who 
named it /^Aa da Concepfuo (Conception 
Island). It was rediscovered on Ascen- 
sion Day, 1508, and hence called liha da 
Ascettfdo. The Bahia de la Ascen- 
sion, in Yucatan, was discovered in 1518 
by Grijalva, who here celebrated the festi- 
val of the Ascension. 

Asohaffenburg, in Bavaria, is the 
castle on the Aschaff, a tributary of the 
Main. 

Ashby Puerorum, in Lincolnshire, 
was so called because the great tithes 
were appropriated to the support of the 
choir boys of Lincoln Cathedral. 

Aslistead, a common English village 
name, usually means the ' place by the 
ash tree.' Ashstead near Epsom is, how- 
ever, a corruption of Akestede, ' oak place.' 
Aston may be a corruption of Ashton, 
but is usually the modern form oif 
East-tun. 

Asia originally denoted only a portion of 
what since the time of Orosius has been 
conveniently termed Asia Minor. By the 
time of iCschylus and Pindar, and still 
more by the time of Herodotus, the term 
Asia had acquired a Continental signifi- 
cance. The name may be either Aryan or 
Semitic. The prevalent opinion is that 
Asia is a Phoenician name, being ex- 
plained as a participial form of the Semi- 
tic verb azu, in which case Asia would 
mean the 'east,' literally the 'rising* of 
the sun, a name paralleled by the Turkish 
Anadoli, a corruption of the Greek Ana- 
tolia, the ' land of the sunrise,* or by the 
Italian name Levante. Phoenician mari- 
ners would naturally call the opposite 
sides of the iEgean the ' Eastern ' and the 
' Western ' lands, as, if they are Semitic, 



GLOSSARY 



S3 



we may translate the names Asia and 
Europa. The theory which explains the 
name as Aryan is based on its earliest 
occurrence, which is found in Homer (//. 
ii. 461), with whom the Asian plain is 
merely the marshy delta of the Cayster, 
which afterwards became the site of 
Ephesus, the capital and wealthiest city 
of the oldf St Asia. If Asia was originally 
only the territory of Ephesus, the import- 
ance of that city would conceivably cause 
the name to be gradually extended to the 
neighbouring lands, just as the name of 
Africa originally denoted merely the plain 
of Carthage and Europe the plam of 
Thebes. In this case the name Asia 
might denote the • marsh ' of which 
Homer speaks, and Ephesus might be 
the town ' on the marsh.' It is difficult 
to explain as Semitic the parallel name of 
AsEA, which denoted a marshy valley in 
Arcadia. Asia Islands, a group in the 
North Pacific, east of Gilolo, were dis- 
covered in 1805 by the ship Asia. 

Askliabad., in Central Asia, is a Perso- 
Arabic name, meaning the ' place of de- 
light ' or the • abode of love.* 

Aspin'Wall, the western terminus of the 
Panama railway, bears the name of one 
of the American engineers who designed 
the line. The Creoles call the place 
Colon, in honour of Columbus. It was 
founded in 1710 by the Spaniards under 
Nicuesa, who called it Nombre dc Dios, 
under which name it often appears in the 
records of buccaneer adventure. 

Asaaiin (Ahom) takes its name from the 
Ahom dynasty of Shan princes who con- 
quered thecountry in ihelhirteenth century. 

Asses' Sars is the descriptive sailors' 
name for a rocky island near Japan ; and 
also for some rocks in the Straits of 
Magellan. 

Assiniboia, a Canadian province, is 
traversed by the Assiniboine river, so 
called from the Assiniboine tribe, who are 
commonly known by the translated name 
of the Stone Indians, Assini-boine mean- 
ing the Stone-Sioux, from assini, the Cree 
word for a stone, and dwan a native name 
of the Sioux or Dakotas. From assini, 
*a stone,' we have also the AssiNi- 
PiCHiGAKAN or 'stony barrier* on the 
Qu'Appelle river. 

Assireta, the ' warriors,' form one of the 
two divisions of the Kurds. 

Assiout or Siout, the capital of Upper 
Egypt, are French spellings of the Arabic 
name Asy^t or SiHt^ which reproduces 
the old Egyptian name S^uit 



Assouan is a town on the Nile, at the 
first cataract, which forms the ' opening ' 
from Egypt into Nubia. One of the old 
Egyptian names, Sunnu {^nCoplxcSouan), 
signifying the town on the eastern bank 
was corrupted by the Greeks to Syene. 
whence the mineralogical term syenite 
for the granitic rocks which cause the 
cataract. Neither theOreek nor the Coptic 
names being significant in Arabic, the old 
name has been transformed into Asw&n, 
which means 'sad,' 'sorrowful, in Arabic. 
Assouan is merely the French way of 
spelling Asw&n. 

Astoria, a town at the mouth of the 
Oregon or Columbia river, was named 
from John Jacob Astor, a millionaire of 
New York who made his fortune in the 
fur trade, and sent the ship Tonquin in 
181 1 to found a town on the site of Fort 
George, a trading post of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. 

Astrakhan, a dty at the mouth of the 
Volga, bears a name usually explained as 
Persian, meaning the 'city of the star.' 
But Astrakhan or Astorokan is a modern 
corruption of the Kalmuk name Aja- 
Tarkhan, meaning the city of Haji 
Tarkhan, a chief or khan of the Golden 
Horde, who, having performed the pil- 
grimage to Mecca, had acquired the title 
of Haji or ' hojy man.* 

Asturias, a Spanish province, preserves 
the name of the Astures, a Basque people. 
The capital of the Astures was the Asturica 
Augusta of Pliny, now .^storga, a city 
in the province of I-«on. The Astura, 
now the Estola or Ezla, was the name of 
the Upper Douro, the Roman Durius 
{q. V. ). These names are usually explained 
from the Basque words asta, * a rock,' and 
ura, * water or river.' Asta, now called 
Mesa de Asta, a city near Cadiz, was 
probably a fortified rock, or hill fortress, 
and we may compare the name of Asta 
in Liguria, now Asti, in Piedmont, which 
produces the well-known Vino d'Asti. 

Asuncion, the capital of the republic of 
Paraguay, was founded by Mendoza in 
1535, receiving the name of Nuestra 
Seiiora de la Asuncion, from the festival 
of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. 
The names Ascencion and Asuncion must 
not be confused. The distinction is seen 
in the phrases Dominus adscendit^ and 
Maria adsumpta est. Cabo DELLA ASUN- 
CION was the name given to the Cape at the 
entrance to the Oregon or Columbia River 
by Don Bruno de Hecata, who discovered 
it in 1775, on August 15th, the festival of 
the Assumption. J| i$ also ca}|pd Cape 



54 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Disappointment, because Vancouver, 
Cook, and Meares all failed to discover 
the mouth of the Oregon. 

Asurcuia, or Ashurada, an island in 
the Caspian, signifies the island ' on the 
other side,* from the Turcoman word 
asura, * opposite.' 

Athabasca, the 'muddy plain,' was 
originally the Cree name of the delta 
formed by the Peace River and the Elk 
River, where they enter the great lake 
formerly called Lac des Montagnes, which 
from the delta has now acquired the name 
of Lake Athabasca. Elk River, a trans- 
lation of the French - Canadian name 
Riviere de la Biche, now appears on 
many maps as the Athabasca River. 

Athelney, Somerset, is the A.S. ^thel- 
inga-ig or Ethelinga-ig, * the isle of 
nobles,' ^thelinga being the genitive 
plural of yEtheling, a ' noble.' 

Athens {Athen<B), a name of doubtful 
etymology, cannot be separated from that 
of Athene, the tutelary goddess of the 
city. Athens is either the city of Athen^, 
as the Athenians believed, or Athene may 
be the goddess of Athens, or both names 
may be independent formations from the 
same root. The most recent opinion is 
that Athene was the goddess of the light- 
ning, her shield representing the thunder- 
cloud, and her spear the lightning dart, 
while her name is from the root ath, 
which we have in aih-er, a ' pike.' If 
the name of the city is not derived from 
that of the -goddess, the isolated rock of 
the Acropolis suggests that it may be a 
locative, meaning * at the pike' or peak, and 
the worship of Athene, the spear goddess, 
may have been localised at a place which 
bore the same name. Another etymology 
makes Athens equivalent to Florentia, the 
city of flowers, or the blooming city, from 
anthos or atkos. Attica is supposed to 
mean the • promontory,' from actia, a 
corruption of act^^ a projecting peninsula. 
[See k\hos.) 

Athole or AthoU is a corruption of 
Athfotla, Aihfodla, or Athhotla, the * ford 
of Fodla.' According to the Pictish 
legend, Fodla was one of the seven sons 
of Cruiihne, the Eponymus of the Cruith- 
nigh, Cruithnich, or Cruithni, the painted 
or tattooed men (Irish crutk, 'colour,' 
'form'), whose name was translated as 
PiCTS (picit, or painted men). Fodla, 
which was also one of the poetical names 
of Ireland, must be regarded as the 
Eponymus of a Pictish, and probably non- 
Arya» trib^^ 



Athlone is a town on the Shannon, 
which at one time was here fordable. 
The old name Aihmore, ' the great ford,* 
was changed to Ath-Luain-mic-Luigh- 
dheach, ' the ford of Luan, son of Lewy, ' a 
name which has become Athlone, ' the 
ford of Luan.' 

Athos, a mountain in Roumelia, 6778 feet 
high, at the end of a long peninsula, rises 
like a watchtower over the ^Egean, with 
numerous monasteries perched on almost 
inaccessible crags. The name, like that 
of Athens, is referred to the root atk, a 
spike or peak. 

Atlantic, as the name of an ocean, is 
first mentioned by Herodotus, who tells 
us that ttie sea beyond the pillars of 
Heracles is called the Atlantis ; or, as his 
wbrds might be rendered, the sea of 
Atlas. According to Strabo's account, 
Atlas must have formerly been the name 
of a conspicuous range, 7200 feet high, 
which is seen behind Tangier on the 
left of a person sailing out of the straits, 
and not of the lofty chain which now 
bears the name, and is locally called 
Jebel, the ' mountain,* orJebelThalj, the 
' snow mountain.' The name of the 
Atlantic has been derived from a Phoeni- 
cian word afel, signifying the * darkness' 
of the west, but it is more probably the 
sea beyond Mount Atlas, a name which 
has been plausibly explained from the 
Berber word adrar, a ' mountain,* which 
we have in the name of one of the loftiest 
peaks in the chain of the great Atlas, 
which is called Adrar-n-Iri, ' the mountain 
of Iri. ' Herodotus, or some of his copyists, 
seems to have tiu-ned the name of the 
Atarantes, the 'mountaineers,' a Libyan 
peop'e, into Atlantes, a corruption which 
helps to explain his name of the ' sea 
called Atlantis.* The significance of the 
Greek myih of Atlas bearing the heavens 
on his shoulders is seen by any one ap- 
proaching Gibraltar at a time when a low 
canopy of cloud, resting on the mountain 
which Strabo called the Atlas, extends 
across the Straits without touching the 
lower hills on the European side. 

Auburn, a communistic settlement in the 
state of New York, and Mount Auburn, 
the beautiful cemetery at Bosion, Massa- 
chusetts, are names doubtless taken from 
Goldsmith's ' Sweet Auburn, loveliest 
village of the plain.* The name of the 
' deserted village ' in the poem may have 
been suggested by the deserted village of 
Auburn near Bridlington, on the York- 
shire coast, whose desertion was caused, 
not by the encroach|]a6nts of a grasping 



GLOSSARY 



55 



landlord, but by the encroachments of the 
sea, which has washed away the church 
and all the houses, except a single farm 
" which stands on the very edge of the cliff. 
Auburn is called in Domesday Eleburn^ 
the * eel-bum.* 

j^UOh., the capital of the Gers, is a corrup- 
tion of Auscia (Augusta Auscorum), the 
chief town of the Ausci, an Aquitanian 
tribe. 

Auohterarder, Auohtermuohty, 

Auohter^aveil and similar names 
are confined to the Pictish part of Scot- 
land ; the prefix Auckter being unknown 
in Wales, or in the Cymric parts of Scot- 
land. It apparently means an upland 
field ; achdar meajiing 'upper' in Gaelic. 
From achadh, a 'field,' we have numer- 
ous names, as Auchinleck [achadh-na- 
leac\ in Ayrshire, the ' field of the flag- 
stones,' Affleck, Aberdeenshire, is a 
contracted form of the same name. 

A.UOklaild, in the county of Durham, 
gave a title to William Eden, first Lord 
Auckland. The Auckland Islands, 
south of New Zealand, were discovered by 
Bristow in 1806, and named by him after 
the first Lord Auckland, who had l)een a 
friend of his father. The province of 
Auckland in New Zealand takes its 
name from the city of Auckland, in Eden 
county, which was founded in 1840, and 
named after George Eden, second Lord 
Auckland, who had been at the head of 
the Admiralty, and was at that time 
Governor - General of India. Auckland 
appears in the Boldon Book as Alcland, 
Alclet, Aclet, and Auckland, forms diffi- 
cult to explain, but which may signify 

• either Elk-land or Oak-land. 

Aughrim, or Agrbrim, in Galway. 
where James il' was defeated in 1691, is 
a corruption of Each-druim, the ' horse 
ridge.* Twenty places in Ireland bear 
this name. 

Aurora Island, one of the New Heb- 
rides, was named He Aurore by Bougain- 
ville, because it was discovered at day- 
break on May 22nd, 1768. 

Austin, the state capital of Texas, was 
lounded in 1830 on the land of Stephen 
F. Austin of Durham in Connecticut. 

Australia. The old geographers be- 
lieved that a great southern continent 
must exist in order to balance the land 
in the Northern Hemisphere, and they 
named it provisionally Terra Australis 
Incognita, * the undiscovered southern 
land.' Between 1605 and 1642 Dutch 
sailors h^fl .4is90vqred a great part of 



the western coast oi Australia, which 
they called New Holland; but when 
in 1768 Cook sailed on his first voyage of 
discovery, the eastern coast, which he 
named New South Wales, was still un- 
known, Tasmania, New Guinea, and the 
western coast of Australia, which were 
supposed to b3 portions of the same 
land, all going by the name of New 
Holland. The name Australia was first 
suggested by Flinders in a modest foot- 
note of his Voyage to Terra Australis ^ 
published in 18 14, where he says : ' Had 
I permitted myself any innovation upon 
the original term it would have been to 
convert it into Australia, as being more 
agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation 
to the name of the other great portions 
of the earth.' Australia, ' the southern 
land,' is a name which is now adopted 
because formed on the analogy of the 
names of the other continents. The 
largest of the New Hebrides, discovered 
by Quiros and Torres, was supposed to 
be a portion of the Terra Australis In- 
cognita, and hence received the name of 
Tierra Austral del Espiritu Santo, and still 
appears on our maps as Espiritu Santo. 

Austria, the ' eastern realm,' is a geo- 
graphical term which has been variously 
applied. In the seventh century, Aus- 
trasia or Austria denoted the land of the 
Eastern Franks, which extended from 
Frankfort to Aix-la-Chapelle, the west 
Frankish land being distinguished as 
Neustria. About 843 we find another 
Austria and Neustria in Italy, the terms 
denoting the eastern and western lands of 
the Lombards. Finally the name migrated 
to the duchy which formed the kernel of 
the present Austrian empire. Charlemagne 
at the close of the tenth century erecting 
it into a margravate to protect the eastern 
march of the Empire against the attacks 
of the Magyars. We now find in Latin 
documents the name Orientale regnum, 
a translation of the O.H.G. Ostar-rike, 
'the eastern realm,* where ostar is an 
amplified form of ost, from aust, ' east.' 
In modern German, Ostar-rike has become 
Oest-reich, which in French is softened 
into Autriche, while in England we use 
the Latin form Austria, as we do in the 
case of Elavaria, Bohemia, Galicia, or 
Moravia. The present Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy consists of numerous crown 
lands, mostly matrimonial accretions 
which have been annexed to the original 
margravate, now an archduchy. Austro- 
Hungary consists of (ist) the Archduchy 
of Austria, with the Bishopric of Salz- 
burg, the Duchy of St^ia, the cpunty of 



56 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Tyrol, and the kingdoms of Illyria and 
Dalmatia, to which has been added the 
kingdom of Bohemia, which includes 
Galicia and Lodomeria. (2nd) The king- 
dom of Hungary, which includes the 
kingdoms of Slavonia and Croatia, and 
the principahty of Transylvania. Austria 
Sound, a strait which divides Franz 
Joseph Land, was discovered and named 
in 1873 by Lieut. Payer of the Austrian 
Arctic Expedition. 

Autun, in France, is a corruption of 
the Celto- Roman name Augustodunum, 
the hill-fort of Augustus, given by 
the Romans to the Celtic Bibracte. or 

* beaver town.' Augustodunum became 
successively Agustodunum, Austun, and 
Autun. The name of Augustus was also 
given to Augustoritum, 'the ford of 
Augustus,' now Limoges; Augustobona, 
•the town of Augustus,' now Troyes ; 
Augustobriga, the • fortress of Augustus,' 
and Augustodurum the 'strong place of 
Augustus,' now Bayeux. Augsburg, in 
Bavaria, a corruption of Augustburg, was 
the Roman Augusta Vindelicorum, which 
was made a colony by the Emperor Au- 
gustus 13 B.C. AuGST, in Canton Basel, 
represents the Roman colony of Augusta 
Rauracorum, founded by Munatius Plan- 
cus in the reign of Augustus, and named 
in his honoiu*. AusT Passage, on the 
Severn, is conjectiured to have been a 
Roman ferry called Trajectus Augusta. 
Agosta, in Sicily, a corruption of Au- 
gusta, was so named from the Imperial 
title of the Emperor Frederic II., by whom 
the town was refounded in 1229. Au- 
gusta, the State capital of Georgia, was 
founded by English colonists in 1735, ^^^ 
named after the capital of England, 
which was called Augusta by the Romans, 
and doubtless not without reference to 
the Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, who 
was then about to become the bride of 
Frederick, Prince of Wales. 

Auvergrne, a corruption of Arvernia, a 
mountainous district in Central France, 
preserves the name of its former inhabi- 
tants the Arverni, a Celtic name of un- 
certain meaning but usually supposed to 
signify the ' highlanders.' 

Ava, or A'Wa, formerly the capital of 
Burma, is the Malay form of the Burmese 
name Eng-wa or Ang-wa, which means 
the Make mouth,' the city having been 
built at the entrance into the Ira wad i 
of a lagoon. (Burmese eng, a *tank' or 

* pool,' and wa, 'entrance'.) 
Avallon, in the department of the Yonne, 

is the Celtic Aballo, an * orchard.* 



Avi^rnon, the Roman Avennio, is from 
the Gentile name Avennius. 

Avoid Bay and Point Avoid, South 

Australia, were so called by Flinders in 
1802, because of dangerous rocks. 

Avranclies, in the Department of La 
Manche, is called on Merovingian coins 
Abrenctas, which is a corruption of Abrin- 
catuiSf the dative case of the tribal name 
Abrincatui, which means, according to 
Holder, the 'leaders.' (Cf. the Cornish 
hebrenciat, 'dux'.) 

Aylesbury, Bucks, is called in the 
Chronicle ^glesburg, A^gelesburg, and 
^glesbyrig, probably from a proper 
name which we have also in Aylesford 
and Aylesthorpe, Kent (A.S. yEgles- 
ford and ^glesthr^), and in Aylks- 
WORTH, Northants (A.S. ^gleswurth). 
Aylesthorpe is one of the few thorpes 
which are found beyond the boundaries 
of the Danelagh. It is probably a Jutish 
name. The foregoing names are referred 
by Dr. Guest to the British eglws, a 
' church,' but this is improbable. 

Ayrshire, a Scotch county, comprises 
the older districts of Carrick, Kyle, and 
Cunninghame. It takes its name from 
Ayr (formerly spelt Are and Air) the 
county town, which stands at the mouth 
of the River Ayr. As there is a Point of 
Ayr in Cheshire, and another in the Isle 
of Man, which are both indubitably Scandi- 
navian names from the O. N. e}'rr, a beach 
or spit of shingle, the Scotch town may 
be from the same source, whence we 
have Ireland in Shetland and Irland in 
Orkney, both of which mean * beach 
island.'- It is however possible that the 
town may take its name from the river, 
possibly a Celtic name meaning slow or 
gentle. 

Azerbaijan, the name of a province in 
Persia, testifies to the ancient cult of 
the fire-worshippers, {azer, *fire,' and 
baijaut 'keeper'.) 

Azores is the English spelling of thj 
Portuguese name Os A fores, so called 
from 'the hawks' (Falco milvus) b> 
which they were frequented (Portuguese 
afor a 'hawk,' plural <zf^r^^) at the time of 
the discovery. Gon9alo Velho discovered 
Santa Maria on August 15th, 1432 and 
S. Miguel on May 8th, naming them 
from the calendar saints. Terceira, as 
the name implies, was ' the third ' island 
to be discovered. It was originally named 
11 ha de Jesu Christo, from the day of 
discovery, 21st March 145a Graciosa, 
San Jorge, and Fayal were found between 



GLOSSARY 



57 



1450 and 1453. ^^^ ^ico ^^^^ years later. 
Fayal, 'beech-tree* island, was at first 
called /lAa dos Framengos. 

Azov, Sea of, the modem name of the 
Palus Maeotis, is from the town of Azov 
or Asof, a modern Tatar or Mongolian 
name, probably meaning the ' moist or 
wet place,' given in the thirteenth or four- 
teenth century to the city of Tana, at the 
mouth of the Tanais, now the Don. 

Aztecs is an English plural form, sub- 
stituted for the Aztec plural substantive 
Azteca, Ac • jrding to the Aztec legend 
the name was derived from Aztlan, a 
northern region from which they migrated. 
Morgan explains Aztlan as the ' place of 
cranes, ' Father Duran as the ' place of 
whiteness,' Dr. Brinton as the ' place by 
the salt water. * A group of ancient earth- 
works in Wisconsin has been fancifully 
named Aztlan or Aztalan, on the 
theory that the Aztecs were the primitive 
mound builders. 

AZUO&X, Pan de, ' the sugar-loaf,' is the 
Spanish name of various conical hills in 
South America and elsewhere. 

Babel Islands, in Bass Strait, were so 
named by Flinders in 1798, on account of 
the discordant screams of the immense 
flocks of sea-fowl which inhabited them. 
Babylon, the modern Hillah, is the 
Greek form of Bab-ilu (Babel), which was 
a Semitic translation of the Accadian 
name Ca-dirairi>a, the ' gate of God.' 

Bab-el-Mandeb, at the entrance of the 
Red Sea, is often called the Strait of 
Bab-el-Mandeb, a mere pleonasm, as the 
Arabic bab means a * gate ' or * strait. ' 
The name is explained as the 'gate of 
sorrow,' or, more literally, the ' gate of 
tears' or ' wailing,' bemg beset with 
several small islands, which make the 
passage dangerous. But Bab-el-Mandeb 
IS probably an assimilated form due to 
folk-etymology, the name also appearing 
as Bab-el-Mandel, which is believed to be 
a corruption of Bab-el-Menheli, ' the 
small passage,' as distinguished from the 
broader passage to the east, called Bab- 
IsKANDER, 'Alexander's Strait,' from a 
tradition that Alexander's fleet passed 
through it. 

Bacalhaos, Isla de, the island of 

stockfish or dried cod, was the name 
Riven in the early Portuguese maps to 
Newfoundland, off the east coast of which 
is a small island still called Baca.lhao 
Island. 

Baols Land, in Arctic America, was dis- 



covered by Captain George Back in 1831. 
Back Point, Back's Bay, Back's 
Inlet, Back's River, and Cape 
George Back, all in the Arctic regions, 
also bear his name. 

Backhouse Point, near the mouth of 
the Great Fish River, discovered in 1834. 
and Backhouse River, a tributary of 
the Mackenzie River, discovered in 1826, 
were named after John Backhouse, Under 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs. 

Badajos on the Guadiana, a frontier for- 
tress of Spain, stormed by Wellington in 
18 12, is the bathalyosh ot Abuifeda, pro- 
bably a corruption of the Paxanguita {Fax 
Augusta) of Strabo. 

Baden, ' at the baths,' is the dative plura 
of the O.H.G. bad, a ' bath/ The name 
is borne by a watering-place near Vienna, 
by another in the Swiss Canton of Anrgau, 
and by a third in the Breisgau. The last, 
which was the Aurelia Aquensis of the 
Romans, has given a name to the Grand 
Duchy of Baden, of which it was formerly 
the capital ; hence the town itself is now 
distinguished by the name of Baden- 
Baden, i.e. ' Baden town in Baden 
Duchy,' to distinguish it from the other 
towns called Baden. See Wiesbaden ^ 
Carlsbad, and Bath. 

Badenooll, Invemess-shire, is probably 
the Gaelic badenach, a ' busby place.' 

Ba<fiELn Bay was first explored in 1616 by 
William Baffin, one of the most adven- 
turous of England's seamen. Baffin's 
Land and Baffin Island also bear his 
name. In 1609 Baffin sailed with Hall to 
Greenland. In 161 2 he went as Hall's 
pilot in an expedition fitted out by four 
merchant-princes, Sir Thomas Smith, Sir 
James Lancaster, Sir William Cockayne, 
and Mr. Bell.' In 1613, and again in 1614, 
he sailed to Spitzbergen. In 1615 he was 
pilot to Bylot in an attempt to discover 
the North-West Passage. In 1616 he 
went as pilot of the Discovery in an expe- 
dition which discovered the ' London 
Coast* of Greenland, named in honour 
of the London merchants, Sir Thomas 
Smith, Sir Francis Jones. Sir Dudley 
Digges, and Sir John Wolstenholm, by 
whom the expedition was despatched. 
After his patrons a headland was named 
Cape Dudley Digges, and a deep 
bay was called Wolstenholm Sound. 
He was stopped by the ice at the entrance 
of a strait which he called Smith Sound, 
and sighted two openings which he named 
Tones Sound and Lancaster Sound. 
In Whale Sound he saw several whales. 
In 1621 he sailed to the East Indies, and 



58 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



joined in the siege by the East India 
Company of a Portuguese fort near 
Ormuz, in the Persian Gulf. Baffin went 
ashore with his instruments to determine 
the height and distance of the castle wall, 
in order to find the range, ' but, as he was 
about the same, he received a shot from 
the castle inio his belly, wherewith he 
gave three leaps, and died immediately.' 
Baffin, Davis, and Hudson, the most 
intrepid of our early navigators, were all 
cut off in their prime by tragic deaths. 

Bagllddd. was built in 763 a.d. by the 
CaHph Mansur on the wet bank of the 
Tigris, and officially styled Madfnat-as- 
Saldm, the 'city of welfare,' but in prac- 
tice the older name of Baghdad has 
remained in use. It would mean in Per- 
sian the ' garden of justice ' or redress, 
but according to a local tradition, it was 
the 'garden of Dad,' a hermit who was 
believed to have inhabited a cell on the site 
of the city. The name is probably much 
older, and of Iranian origin, meaning, 
according to Spiegel, the 'gift of God' 
[dad, 'gift,' and baga or bagh, 'god'). 
From Baldac, the Italian corruption of 
the name, we have the word baldacchitii, 
for the silk and gold brocades used for the 
canopies of Italian dignitaries, and hence 
the word baldacchino for a canopy. 

Bahamas, or Lucayas, are a group of 

islands extending south-east from Florida 
for 600 miles. One of them, probably 
W'athng L4and, was the first landfall of 
Columbus, who called the group Las 
Prlncesas, probably because they were 
the • first ' islands he discovered. The 
name Lucayas is a corruption of the 
Spanish name Los Cayos, 'the keys,' 
' cays,' or reefs, which was given by early 
Spanish mariners. The meaning of the 
name Bahama is doubtful, but is most 
probably derived from a small group, 
still called Bimani, opposite Cape Florida, 
of which the Spaniards in Haiti heard 
tidings, and from the resemblance of the 
name identified it with a place in Asia 
called Palombe by Mandeville, where he 
asserted there was a miraculous fountain 
of youth, of which he had himself drunk. 
Palombe was an imaginary name, Mande- 
ville having cribbed his account of the 
place and its fountain from a spurious 
letter purporting to have been written by 
Prester John. It was in search of Bimani 
that Juan Ponce de Leon discovered the 
Great Bahama in 1513, and rediscovered 
and named Florida. In Herrera's map 
of 1601 Bahama is ao isjaud placed next 
to Bimani, 



Bahia. till 1763 the capital of Brazil, means 
the • bay ' in Spanish and Portuguese. 
It stands on the Reconcavo, commonly 
called the Gulf of Bahia, an extensive 
inland sea, 100 miles in circumference, 
discovered by Amerigo Vespucci on Nov. 
ist, 1501, All Saints Day, and therefore 
named Bahia de Todos os Santos. The 
name has been attributed to Christovao 
Jaques in 1503, but that is impo'ssible, as 
it appears on the Cantino map, which was 
made in 1502. In 1549, Thom^ de Souza, 
the Portuguese Governor, landed in the 
bay, and founded a city which he called 
Cidade do Salvador, ' the city of the 
Saviour.' The official style became 
Cidade do San Salvador da Bahia de 
Todos OS Santos, ' the city of the Holy 
Saviour in All Saints Bay,' which has 
been abbreviated in common usage into 
Bah-a, ' the bay.' 

Bahr-el-Yusef, or Bahr-Yilsef, ' the 

river of Joseph,' is a gigantic canal which 
takes in from the Nile near Assiout, and 
after watering thousands of acres west of 
the Nile, finally enters the Fayilm. Its 
origin is lost in antiquity, but, as the 
name shows, it is traditionally ascribed to 
Joseph. 

Baikal, a large lake in Eastern Siberia, is 
the Mongol or Yakut bai-kul, the ' abun- 
dant lake,' so called because it abounds 
with the omul^ a species of salmon. 

Baillie*S River, a tributary of the Great 
Fish River, was discovered by Cap'ain 
Back in 1834, and named after George 
Baillie, Agent-General for the Crown 
Colonies ; whose name is also borne by 
Baillie's Islands, near Cape Bathurst, 
discovered by Franklin in 1826. 

Baily Islands, off the coast of Japan, 
were discovered by Ca; tain Beechey in 
1827, and named in honour of Francis 
Baily, President of the Royal Astronomical 
Society. 

Bakewell, Derbyshire, is Badecan-wylle 
in the Saxon Chronicle (in Florence 
Badecan-welU), meaning the * well of 
Badeca.' 

Bakhchisserai, the capital of the Tartar 
Khans of the Crimea, is a Turkic name 
meaning 'palace garden,' or garden of the 
Khan serai, the ' palace of the Khan.' 

Balaclava, a port in the Crimea, is a 
corruption of the Genoese name, belia 
chiava, ' the beautiful quay.' 

Balearic Islands, a Spanish group, 

retain their old Greek name. The in- 
habitants, being skilful slingers, and 
employed as such iij the Carihaginiap 



GLOSSARY 



59 



and Roman armies, were called Baleares, 
the * slingers,' by Greek writers. Possibly 
the name is an assimilated form derived 
from some lost Phcenician name of the 
same class as Baalbec, of which Helio- 
polis, the 'city of the sun,' was a sort of 
Greek translation. 

Balkstn is the range of mountains which 
divides the Balkan Peninsula from the 
Danube valley. The word balkan denotes 
in Turkish a 'wooded height' or high 
ridge. 

Balka.811, the Mongolian name of an in- 
land sea in Central Asia, means the 
'Great Lake.' The Kirghiz call it Ak- 
Dengis, the * while sea,' or simply Dengis, 
' the sea. ' Chinese writers call it Si-Nai, 
the 'western sea.' 

Balkll, a city in Bokhara on the Oxus, 
is, according to VAmb^ry, the Turkic 
dali^ or balikk (Mongolian balvk\ a 'city.' 
It is probably an assimilated form of the 
old name Bactra. the capital of Bactria or 
Bactriana, the Bachtaris of Darius, and 
the Bachdhi of the Zend Avesta. 

Ballaigue, the name of a village near the 
falls of the Doubs, is a corruption of 
Bella aqucB. 

Balleny Islands, an Antarctic group 
on the meridian of New Caledonia, bear 
the name of the captain of an English 
whaler who discovered them in 1839. 

Bally, the Anglicised form of baile^ is the 
commonest element in the names of Irish 
townlands, in 6400 of which it is found. 
It now means a townland, village, or 
town, but its original meaning was simply 
a 'place,' usually a place fenced round. 
(Cf. the Latin vallum, Low-Latin bal- 
livum.) Baltimore (^.t/.) is the 'town 
of the great house.' Balbrigan is the 
' town of Brecan. ' Balr ATH is the ' town 
of the fort.' Followed by the article and 
a masculine noun in the genitive, we have 
Ballin-, as in Ballincurrig from Baile- 
an-churraighy the 'town of the marsh,' 
and when followed by the article and a 
feminine noim in the genitive, we have 
Ballina- as in Ballinahinch, from 
Baile-na-hinch^ the ' town of the island. ' 
Balleen, the ' little town,' is a diminu- 
tive. Baile is also common in the Gaelic 
parts of Scotland, as Ballachulish 
(Gaelic Baile-na-caolish), the 'town on 
the strait'; Ballantrae, the 'town on 
the strand' ; Ballater, the ' town on the 
slope ' ; and Balquhidder, the ' town at 
the back of the country.' In the Isle of 
Man baile becomes balla, as Ballaspigk. 
tjje ' bishop's farm,' from aspick the Manx 



corruption of episcopus. Bally being such 
a common prenx, forms of different origin 
are occasionally assimilated, more especi- 
ally bella, the Anglicised form of bel-atha, 
the • entrance to a ford.' Thus Ballina 
in Tipperary and in Mayo is a corruption 
of Bel-an-atha. Ballyshannon, in 
Donegal, at a ford over the Erne, has 
nothing to do with the Shannon, the old 
name was Bel-atha-Seantgh, the 'eninmce 
of Shannagh's ford.' So in Scotland 
Balloch-, a common prefix, is usually from 
bealach, a ' pass.' 

Balm, a word of Celtic origin meaning a 
precipice, overhanging rock, or cave (old 
FvcncYi balme, a 'cave,' Low-Latin ^a/ww), 
occurs in many names in Switzerland and 
France, such as the Balmenhorn, one of 
the peaks of Monte Rosa ; Baulmes, in 
Canton Vaud ; Beaumb near Besan9on ; 
and the COL de Balme, on the route 
between Martigny and Charaotmix, where 
the rock in one place completely overhangs 
the road. 

Baltic Sea (called in German Ost See or 
' East Sea') is a name which can be traced 
back to Adam of Bremen in the eleventh 
century. Pliny mentions a large island 
called Baltia, probably either Zealand or 
Funen, which are separated from each 
other and from Jutland by two channels 
called respectively the Great Belt and 
the Little Belt, names derived from 
the O. N. belli, a ' girdle ' or ' belt,' a word 
used in Norse poetry to denote the sea, 
as being the girdle which surrounds 
islands or the earth. But it is probable 
that the Baltic took its name, not from 
the Belts but from the island of Baltia, 
a name explained from the Lithuanian 
baltas, 'white,' in reference to the chalk 
cliffs which border the islands. Balta, 
called in the Orkney Saga Balfey, is a 
small island off Unst in the She^lands, 
and gives a name to Balta Sound. 
Balta may be from the O.N. belli, 
assimilated to the Gaelic bait, a ' border ' 
or • belt ' (Latin balleus). 

Baltimore, Maryland, one of the most 
important cities in the United States, was 
laid out in 1729 and named after Lord 
Baltimore, who founded the colony of 
Maryland. Su- Charles Calvert, the first 
Lord Baltimore, obtained in 1620 a grant 
of land in Newfoundland from James i. 
A large territory, north of Virginia, 
was granted in 1632 to his son, George 
Calvert, who died in the same year. His 
son, Cecilius Calvert, the second Lord 
Baltimore, became a Romanist, and 
removed the colony from Newfoundland to 



6o 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



•Maryland. Sir Charles Calvert, who had 
obtained a grant of land in Ireland, took 
his title from a town in county Cork called 
Baltimore, or Balintimore, in Irish baile- 
an-tighe-mhoiry the 'town of the great 
house,' the great house being the casile of 
the O'DriscoU family, the ruins of which 
crown a rock near the town. 

Bamberg, in Franconia, is shown by the 
ninth century form Babinberg to be a 
patronymic from the personal name Bab. 
BOBENHEIM, near Worms, and Baben- 
HAUSEN, near Bielefeld, are from the 
same source. 

Bamburgh, or Bamborough, on the 

coast of Northumberland, stands on a 
mass of basaltic rock frowning over the 
sea. and approachable only by steps cut 
in the precipice. The name appears as 
Bebban-burh and Bebba-burh in the Saxon 
Chronicle. It was the fortress and capital 
of Ida, the Flame-bearer, and is said by 
Baeda to bear the name of a Queen Bebba 
or Bebbe, probably not the Queen of Ida, 
but, as we are told by Nennius, the Queen 
of iEdilfrid, the grandson of Ida, 

Ban, or Man, which means 'village,' 
occurs frequently in the Shan States. 
Ban- Nong, for instance, is the * village 
at the lake.' 

Banat is a Slavonic word meaning ' lord- 
ship,! and is applied to a district ruled by 
a Bm or military governor. Thus the 
Ban of Croatia is the title of the Austrian 
governor of that country. The district 
usually known as the Banat is theTEMES- 
VSTAR Banat, a lordship in Hungary, of 
which the town of Temeswar is the 
capital. 

Banbury, Oxon., was the A.S. Beran- 
burh, the • Bear's Fortress,' beran being 
the genitive singular of bera, a 'bear,' 
which was a common personal name. 

Banda Oriental, officially styled Banda 
Oriental del Uruguay, 'the eastern 
bank of the Uruguay,' is the local name 
of the Republic of the Uruguay, which 
includes so much of the Argentine Con- 
federation as lies east of the Uruguay. 
The inhabitants call themselves los Orien- 
tales, ' the Easterns.* 

Banderas, Rio de, the 'river of flags,' 

on the eastern coast of Mexico, was so 
called because, when discovered by Juan 
de Grijalva in 1518, the natives waved 
white flags at the ends of spears, in token 
of amity. 

Banff, the county town of Banffshire, is 
called in the thirteenth century Bamphe 
and Banffe, According to an Irish legend 



Banba was a queen of the Tuatha de 
Danann, who came from Scotland. Hence 
Mr. Whitley Stokes conjectures that Banff 
(banbh) is a Pictish name cognate with 
Banba, an old name of Ireland. The 
Irish banb (Welsh banw) means a pig. 

Bangor, County Down, is a corrupted form 
of the common Irish name Banagher 
{Beannchar), a derivative of jfftfa«« (Ben), 
a 'hill,' with a cumulative suffix, thus 
meaning a * group of hills.' From the 
word beann^ a gable, horn, peak, or 
pointed hill, we have numerous mountain 
names in Scotland such as Ben Nevis, 
Ben Lomond, or Benledl In Ireland 
the word usually denotes smaller eleva- 
tions, as Banagher, or ihe Twelve Pins 
(Twelve Bens) in Connemara. 

Bangor, in Wales, was the name of a 
great monastery, meaning either the 
• white choir,' or possibly the ' high 
circle.' 

Banias, at the source of the Jordan, is a 
corruption of the Greek name Panias, the 
grotto of Pan. In the New Testament it 
is called CiESAREA Philippi, Philip the 
Tetrarch having built a town near the 
temple erected here by his father, 
Herod the Great, in honour of Augustus 
Caesar. 

Banks Land, one of the largest 
islands in the Polar Archipelago, was dis- 
covered by Parry in 1819, and named 
after Sir Joseph Banks, who had accom- 
panied Captain Cook as naturalist in his 
first voyage, and was afterwards for forty 
years President of the Royal Society, in 
which capacity he took a leading part in 
inducing the Government to undertake 
voyages of exploration. Naturally such 
services were recognised by explorers in 
many parts of the world. Captain Cook 
(1770-78) named after him Cape Banks 
in Australia, Point Banks at the entrance 
of Cook's River, Alaska, and Banks 
Island in New Zealand, afterwards found 
to be a peninsula. Banks Peninsula, 
in Coronation Gulf, was discovered and 
named by Franklin in 1821 ; Banks 
Strait, north of Banks Land, by 
M'Clure in 1851 ; Banks Bay in Lan- 
caster Sound, by John Ross in 1818 ; 
Banks Islands, in the New Hebrides, 
by Bligh in 1784 ; and Banks Group, 
in Spencer Gulf, by Flinders in 1802. 

Ba&OS de Inoa, ' the baths of the Inca,' 
near Caxamarca in Peru, is a place where 
the unfortunate Atahuallpa, the last of 
the Incas, used to pass a portion of the 

year, 



GLOSSARY 



6i 



BSflltry Bay takes its name from Ban try, a 
town in County Cork. The old Irish name 
was Beann-traighe, the tribe or • race of 
Beann,' the son of Connor, king of Ulster. 

Bantu (Ba-ntu or Aba-ntu), a name which, 
like so many tribe-names, means 'the 
men ' or ' the people,' is a general appel- 
lation of the great South African race, of 
which the Zulus and the Caffres are pro- 
minent representatives. The Bantu lan- 
guages are characterised by prefixes. 
Thus U-GANDA is the country of Ganda, 
Mu-ganda is a native of Ganda; Ba- 
ganda or Wa-ganda, the plural of Mu- 
ganda, means Uie people of Ganda ; and 
Ki-ganda is the language of Ganda. The 
syllable Ba-, Aba-, Ama-, Ma-, or Wa-is a 
plural pronominal prefix, meaning ' those 
of.' Thus the Ba-kalahari, • those of 
Kalahari,' are a Bechuana tribe in- 
habiting the Kalahari desert ; the Ba- 
KWIRI are the 'jungle people,' or 'those 
of the jungle,' from kwiri, 'jungle'; the 
Ba-tlapi are the ' fish people ' ; and the 
Ba-katlaarb are the ' ape people.* The 
Ba-tauana, or 'people of the little 
lion,' a Bechuana tribe, were followers of 
Tauene, ' the little lion,' who settled near 
Ngami, south-west of Bechuanaland. The 
Ba-quaina, one of the most powerful of 
the Bechuana tribes, are the children or 
people of the quaina or crocodile. It has 
been thought that Bechuana may be a 
corruption of Ba-quaina, but more pro- 
bably the Be-chuanas, who have given 
their name to Bechuanaland, are 
* those who are alike ' or equal, from the 
Bantu word chuana, ' alike,' ' similar,' or 
'equal.' Their language is called Se- 
chuana, which means ' the same speech,' 
or speech of those who are alike. The 
Wa-jiji are the people of U-jiji, and 
the Wa-nyamwezi of U-nyamwezi, the 
' country of the moon.' We have dia- 
lectic forms of the same prefix in the 

- tribe - names of the Ama - tonga, the 
Ama-Swazi, the Ma-tebele, the Ma-shona, 
the Ma-kua, the Ma-kolokni, the Ba-suto, 
the Ba-tau, the Ba-puli, the Ba-rolong. 
the Ba-meri, the Wa-zinga, the Wa-nyoro, 
the Wa-songora, the Wa-nyankori. vP.292). 

Barbadoes, one of the British West 
Indian islands, is believed to have ob- 
tained its Spanish name of Barbados from 
the barbadoSy or 'bearded' fig-trees, 
whose pendulous branches, terminating 
in bunches of fibres resembling beards, 
descend and root themselves in the earth. 
Barbuda, another West Indian island, 
is believed to mean the island of the 
' bearded ' men. 



Barbary is the ' land of the Berbers.' a 
name believed to be a reduplicated form 
derived from ber^ 'men.' It is doubtful 
whether the name is related to the word 
barbarian, which we have borrowed from 
the Greek, or to Ajer, from which the 
name of Africa has been derived. 

Barcelona, in Spain, anciently Barcino, 
was founded, according to the Roman 
tradition, by Hamilcar Barca, about 237 
B.C. The cognomen Barca, which cor- 
responds to the Hebrew Barak, means 
'the lightning.' 

Bareilly (Bareli), in the North- West Pro- 
vinces, was founded in the sixteenth 
century by Barel Deo. 

Barents Sea, between Spitzbergen and 
Novaya Zemlya, bears the name of 
Willem Barents or Barentz, a Dutch 
mariner who, endeavouring to find a 
north-east passage to China, discovered 
in 1594 the whole western coast of Novaya 
Zemlya, and two years later discovered 
the north-west coast of Spitzbergen. 
After wintering on the north-east coast 
of Novaya Zemlya, the ship was aban- 
doned, the crew escaped in boats, and 
Barents died in the midst of the sea he 
had discovered. Barents Land, the 
eastern wing of Novaya Zemlya, and 
Barents Islands, an outlying group, 
were also discovered by him. 

Bari, a town in the south of Italy, anciently 
Barium, is believed to be a Messapian 
name. The Messapians were lllyrians, 
who had cros.sed the Adriatic, and their 
speech is now represented by the Albanian, 
in which language Bar! may be explained 
as the 'meadow.' The name is repeated 
at Antivari. a place on the lUyrian shore 
of the Adriatic. 

Baring Island, Baring Land, Baring 
Strait, and Baring Bay, in the Arctic 
Archipelago, were named after Sir Francis 
Baring, who, at the time of their dis- 
covery (1850-52), was First Lord of the 
Admiralty. 

Barker, Mount, in South Australia, was 
so named by Captain Sturt after a friend 
who was killed by the natives in Encounter 
Bay {q.v.), 

Barkly West, Cape Colony, formerly 
called Griqualand West, was annexed to 
the Cape Colony by Sir Henry Barkly. 

Bar-le-Duo, Bar-sur-Seine, Bar-svr- 
AUBE, Bar-sur-Corr^ge are ultimately 
from the Celtic bar, an enclosure, whence 
come the Low-Latin barrum, a fortress, 
and the doublets barra or barra, an 



62 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



intrenchment, and ultimately our words 
barrier and barrack. In Gaelic, barr 
means a hill-top, whence some 500 Scotch 
names, such as Barglass, the 'green 
top,' or LOCHINVAR, Make of the hill.' 
In Ireland we have Barmona, the ' top of 
the bog,' and Barravore, the ' great top. ' 

BamiOUtll, a watering-place on the 
Welsh coast, is a curious English corrup- 
tion of the older name Aber-maw, the 

■ town at 'the mouth of the Maw or 
Mawddach.' 

Bamabaa. Cape, in Alaska, was dis- 
covered by Cook in his third voyage on 
June nth, St. Barnabas Day. 

Barnard Castle, on the Tees, in the 

county of Durham, is a town which has 
gathered round a castle built by Barnard 
Baliol, grandfather of John Baliol, com- 
petitor with Bmce for the Scottish crown. 
Barnard Castle was afterwards one of the 
strongholds of the Nevilles of Raby, one 
of whom erected Neville's Cross, in 
commemoration of the battle of 1346 in 
which the Scots were defeated and King 
David was taken prisoner. In like man- 
ner Malcolm's Cross, near Alnwick, 
marks the spot where Malcolm, King 
of Scots, was slain in ambush. 

Bamevelt*s Islands, off Cape Hoorn, 

were discovered in 1616 by Le Maire, and 
named after the Dutch statesman Jan van 
Barnevelt, Grand Pensionary of Holland, 
who was beheaded in 1619. 

Barnstaple, in Devon, is locally called 
Barum, which may be either the A.S. 
bearwum, dative-plural of beam, a ' swine 
pasture,' or barum, dative-plural of beer, 
'bare, open,' as in the phrase on barum 
sondum, 'on bare, sands.' The word 
staple in Barnstaple signifies a market. 

Barra, the name of one of the Hebrides, 
is supposed to be derived from the Scandi- 
navian bara-ey, the ' isle of the wave ' or 
the 'isle of the ocean,' a name which, 
from its exposed situation, would be 
appropriate. But as the parish was for- 
merly called Kilbarr, it has been con- 
jectured that it may have been the Isle of 
St. Bar, or St. Finbar, a friend of St. 
Columha, to whom the cathedral of the 
diocese of Caithness was dedicated, and 
to whom the name of Dunbar has also 
been referred. 

Barrackpore is commonly known to the 
sepoys as Achanock or Chinak, and the 
local tradition affirms, probably with 
truth, that Job Charnock or Channock, 
the founder of Calcutta, built a bungalow 
here in 1689, round which a bazaar arose, 



before the site of Calcutta had been 
determined on. Troops were stationed 
here in 1772, and the place received its 
name from the barracks. According to 
Schlagintweit, the name means the 'city 
of victory.' 

Barrier Reef was the name given by 
Cook in 1770 to the belt of coral reefs and 
islands extending for many miles along 
the coast of Queensland. The Barrier 
Islands, also named by Cook, protect 
the entrance to the Mauraki Gulf in New 
Zealand. 

BarrO'W Strait, the continuation of 
Lancaster Soimd, was discovered by Parry 
in 1819-20, and named after Sir John 
Barrow, who in his office of Secretary 
to the Admiralty was ' the great promoter 
of Arctic research.' His name is' also 
borne by Cape Barrow in Victoria Land, 
discovered by James Ross in 1841 ; 
by Cape Barrow, in Grinnell Land, dis- 
covered by Kane in 1853 ; by Cape 
Barrow in Coronation Gulf, discovered 
by Franklin in 1821 ; by Cape Barrow 
in the Gulf of Carpentaria, discovered 
by Flinders in 1803; by Mount Barrow 
near the mouth of the Great Fish River, 
discovered by Back in 1834; by Mount 
Barrow, between the Coppermine and 
the Mackenzie, discovered by Richardson 
in 1826; by Barrow Bay in the Pairy 
Islands, discovered by Belcher in 1852 ; 
by Barrow Bav in Corea, discovered 
by Basil Hall in i8i6; by Barrow 
Island, discovered by Beechey in 1826 ; 
by Barrow's Island off the north-west 
coast of Australia, discovered by King in 
i8i8; and by Barrow Riveji, which 
enters the Fox Channel, discovered by 
Parry in 1822. 

BaiTUle is the name of two conspicuous 
mountains in the Isle of Man. called 
respectively North and South Barrule. 
The Norse name Vord-fjall, ' Beacon 
fell ' became Varfl, then Varrul, and 
finally Barrule under the influence of a 
popular etymology which explained the 
name as meaning in Manx the ' top of an 
apple.' 

BaJrter Island, near the mouth of the 
Mackenzie River, was so called because 
the Eskimos bartered certain objects with 
Franklin's men in 1826. 

Barton, the name of some forty-:five 
places, mostly insignificant, 1$ not to be 
confounded with Burton. . It is the AS. 
bere-tiin, literally a ' barley-yard,' a word 
used for a grange or outlying inclosed 
threshing-floor, often iYiQprfedium domini' 
cum or demesne farm of the lord, which 



GLOSSARY 



63 



Still survives in the dialect word barton, 
denoting the outlying yards or buildings 
of a manor. Of nearly the same significa- 
tion is the A.S. bere-wic, literally a ' barley 
village,' to which we may assign most of 
the nine places named Berwick and the 
four named Barwick, usually called 
Bertvuic in Domesday. Berwick-ON- 
TwEED being in A.S. Beor-wU, must 
signify the * village on a hill.' From here, 
•bsirley,' we have the A.S. bere-cem , . ber- 
em, beren, beam or bern, a ' barn,' geni- 
tive bemes, literally the ' place for the crop,' 
whence probably Barnes in Surrey, and 
Barnack in Northants, A.S. Beniake, 
•at the Barn oak,' and Barnwell, 
Northants, A.S. Bernewelle, 'at the barn 
well.' In Domesday Barnbrough, Yorks, 
is called Bemeburg, and Barnsley, 
Yorks, is Bemeslai, apparently from per- 
sonal names. 

Basel (in French BAle, formerly Basle) 
is a city on the Rhine which gives its 
name to one of the Swiss cantons. It is 
usually affirmed that the name was derived 
from a basilica, a conjecture not supported 
by the oldest forms, Basilia, used by Ara- 
mianus Marcellinus (a.d. 374), Bazela 
by the Ravenna geographer, and Civitas 
Basiliensium in the Notitia. More pro- 
bably, as Zeuss suggests, the town may 
have been founded by Basilus, who served 
in Gaul under Julius Caesar. 

Bashee Islands, a group in the North 

Pacific, were so named by Dampier in 
1687 from a beverage called bashee by the 
natives, which they obtained from the 
juice of the sugar-cane. 

SaiSilicata>, an Italian province, was the 
basilicate or domain ruled by a basilica of 
the Byzantine Emperor, as the province 
of the C API TAN ATA was by a capitano, 
and the Exarchate of Ravenna by an 
Exarch. 

Bass Strait, which divides Tasmania 
from Australia, liears the name of George 
Bass, assistant-surgeon of the Reliance, 
in which ship he sailed with Flinders in 
1798-99 round Tasmania, already dis- 
covered by Tasman, thus proving that it 
was an island. In an open whale-boat, 
with a crew of six men, Bass explored 600 
miles of imknown sea-coast, and pene- 
trated into Bass Strait. Lieutenant 
Matthew Flinders, who commanded the 
expedition, generously refrained from 
giving his own name to this important 
strait, on the ground that Bass had been 
the first to enter it in the whale-boat. At 
Sydney Flinders and Bass had previously 
equipped the Tom Thumb, a boat 8 feet 



long, and with a boy as crew, had sailed 
from Port Jackson to explore the coast, 
discovering George's River, which falls 
into Botany Bay. Bass Point, in New 
South Wales, was also discovered by 
George Bass ; and Bass River, in Vic- 
toria, was named after him by its dis- 
coverer. Captain Stokes. 

Bassorah, Bussorah, or Basra, a 

frontier town of Turkey, near the head of 
the Persian Gulf, founded by Omar in 
636 A.D., may be equivalent to the Bibli- 
cal Bozra, the * fortress,* or an Arabic 
name meaning the ' margin ' or ' frontier.' 

Batak in Bulgaria bears a Turkish name 
meaning ' the marsh. ' 

Batavia, the Dutch capital of Java, 
occupying the site of Jakatra, the old 
Javanese capital, was founded in 1619 by 
the Dutch General, John Petersen Coen, 
and named from the Batavi, a tribe 
mentioned by Tacitus as living on the 
Lower Rhine. Zeuss explains the name 
from the Teutonic stem bat, 'good,' which 
yields our comparative and superlative 
better and best. Thus bat-au would be 
the 'good land.' Passau, anciently 
Patavium, at the confluence of the Inn 
and the Danube was the station of the 
ninth Batavian Cohort, whence the name. 

Bath., a city in Somerset, is renowned for 
its hot springs, which the Romans called 
AqucB Solis, 'the waters of the sun.' 
In a charter of 676 it is mentioned as a 
place qucB vacatur Hat-Bathu, ' the hot 
baths." In other charters we have cet 
Bathum, 'at the baths,' and cet Hdtum 
Bathum, 'at the hot baths,' where Bathu 
is the nom. pi. and Bathum the dat. 
pi., as in the German Baden. Caer 
Badon is an impossible Welsh name in- 
vented by antiquaries out of the A S. 
Bathum for the prehistoric earthwork on 
the hill above the city. In the last century 
the article was retained, the town being 
called The Bath, and not Bath as now. 

Bathurst Island, one of the larger 
islands of the Arctic Archipelago, was dis- 
covered by Parry in 1819, and named 
after Henry Bathurst, third Earl Bathurst, 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
from 1812 to 1827, whose territorial name 
was probably derived from Bathurst, a 
wood in Sussex. His long tenure of office 
caused his name to be given to Bathurst 
Bay, discovered in 1818 by John Ross ; 
Cape Bathurst, discovered in 1826 by 
Dr. Richardson ; and Bathurst Inlet, 
discovered in 1821 by Franklin, all in 
Arctic America ; as well as to Bathurst 



i 



64 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Island, Tasmania, discovered in 1838 
by Stokes ; Bathurst Island, off the 
north coast of Au>tralia, discovered in 
1818 by King; Bathurst, New South 
Wales, so named in 1815; Bathurst, 
in Western Africa, at the mouth of the 
Gambia ; and Bathurst, in Bathurst 
Bay, New Brunswick. 

Bd.ton Rouge, a town on the Lower 
Mississippi, in Louisiana, is usually said to 
have taken its name from a pole, painted 
red, on the shore of the Mississippi, mark- 
ing the boundary between two native 
tribes, but according to the local tradi- 
tion it was from a large red cypress stem, 
free from branches, and resembling a 
giant's staff, which marked the frontier 
between the French settlers and the terri- 
tory of the red men. 

Battersea, in Surrey, belonged to St. 
Peter's Abbey, Westminster, and is usually 
supposed to be ' St. Peter's ey,' or * island. ' 
But in a spurious or doctored deed of 
gift by which in 693 A.D. it purported 
to be conveyed to St. Peter's by Agelric, 
Bishop of Dorchester, it already bears the 
name of Batrices-ig, where the A.S. 
name Beadoric is confused with Patrick, 
whence the Domesday name Patricesey, 
• Patrick's island.' We may compare the 
name of Petersham, near Richmond in 
Surrey, called Piteriches-ham in an early 
charter, which is from the A.S. name 
Peohtric, and of Bury St. Edmunds, 
formerly Beadriches-worth or Beaderices- 
wtorth, ' Beadoric's estate.' 

Battle, a town in Sussex, takes its name 
from Battel Abbey, erected by William 
the Conqueror on the hill where the so- 
called Battle of Hastings was fought, the 
high altar marking the position of Harold's 
standard. Battlefield, a parish in 
Salop, is the place where the Battle of 
Shrewsbury was fought in 1403. 

Batum, a Russian port on the Black Sea, 
was the Greek Bat Ays Limen, the ' deep 
harbour.' 

Bautzen, in Saxony, is a corruption of 
Budissin, a Slavonic name probably de- 
rived from the proper name Budise. 

Bavaria is the Latinised name we use for 
the kingdom called Bayern or Baiern in 
German. About 500 A.D. the Marco- 
manni, a Teutonic frontier tribe, migrated 
hither from Bohemia, the Baias of the 
Ravenna geographer, who calls its in- 
habitants Baiitvarii, They must have 
called themselves Baiawaras or Baiwaras, 
from the name of their former home. We 
n^\\. hear of them as Bawarii or Bavarii, 



and of their land as Baiuvaria or Bavaria, 
which means the land of the men of 
Bohemia (q.v. ). 

Bayeux, in Normandy (Calvados), is 
believed to represent Augustoduron, the 
' fortress of Augustus,' the chief town of 
the Bodiocasses of Pliny, who are identi- 
fied with the Baiocasses of the Notitia. 
The name Baiocassis for the town is used 
by Ausonius ; later forms are Baioca«, 
Bkiex, and Baieux. The territory of the 
tribe is represented by the old diocese of 
Bessin (Saxones Baiocassini). The tribe- 
name is supposed to mean either ' great 
conquerors or the ' fair-haired.' 

Bayonne, at the mouth of the Adour, 
is .a Basque name meaning the 'good 
haven,' from the Basque ona, 'good,' and 
the loan word baiUf a, ' haven.' 

Bazas, a city in the Gironde, was the 
Ctvitas yasatasoi\.hQ Antonine Itinerary. 
The territory of the Vasates of Ptolemy 
corresponds to the modern diocese of 
Bazas. 

Beasrle Island and Beasrle Channel 

were discovered by Admiral Fitzroy in the 
Beagle, during his survey of Patagonia, 
1828-34. Beagle Bay, Beagle Valley, 
Beagle Bank, and Beagle's Reep 
were discovered by Captain Stokes while 
surveying the Australian coast in the 
Beagle, 1838-39. 

Bear Island, in Bathurst Inlet, was so 
named by Franklin in 18^1, because when 
the provisions were nearly exhausted a 
bear was here found and killed. Great 
Bear Lake is a misleading translation of 
Lac du Grand Ours, the name given by 
the French trappers to one of the largest 
lakes in the Hudson Bay territories. 

Beam, one of the old French provinces, 
takes its name from a Roman town called 
Beneharnum in the Antonine Itinerary, 
which is supposed to be derived from the 
tribe-name of the Benarni. 

Beaufort, the ' fine fort,' in Anjou, came 
in 1276 into the possession of John of 
Gaunt, from whom the name and title 
of Beaufort passed to his descendants. 
Beaufort and Somerset in the Cape 
Colony, were named at the time when 
Lord C. Somerset, son of the Duke of 
Beaufort, was Governor of the Cape. 
Beaufort Island, Beaufort Bay, 
Point Beaufort, and Mount Beau- 
fort, in the Arctic Archipelago, were 
named after Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, 
Hydrographer to the Admiralty. 

Beauly Firth in Scotland, takes its 
name from a priory founded in the 



GLOSSARY 



«S 



tliirtecntli century, and well called by the 
French monks beau lieu, the 'beautiful 
place/ which in Latin documents becomes 
prioratus de bello loco. 

Beauvais (Oise) is a corruption of the 
tribe-name of the Bellovaci, the dative 
plural Bellovacis becoming Biauvais and 
then Beauvais. 

Bedfordshire takes its name from the 
county town of Bedford, in A.S. docu- 
ments successively called Bedicanford, 
Bedcanfordy Beadcanford, Bedanford, 
and Bedeford, Bedican is the genitive of 
the A.S. personal name Bedica. 

Bedouin is the French form of the Arabic 
bedewiyyin, the accusative of bedewtyuHf 
which is the plural of badiah or bedew, 
which means ' one inhabiting a desert.' 
Bedouins is a meaningless double pluraL 
Bedewin, the proper English form, is 
nearer to the Arabic than the objectionable 
French term Bedouin. 

Bedretto, Val, in Canton Tessino, is a 
corruption of Betuleto, from betuletum, * a 
birch wood.' 

Beeohey Island, in the Arctic Archi- 
pelago, was so named by Parry in 1819 
after the lieutenant of his ship the Hecla, 
afterwards known as Sir William Beechey, 
in whose honour Cape Beechey, Point 
Beechet, and Lake Beechey were 
subsequently named by Kane, Back, and 
Franklin. 

Befaar (Babdr), a province in Bengal, 
takes its name from the old city of BihXr, 
so called from having been the site of a 
vihdra or Buddhist monastery, probably 
one of tiiose founded in this district by 
Asoka, who became a convert to Buddhism 
about S57 B.c 

Behringr Strait, niore correctly Bering 
Strait, which divides Asia from America, 
was so named by Cook in honour of Vitus 
Bering or Behring, a Dane in the Russian 
service, who in 1728 was the first to 
traverse the strait which has received his 
name. Although Bering coasted through 
the strait on the Asiatic side, be did not 
sight the American shore, or even suspect 
its existence, though it was not more Uian 
36 miles distant. Bering's Bay in Alaska 
was so named by Cook in 1778. Bering's 
Sea lies between the Aleutian Islands and 
Bering Strait. Bering's Island, the 
most westerly of the Aleutian chain, is 
a desolate rock on which Bering was 
wrecked, and on which he died in 1741, 
at the age of 60, of scurvy and ague. He 
spelt his name Bering, but Behring, an 
incorrect German form, is frequently 
employed. 



BeirSi a Portuguese station at the mouth 
of the Pungeve River in south-east Africa, 
is a descriptive name, meaning a ' spit of 
sand' in Portuguese. 

Beja, a town in Portugal, is believed to 
be the Pacca Julia of the Ravenna Gep- 
grapher, and Ptolemy's Pax Julia. 

Beloher Channel, leading out of 

Jones' Sound, was discovered by Captain 
Ed^'ard Belcher in 1852-^3. Belcher 
Island, one of the Gambier Group, and 
Point Belcher, in the Arctic Ocean. 
also bear his name. 

Belem, more correctly NossA Senora db 
Belem, is a dty at the mouth of the 
River Para in Brazil, foimded in 1616 
by Francisco Caldeira. Belem is the 
Portuguese corruption of Bethlehem, the 
Brazilian name being derived from a con- 
vent near Lisbon, dedicated to St. Mary 
of Bethlehem. Belem is the name of the 
suburb of Lisbon which surrounds this 
convent. The convent of St. Mary of 
Bethlehem in London having been appro- 
priated for the reception of lunatics, has 
given us the word bedlam, the English 
analogue of the Portuguese belem, Beit 
Lahm in Palestine preserves the old name 
of Beth-lehem, the ' place of bread,' from 
the Semitic beth, 'house' or 'place,' 
whence numerous names, such as Bethel. 
now Beitin, which means the 'place of 
God ' ; Bethany, the ' place of dates,' now 
El-'Azariyeh, a corruption of Lazarieh, 
so called because it was the residence of 
Lazarus ; Bethshan, now Beisan, the 
• house of rest ' ; Beth-horon, the ' place 
of caves ' ; and Bethsaida, the ' place of 
fish.' 

Belfast, in Ulster, is a corruption of the 
Irish Bel-feirsde, the ' ford of the sand- 
bank.' 

Bel^um, the name applied by Julius 
Caesar to a portion of the territorjr of the 
Belgae, a Celtic people, was revived to 
designate the kingdom separated from 
Holland in 1831. The meaning of the 
name of the Belgae is disputed. It is not 
connected, as has been supposed, with 
that of the Irish Fir-bolg, but may mean 
the • fighters,* or more probably it was a 
nickname descriptive of corpulence, from 
*bhelgo, ' the swollen' (root belg, ' to swell ' ), 
connected with the Old Irish bole, a pouch 
or bag, and the English verb to bulge. 

Belgrrade, the capital of Servia, is the 
' white fortress.' 

Belize, the capital of British Hondtiras, is 
a name usually explained from the 
French balise, a 'beacon,' but as the 
town is built on a stream called, in the 



£ 



66 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Treaty of 1783, the River Wallis or 
Belize, it is more probably a corruption 
of the name of a Scotch adventurer, 
Wallace or Wallis, who, in 1610, en- 
deavoured to establish himself in Hon- 
duras. The older Spanish name of the 
town, Valize or Balize, would be the 
Spanish way of writing Wallis. 

Belle Isle, the ' fair isle,' is a small 
island discovered and named in 1525 by 
Jacques Cartier, who proved Newfound- 
land to be an island oy sailing through 
the narrow Strait of Belle Isle, dividing 
Newfoundland from Labrador, which 
took its name from the island. Two 
other islands, one near St. John's, New- 
foundland, and one in Brittany, are also 
called Belle Isle. Belvoir Castle, as 
he name implies, commands a beautiful 
view. The French name is due, as in 
other cases, to a religious house founded, 
soon after the Conquest, by a Norman 
knight. IsoLA Bella, the Italian equi- 
valent of the French Belle Isle, is the 
name of an arid rock in the Lago Mag- 
giore, which was transformed into a 
beautiful garden in 1670. A larger island 
is called IsoLA Madre, the 'mother 
island * of the group. 

Bellowan, in Cornwall, exhibits the 
Cornish prefix de/-^ which has been 
adduced as a proof of Phoenician occu- 
pancy, being supposed to refer to Baal. 
It is, however, merely the Cornish del, ' a 
mine.' Cornwall is called BeUrion by 
Posidonius, probably in reference to its 
tin mines. 

Belton, in Lincolnshire, Rutland, and 
Suffolk, and Bilton in Yorkshire, are prob- 
ably from the O.N. byli, an 'abode,' 
which becomes bdl or bel, a 'farmhouse,' 
in Danish. Thus Nebel in Denmark was 
formerly Nybol, the ' new farmhouse.' 

Baluchistan is a Persian term signifying 
the place or land of the Beluchs. 

Belur-Tagh, or Balar-Tagh, a lofty 

range in Tiu'kistan, is a name meaning the 
• white mountain,' from the Uigur bollur 
or bellur, 'crystal,' and hence 'white.' 
(Arabic billar^ ' cut glass,' see p. 316). 
Bendres, locally called Bandras, is a cor- 
ruption of the Sanskrit name VArdnasi. 
T'he popular etymology explains the name 
from the two rivers the Varana (now the 
Barna) and the Asi. It has also been 
conjectured that the name means ' having 
the best water,' the sacred water from 
Bendres being sent in bottles to all parts 
of India. 

Bencoolen or Benkulen, a town and 
province on the west coast of Sumatra, 



which bdonged to England from 1685 to 
1826, when it was ceded to Holland in 
exchange for Malacca. The name is a 
corruption of the Malay Bang-Kulon or 
BangkaUlu, ' the west coast.' 

Bendameer is a popular name for the 
River Kur, anciently the Araxes. Pro- 
perly speaking it is the name not of the 
river but of a dam across it, which was 
constructed in 965 a.d. by a Persian 
prince, and hence called Band-i-Amir, 
the ' Prince's Dam. ' The Persian word 
band (Sanskrit bandA), often spelt bund^ 
is used to signify any artificial dam, dyke, 
or causeway. 

Bender, a town in Bessarabia, is a Perso- 
Turkic name primarily meaning a ' har- 
bour,' and hence a ' market' Bbnder- 
Erekli, on the Black Sea, represents the 
port of the Greek city of Heraclea. The 
word occurs in the names of several coast 
towns on the Persian Gulf. 

Bendi^O, a town in the Australian colony 
of Victoria, famous for its rich gold 
diggings, originally Bandicote Creek,came 
to be (^led Bendigo from the nickname of 
William Thompson, a celebrated Notting- 
ham pugilist. He was one of three boys 
born at a birth who were nicknamed 
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. 
William Thompson's first challenge in 
BeJrs Life in 1835 was signed ' Abednego 
of Nottingham.' The name of the place 
was afterwards officially changed to 
Sandhurst, but it has now returned to 
Bendigo. 

BeneventOy a port in Italy, was the 
Roman Beneventum, 'good entrance.' 
We are told by Pliny that the older name 
was Maleventum (supposed to have been 
a corruption of Maluentum, 'rich in 
apples'), which, being considered to be 
an inauspicious name, was changed to 
Beneventum. 

Bengdl. an Indian province, is the English 
form of^ Bangila, the native name of a city 
near Chittagong, now washed away by 
the Brahmaputra. According to the 
Indian legend, Bangdla, a corruption of 
Bangdlaya, was the ' home of Banga,' a 
prince who appears in the MahAbhdrata, 
and to whose portion it fell. Banga is 
probably only the eponymus of Bangila. 

Benguela, in Western Africa, means 
•defence' in the Buneda language. It 
has also been explained as a corruption of 
bayuella, 'highland.' 

Beni Hasan, 170 miles above Cairo, is 
the village of ' the children of Hasan.' "The 
Arabic tribal prefix Beni is common. 



GLOSSARY 



67 



Berbice, the capital of British Guiana, 
wa? founded in 1796 at the mouth of a 
river of the same name. 

Beren Eylant, or * Bear Island/ mid- 
way between Spitzbergen and the North 
Cape, was discovered in 1596 by Barentz, 
in an attempt to make the passage to 
China by way of the North Pole. The 
name originated from a chase after a polar 
bear, which was killed by the sailors after 
a combat of two hours. In 1603 it was 
rediscovered by Cherry, an English whal- 
ing captain, and hence it is sometimes 
called Cherry Isle. 

BerenS Isles, in Coronation Gtilf, were 
discovered by Franklin in 1821, and named 
after the Governor of the Hudson's Bay 
Company. 

Bereslna, an affluent of the Dnieper, may 
be regarded as the northern portion of 
that river. The breaking of the bridge 
over the Beresina in November 1812 was 
the cause of the overwhelming disaster to 
the French army in the retreat from 
Moscow. Beresina is a corruption of 
Borysthenes, the name applied by the 
Greeks to the Dnieper, which again is a 
corruption of the Scythian name Danapris, 
of which Borysthenes is believed to be a 
sort of Greek translation. It is curious 
that the Greek name should have adhered 
to the northern coiu-se of the river, and the 
Scythian name to its lower portion. 

Bergr, a common element in German 
names, is usually from the O.H.G. berg, 
a 'hill.* There are 359 names in Ger- 
many which are proved by the old forms 
to be from this stem, which is liable to be 
mixed with the stem burg (O. H. G. burug), 
* a castle ' or fortified place, to which 223 
German names are known to belong. 
There are 38 places called simply Berg or 
Bergen, such as Berg on tiie Lower 
Rhine ; Bergen op Zoom in Holland, on 
the River Zoom : and Bergen in Norway, 
formerly Bergenhuus, so called from the 
seven peaks which surround it. 

Berkeley, in Gloucestershire, appears in 
A.S. charters as BercUd, ' the birch field. ' 

Berkhampstead, Great and Little, 

Herts. The first syllable of this name is 
usually supposed to be the A.S. beorc, 'a 
birch tree,' but the form Beorh-hamstedty 
which is found in an A.S. charter, shows 
that it is the ' homestead on the hill.' 

Berkshire is called Bearuc-sdr, Bearroc- 
scir, and Barruc-scirin the A.S. Chronicle, 
Bearruc-scir or Bearwuc-scir by Asser, 
and BearruC'Scyr or Baroc-scir in A.S. 
charters. The meaning of the name is 



doubtful Brompton. who was abbot of 
Jervaulx in the thirteenth century, tells 
us that Baroc-scir was so called from a 
certain polled oak (bare oak) in Windsor 
Forest, at which the shire-mote assembled, 
an etymology repeated in the next cen- 
tury by Higden in his Polychronicon : 
Barocshira quae sic denotninata d quadam 
nuda quercu in Fores ta de Windesora ; 
and Asser, who wrote in the ninth cen- 
tury, tells us that the name is from a 
forest (Windsor Forest) called Berroc, in 
which box-trees grew. In this case 
bearwuc might be a diminutive from the 
A.S. bearu, a 'grove.' Ettmiiller takes 
bearuc as equivalent to bearovic^ * vicus 
saltosus,' an impossible etymology, as 
well as that from A.S. beorc, a ' birch-tree,' 
or from the A.S. bearug, which means 
a ' barrow-pig' or porker, so called because 
fed on the mast and acorns in a bearu, 
'a wood, wooded hill, or barrow.' Pro- 
fessor Rhys offers a conjectural derivation 
from the tribe-name of the pre-Saxon 
inhabitants, the Bibroci, or ' beavers ' 
who have left their name in the Hundred 
of Bray. 

Berlin, the capital of Prussia, is a name 
the meaning of which has been much dis- 
cussed, but with small definite result. 
Celtic, Slavonic, and Teutonic etymolo- 
gies have been proposed, in addition to 
the popular but im]X)ssible derivation 
from the name of the Margrave Albert 
the Bear, which has been supported by 
the fact that a bear appears in the city 
arms. The Celtic etymologies, ' small linn ' 
or lake, and that proposed by Mahn, 
' heath ' or ' bush,* may be rejected, as 
well as the Teutonic etymology from 
briihl, a 'marsh.' The name is probably 
Wendish, either from berle, ' uncultivated 
ground,' or, as Krebs thinks, from barlin, 
a * shelter ' or ' place of refuge,' or, 
according to Kloden, an 'enclosure' or 
•field,' while Vilovski suggests brljina, a 
'pool,' which conforms to the local con- 
ditions. 

Bermudas, or Soxners Islands, in 

the North Atlantic, were discovered, it is 
believed, by Amerigo Vespucci in 1498, 
probably on St. Bernard's Day, August 
2oth, whence the early name of the Archi- 
pelago of San Bernardo. They owe their 
name of Bermudas to Juan Bermudez, 
who, on a voyage from Spain to Cuba with 
a cargo of hogs in 1522 or 1527, was ship- 
wrecked on an island of the group. To 
the wreck of Admiral Sir George Somers 
in 1609 we owe the name Somers Islands, 
v^hich by popular etymology has been cor- 



68 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



rupted into the Summer Islands. This 
shipwreck probably suggested Shake- 
speare's play of The Tempest, in which he 
names ' the still vexed Bermoothes.* The 
Tempest appeared in 1610, a few months 
after the publication of Jourdan's account 
of the wreck of Sir George Somers' ship, 
the Sea Venture, in a tempest off 'the 
Bermudas, otherwise called the He of 
Divels.' St. George's, which was the 
seat of government till it was removed to 
Hamilton, is the place where Sir George 
died in 1612. 
Bern (in French Berne) is a Swiss canton 
which takes its name from its chief town, 
which grew up round a castle built in 1191 
by Duke Berchtold v. of Zahringen. The 
name Berne appears in 1224 on a seal 
of the town. Not improbably Berchtold 
gave the place the name of Berne in 
memory of Dietrich of Berne (Verona), a 
favourite hero of Alamannic poetry. An- 
other theory as to the meaning of the name 
refers it to the Romansch word brena^ 
* bush ' or ' forest,' which is believed to be 
the source of the names Bern egg and 
Bernboden. According to the local 
legend, the town was named from a bear, 
the first animal killed in a hunting expedi- 
tion in an oak forest on the site of the 
town. Hence a bear rampant on a gold 
field has been taken as the heraldic shield 
of the city, and a tame bear is always 
kept in a cave, like the wolf at Rome. 

Bemcastel, on the Mosel, is proved by 
the old form Berencastel, which dates 
from 1036, to be from a personal name 
(O.H.G. dero, a 'bear'). 

Bernoulli, Cape, in South Australia, 
was named by Baudin in 1802 in honour 
of Bernoulli the mathematician. 

Berri or Berry, one of the old French 
provinces, is a corruption of the tribe-name 
of the Bituriges, a name meaning, accord- 
ing to d'Arbois de Jubainville, * always 
kings.' Zeuss explains the name as 
semper dominantes, * ever ruling,* or as 
the powerful or wide rulers. The city of 
Bourges, in the department of the Cher, 
also a corruption of Bituriges, was the old 
capital of Berri. 

Berwick-on-Tweed appeai-s in the 
oldest documents as Beorwic, and in the 
twelfth century as Berewic. The first 
form points to beorh-wic, * hill village,* an 
appropriate etymology, and the second 
to dere-wic, a term frequently used in 
Domesday to denote a 'barton,' ' grange,' 
or 'barn.' The form Abevicum, which 
is found in Latin documents, points to 
Aber-wick as an early conjectural etymo- 



logy, just as Berriew in Wales, at the 
mouth of the River Rhiw, is a corrup- 
tion of Aber-Rhiw, and Barmouth of 
Aber-Maw. 
Besan90n, in Tranche Comt^, the capital 
of the Doubs department, represents 
Vesontio or Visontion, the cliief town 
of the Sequani. It is called Besantio 
by Ammianus Marcellinus, and in the 
time of Charlemagne became Bissancion, 
a corruption of Besontionem. 

Bessarabia is a Russian province on 
the Danube. The district was occupied in 
the seventh century by a Slavonic or 
Turkic tribe called the Bessi, and there 
seems to have been a Wallachian dynasty 
called Bessaraba, from whom the princi- 
pality is said to have been named. 

Bessemer is an iron smelting town in 
Alabama, of 40, 000 inhabitants. In 1887 
the site was overrun by primeval forest. 
It has been appropriately named from the 
inventor of the modern process for making 
steel. Two other iron-making towns, one 
in Michigan, founded in 1884, the other 
in Virginia, founded in 1890, also bear the 
name of Bessemer. 

Beverley, in Yorkshire, is a perplexing 
name. It appears in the Chronicle as 
Beoferlic, and later as Beverlith, Beverlea, 
Beverlac, and Beforlac. The A.S. names 
might be explained as the beavers' field, 
pool, or stream. (A.S. ledt a ' field,' 
lacu a ' pool,' lagu a 'stream '; cf. O.N. 
leeki, a * brook '), but the uncertainty of 
the early forms lends probability to the 
theory which identifies Beverley with the 
Roman Petuaria, whose British name 
may have been Pedwarllech, denoting 
the *four stones* which marked the 
boundaries of the settlement ; and Ped- 
warllech, by folk-etymology, might have 
become Beoferlea or Beforlac. ' the 
beaver's field or pool.* (cf. p. 374.) 

Be'WCa.stle, Cumberland, is so called 
from the castle erected soon after the con- 
quest by Bueth, lord of Gilsland. 

Bex is a town in Canton Vaud. The 
Roman name Botiacum, which we find as 
late as 574, is replaced in 600 a.d. by 
Bacus Villa, a Romansch formation from 
the German bach, a ' brook,' signifying the 
' village on the brook,' now called the 
Arven9on. Later forms are Villa Bejo 
and Bexium. 

Bejrrout, more correctly Beirut, a town 
on the Syrian coast, called Berotha in the 
time of Rameses ll., is the Phoenician 
beroth, ' the wells,' or rather the ' cisterns,' 
the plural of beer, ' a well,' which we have 
in Beersheba. 



GLOSSARY 



69 



Bliazno, a town in Burma, is a corruption 

of the Shan name Manmaw, ' pottery 
village. ' 

Bhcirtpur, or Bhurtpore, a native 

state in Rajputana, takes its name from 
the chief town, Bhartpur, a corruption of 
Bharat-pur, 'the town of Bhdrata,' brother 
of Rama, one of the ancient legendary 
kings of India. 

Bhaulpur, or Bhd'walpurjin the Pun- 
jab, is the capital of a feudatory state of 
the same name, is the ' town of Bahdwal,' 
a Khan of the Ddiidputras. 

Bheels (Bhils), a pre-Aryan Indian people, 
are named from their weapon, the ^i/a or 
*bow.' 

Bhutan, or Bhotan, an independent 
state in the Himalayas, is properly B/ioi- 
ant, * the end of Thibet,' from BAot^ the 
local name of Thibet and anta, * end.' 

Bibury, Gloucestershire, is Beage's burh, 
as we learn from a charter executed be- 
tween 721 and 743 by which the place was 
bestowed on the Church at Worcester 
after the death of a certain Comes Leppa 
and of his daughter Beage. On the 
margin of the charter there is a later note 
in which the place is identified as Beagan- 
byrig, showing that it had been possessed 
by the daughter long enough to acquire 
her name. 

Bicester, near Oxford, formerly Buren- 
ceaster and then Bumacester, has been 
supposed to be the Chester of Bishop 
Biren, but was more probably named 
from the small River Bure on which it 
stands. 

Bievre, near Laon, probably the Bihrax 
of Caesar, is from the Gaulish behros, 'a 
beaver.' From the same source we have 
Bibracte, the Gaulish name of the place 
called by the Romans Augustodunum, 
now AUTUN. 

Bigrorre, in the Pyrenees, bears the tribe- 
name of the Bigerriones of Caesar, who 
are the Begerri of Pliny. Their chief city 
was Turba, now Tarbes. 

Biscay, Bay of, takes its name from 
the Spanish Province of BiscAya or Vis- 
CAYA, which means the land of the 
Basques or Vasks. The Roman writers 
called them Vascones, whence we obtain 
the medieval names Gascons and Gas- 
cony (q.v.). The name Basque or Vask 
is believed to be the Basque word vasok^ 
• man. * This is to be preferred to W. von 
Humboldt's derivation from the Basque 
basoa, ' forest,* whence baso-coa, 'belong- 
ing to the forest' The Basques now call 
themselves Euscaldunac, the 'speakers,' 



whence the technical term Euscarian for 
the language of the Basques. 

Bismarck, a small town in the Prussian 
Altmark, called Biscopesmark (Bishop's 
march) in 1209, claims the honour of 
giving a patronymic to the great German 
Chancellor. Cape Bismarck, a grim 
headland on the eastern coast of Green- 
land, was discovered in 1869 by Captain 
Koldewey in the ship Germania, This 
was the furthest point reached on this 
coast till 1892, when the United States 
Expedition, under Lieut. Peary, fol- 
low ed the coast northwards as far as lat. 
81° 37' N. Here on Independence Day, 
July 4th, a large bay was discovered, to 
which the name of Independence Bay 
has been given. 

BissafifOS Islands, near Sierra Leone, 
bear the name of Bissague, who was the 
native chief when the islands were dis- 
covered by the Portuguese. 

Bister, in Shetland names, is a corruption 
of the Norse Bu-stadr^ a ' dwelling-place,' 
the first element being the -by in Kirby 
and Derby, and the second the -ster in 
Leinster and Ulster. We have in the 
Shetlands such names as Kirk A bister, 
• the dwelling by the church ' ; Kelda- 
bister, * the dwelling by the well ' ; and 
Symbister, ' the dwelling with a view.' 

Blackall, a town in Queensland, bears 
the name of Colonel Blackall, the governor 
of the colony from 1868 to 1870. 

Blackfeet, a North American tribe, form 
the westernmost branch of the great 
Algonkin race. Blackfoot is a translation 
of the almost unpronounceable native 
name Cuskoetch-waw-tkessetuck. 

Black Forest, the English translation of . 
the German name Schwarzwald, refers 
to the dark pines which cover the hills. 

Black Sea, a translation of Mauri Tha- 
lassa, the modern Greek name, may refer 
to its storms, contrasted with the cloudless 
skies of the Aspri Thalassa (Mar Bianco 
or White Sea), as the eastern part of the 
Mediterranean was called. The old Greek 
name Axine, the ' inhospitable * sea, being 
of evil omen, is believed to have been 
changed to Euxine, or ' hospitable,' when 
the coasts became surrounded by Greek 
colonies. 

Blackvrater is the name of a river in 
County Cork, and of another in Ulster. 
Both of them are still called in Irish Avon- 
more or Owenmore, the * great river.' 
The Blackwater is frequently called by 
early Anglo- Irish writers the ' Broadwater/ 
a sort of translation of Avonmore. 



70 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Blair- AthoU is ' the field of Athol. The 
Gaelic word blair or bldr, which is com- 
mon in Scotch names, means a plain or 
field, and in the later Ossianic poetry 
usually denotes a field of battle. Blar- 
ney, near Cork, which contains the 
blarney stone, is a diminutive of bldr (Irish 
Bldrna, the 'little field'). From the 
Scotch surname Blair (which is equivalent 
to the English surname Field) we have 
Port Blair, the chief settlement in the 
Andaman Islands, which were first sur- 
veyed in 1789 by Lieutenant Blair of the 
Indian Navy. 

Blantyre, a settlement of the Presbyterian 
missionaries in the Shire Highlands, was 
named after Livingstone's birthplace, 
Blantyre in Lanark. 

Blenheim Palace, near Oxford, was 
built by Parliament for the Duke of 
Marlborough, and named in commemora- 
tion of the decisive battle fought on 
August 13th, 1704, at the village of Blind- 
heim Hochstadt. The capital of the New 
Zealand province of Marlborough has 
received the appropriate name of Blen- 
heim. 

Blida, in Algeria, is a diminutive, from 
the Arabic belad, ' a place ' or ' town.' 

Block Island, near the mouth of the 
Connecticut River, bears the name of 
Adrian Block, a Dutch sailor who in 1614, 
when his ship had been burnt at Man- 
hattan Island, the future site of New York, 
built a sixteen-ton yacht, of timber cut in 
the island, in which he sailed through 
Long Island Sound, and after discover- 
ing Block Island, finally reached Massa- 
chusetts Bay. 

Bloemfontein, or jan Bloms Fon- 

TEIN, the capital of the Orange Free 
State, bears the name of the first Boer 
settler. 

Bloody Falls, the lowest cataract on 
the Coppermine River, was so named by 
Hearne in 1770 on account of a massacre 
of the Eskimos by the Chippewyan Indians 
who accompanied him. Bloody Bay, in 
Egraont Island, was so called because of, 
a native attack on the crew of Captain 
Carteret's cutter in 1767. 

Bludin, in European Turkey, is a corrup- 
tion of the Roman name Plotinopolis^ 50 
called in honour of Plotina, wife of 
Trajan. 

Boavlsta, one of the Cape Verd Islands, 
was the ' good sight ' seen by three cara- 
vels which, sailing from Lisbon to Sene- 
gambia in i486, were driven out to sea by 
a tempest, and on the third day of the 



storm sighted land, which the sailors 
appropriately called Boavista« 

Bocca Tigris is the name applied to the 
estuary oFthe Canton River. It appears 
•to be an inaccurate reproduction of the 
Portuguese Boca do Tigre, which is a 
translation of the Chinese name Hu-M^n, 
' Tiger Gate. ' The famous BoGUE Forts 
are the defences of the Boca or ' mouth ' 
of the Canton River, Bogue being an Eng- 
lish corruption of Boca. 

Boden See, the German name of the lake 
which the French call Lac de Constance, 
is derived from Bodoma, now Bodman, a 
castle of the Carol ingian Emperors, built 
in a hollow between two hills at the north- 
west end of the lake. Near Bodman is a 
place called the Bodenwald. The name 
Bodoma is probably from the O.H.G. 
bodam (German boden, English bottom), 
which is used in Switzerland to denote a 
flat plain or meadow bottom. The lake 
was called Lacus Podamicus as early as 
890, and in 905 we have ad lacum Bodinse. 
Its older name was Lacus Brigantinus, 
from the Celtic tribe of the Brigantes or 
'highlanders,' who have left their name 
in the town of Bregentz \q.v,\ the Bre- 
gantium of the Romans. 

Bodo means 'peaceful.' Hence H. M. 
Stanley gave the name of Fort Bodo to 
the station which he constructed in 1888 
near the Albert Nyanza. 

Bo3o, Capo, the extreme western point 
of Sicily, preserves a mutilated fragment 
of the Roman name Lilybaeum (now 
Marsala, q,v. ) which was derived from the 
Phoenician Lilybe, the 'station' of the 
Carthaginian fleet. 

BOBOtia, the chief plain in Greece, is the 
• land of cattle,' a name which may have 
given rise to the legend that Europa was 
discovered by Cadmus in Bceotia under 
the form of a cow. 

Bosrotd, or Santa Fe De Bosrotd, 

the federal capital of the United States oif 
Columbia, bears the name of Bagotta, 
a native chief who in 1538 was here 
encountered and vanquished by the Span- 
iards under Gonzalez Ximenes de Quesada, 
who called the place Santa F6 from his 
own birthplace. 

Bohemia is the Latinised name of the 
Austrian crown-land which the Germans 
now call Bohmen, a corruption of B6-heim, 
the name oflicially used till the close of 
the eighteenth century. It is called 
Boihaemum or Boihemum the 'home of 
the Boii,' by Tacitus and Ptolemy, 
the inhabitants being called Bohemi or 



GLOSSARY 



7^ 



Boemanni, Our form Bohemia is com- 
paratively recent, Fynes Moryson in 1617 
calUng it Bohmerland. The name is 
deriv«i from the Boii, the ' terrible * ones, 
a Celtic tribe who were driven out oif 
Italy by the Romans in the second cen- 
tury B.C. In the first century A.D. the 
' home of the Boii ' was occupied by the 
Marcomanni, a Teutonic tribe. At the 
b^inning of the sixth century the Marco- 
manni, then called Bohemi, moved into 
Bavaria (q.v.) to which they gave a 
name derived from their residence in the 
old 'home of the Boii,' and Bohemia was 
occupied by the Slavonic Czechs, but still 
retains the name of its pre-Teutonic con- 
querors. 

Boileau, Oape, in Tasman's Land, 
West Australia, was named in 1803 by 
Baudin after the French poet Boileau 
(1636-1705). 

Bois le Duo, in Brabant, is the French 
translation of the Flemish name 's Herto- 
genbosch, ' the Duke's wood,' so called 
because it was a hunting seat of the 
Dukes of Brabant. 

Bojador, a prominent cape in Western 
Africa, first rounded by Gil Eannes in 
^433' ^^ appropriately named Cabo 
Bojador, the ' cape that juts out ' (Portu- 
guese bojar, * to jut out'). 

Bokhara, the capital of the Khanate of 
the same name, means ' town of learning,' 
literally the 'treasury of science.* It is 
regarded as the centre of Mahommedan 
erudition, and possesses numerous mosques 
and colleges. The inhabitants are called 
by the Uzbeks, who are the ruling race, 
either Saris, which applies to settled 
traders, or Tajiks, who are the aborigines. 

Bolivia, one of the South American re- 
publics, formerly called Alto-Peru, ' Upper 
Peru,' was renamed in honour of the dic- 
tator, Simon Bolivar, who, after a struggle 
lasting for fourteen years, from 18 11 to 
1825, freed Peru from the Spanish yoke. 
In honour of the ' Liberator,' one of the 
states of Columbia and one of the states 
of Venezuela are called Bolivar. 

Bolsena, in Central Italy, preserves the 
ancient Etruscan name Volsenio. 

Bolton is a large manufacturing town 
near Manchester. The name is common 
in the North of England. In Yorkshire 
alone there are eight places so called, all 
of which appear in Domesday as Bodeltone 
or Bodelturu, which denotes a Hn or ' en- 
closure ' containing a ' house or dwelling,' 
generally of timber ( A. S. h6tl\. So Nkw- 
BOTTLE^ the ' new building,' is from both. 



dat. sing, of hotU . In Germany, bUiUl, a 
'dwelling,' is a common suffix, as in 
WolpbnbUttel. In Old Saxon it takes 
^[\^jSSSSL^budii^ > 

(oma, or Emboxnxna. is a trading post 
65 miles from the moutn of the Congo. 
The word boma means a * palisade,' and 
the name is applied to any village or col- 
lection of huts so fortified. 

Bombay. The conjectural etymology 
from the Portuguese bom-bahia, the ' good 
bay,' is impossible, because while bahia is 
feminine, bom is masculine, and hence the 
Portuguese name would have been Boa- 
bahia. The oldest forms of the name, 
Maimbi, Mainibai^ Mombaim, and Bom- 
bairn, are derived from a great temple 
dedicated to Devi, wife of Siva, who was 
worshipped by the name of Mahi-md, the 
'great mother,' a title which became 
Maimbdi or Mumbai in the Maratha 
dialect. 

Bombay Hook, New York, is an 
English adaptation of the Dutch name 
BoompHes Hoeck, * tree-point.' 

Bon, Cape, at the north-eastem corner 
of Tunis, is apparently a Spanish name 
meaning the 'good cape.' The Arabic 
name is lias Adar. 

Bona, in Algeria, is from an oblique case 
oi Hippo, ' the walled town,' on whose site 
it stands. 

Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland, takes 
its name from Cape Bonavista, one of 
the eastern capes of Newfoundland, where 
John Cabot, the discoverer of North 
America, is said to have made his land- 
fall on June 24th, 1497, but as June 24th 
is St John's Day, it has been urged that 
St. John's, further to the south-east, was 
his real landfall, and that the name Bona- 
vista marks the landfall of Corte Real. 

Bonchuroh., in the Isle of Wight, is an 
abbreviated name of the same class as 
Boston (q.v.). The patron saint being 
St. Boniface, Bonchurch is an obvious 
corruption of Boniface-Church. 

Bonifaoio, Strait of, separating Cor- 
sica and Sardinia, is so called from the 
Corsican fort of San Bonifacio, which 
guards the passage. 

Bonn, a city on the Rhine, preserves the 
name of a Roman castrum on the site, 
which is called Bonna by Tacitus. The 
word bona is believed to be Celtic, pro- 
bably meaning a ' town,' as it enters into 
the composition of such names as Colo- 
bona or Equabona. Vienna was anciently 
Vindo-bona, which was afterwards changed 
to Julio-bona. Lillebonnb, near the 



1i 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



mouth of the Seine, is a corruption of 
Julio-bona, which in medieval times 
became Illebona, from which Lillebonne 
was formed by prefixing the article. 
Raab, in Hungary, on the River Raab, 
is a corruption of the Roman name 
Arrabona, the ' town on the Arra.* The 
Roman name of Troyes was Augusto- 
bona, afterwards Augusta Trecorum ; 
while Bologna, in Cisalpine Gaul, and 
Boulogne (^.v.) are both corruptions of 
Bononia. In the Saxon Chronicle Boulogne 
is called Bune or Bunne. In French 
charters of the ninth and tenth centuries 
bonnarium or bunnoarium frequently 
occurs in the sense of an enclosed place, 
and according to Valesius, bonna, lingua 
Galltca, limitem ac terminum significat. 
Holder derives the word from the Celtic 
*bau-nos^ ' built,' and compares the Welsh 
bon, a 'foundation,' and the Irish bun- 
aiif a 'dwelling' or 'habitation,' where 
the suffix 'ait means a ' place. {See 
Ratisbon. ) 

Booby Island, in Torres Strait, was so 
named from the immense number of 
boobies, Pelicanus sula, frequenting it. 

Bootllia Felix, in Arctic America, is a 
large peninsula in which the North Mag- 
netic Pole is situated. It was named after 
Sir Felix Booth, a wealthy and public- 
spirited London distiller, who provided 
funds for the expedition of John and 
James Ross (1829-1833), which led to its 
discovery. Boothia Gulf, Felix Har- 
bour, Point Booth, Boothia Isthmus, 
Booth Islands, and Booth Sound 
were also named after him, and Brown 
Island and Elizabeth Harbour after 
his sisters, Mrs. Brown and Miss Elizabeth 
Booth. 

Bordeaux, a chief town of the Bituriges, 
was the Roman Burdigala. It is the 
capital of the district formerly called the 
BoRDELAis, which is an obvious corrup- 
tion of Pagus Burdigalensis. The name 
Bordeaux cannot be so easily explained, 
as it cannot be derived directly from 
Burdigala, but may have originated in 
the medieval name Burdegalis. In Low 
Latin bordigala signifies a 'fish tank.' 
and we learn from Ausonius that a small 
stream formed a tidal pool or dock. 
The popular punning etymology makes it 
the town on the ' brink of the water,' 
au bord des eaux, 

Borneo is a Portuguese corruption of 
Bruni, Bruni, Brunai, Burnt, or Bum/, 
originally the Malay name of the largest 
city in the north-western part of the island, 
vshich became the capital of the Sultanate 



now called Brunei, a name extended to 
denote the whole island. 

Bomholm, an island in the Baltic, is 
called Burgendaland in the A.S. transla- 
tion of Orosius. In 1 245 the name becomes 
Burg-under Holm, the ' island of the Bur- 
gundians,' of which Bornholm is a cor- 
ruption. 

Bomu is a district in the Soudan, east of 
Lake Tchad. After the deluge, according 
to a local legend, the ends of the rainbow 
rested on the mountains of Bomu, and 
the name is popularly held to mean ' the 
land {bar) of Noah.* 

Bosnia takes its name from the River 
Bosna, a tributary of the Save. The 
capital, BosNA Serai, is the ' palace on 
the Bosna. ' 

Bosphorus would mean * ox-ford' 
{Bosporos) in Greek. According to the 
Greek myth, lo, in the form of a heifer, 
swam across the strait from Asia to 
Europe. It is possible that the name 
may have originated from the myth, but it 
is more probable that it is an assimilated 
Greek form of some earlier barbarian 
name. 

Boston, Massachusetts, was a Puritan 
settlement, founded in 1630. The 
settlers landed first at Charlestown on 
the River Charles, and then crossed to a 
place which they called Trimountain.now 
Tremont, from three hills, now called 
Windmill Hill, Beacon Hill, and Fort 
Hill. On September 17th, 1630, a court 
was held at which it was determined that 
the settlement should be called Boston, 
doubtless because three of the leading 
settlers, Johnson, Hough, and Leverett 
came from Boston in Lincolnshire. 

Boston, Lincolnshire, formerly Icanho, 
is a corruption of BotolpKs tun, so called 
from the great monastery dedicated to St. 
Botolph, who, in the seventh century, was 
one of the apostles of the East Angles. 

BoS'WOrtll, Leicestershire, A.S. Bosuurth 
and Bosuirtk, denotes a worth or ' small 
estate ' on which stood a boose (A.S. bos), 
a dialect word meaning a ' cow-stall ' or 
'ox-stalL' It cannot be the 'estate of 
Bosa,' as it has been usually explained, 
as that would have been Bosanworth 
in A.S., like Bosham, Sussex (A.S. 
Bosanham). BoscoMB, Wilts, A.S., 
Botescumb, is also from a proper name. 

Botany Bay was discovered by Cook in 
1770, and so named because 400 new 
plants were found by Banks and Solander, 
the naturalists of the expedition, during a 
stay of less than three weeks. 



GLOSSARY 



73 



Hothnia, G-ulf of, takes its name from 
Botten, a district partly in Sweden and 
partly in Finland, at the head of the Gulf. 
The Swedish word do/^en (O.N. doin, Ger- 
man boden, English bottom) denotes the 
end of anything, especially the head of 
a bay. Bothnia is the Latinised form, 
first used by Olaus Magnus in his book 
De Gentibus Stpttntrionalibus. 

Cotooudos, a name derived from the 
Portuguese botoque, a ' stopper ' or ' bottle 
cork,' was given to the natives of the 
Brazilian coast on account of their prac- 
tice of distending the lower lip by the 
insertion of bones or wooden plugs. 
Their neighbours the Gua&anis are Uie 
* brave ' men. 

Cotzen, a town in the Tjrrol, represents 
the Roman Pons Drusi. The old forms 
Pozen, Poszen, Pauzana, Bauzan, and 
Bozan, suggest the possibility that Botzen 
may be a corruption of adpontem. 

Bou^ainviUe Island and Bou- 

g'ainville Strait, in the Salomon 
Group, were discovered by Mendana in 
1567, and rediscovered in 1768 by 
Bougainville, the first Frenchman who 
circumnavigated the globe (1766-69). 
Cape Bougainville, in Tasman's Land, 
also commemorates his name. 

Boulogrne, the Itius Portus of Caesar, 
was called Bononia by the Emperor Con- 
stantine, possibly from Bononia, now 
Bologna, in Italy. In the ninth century 
Bononia became Bolonia. (See Bonn.) 

Boune County and Bouneville, 

Missouri, were named from Daniel Boone, 
one of the pioneer trappers and back- 
woodsmen of the West, who went from 
Kentucky to Missouri in 1794, when 
Missouri was a Spanish province. 

Bounty Islands, a New Zealand group, 
were discovered in 1788 by Bligh in the 
ship Bounty, CAPE Bounty in Melville 
Island was so named by Parry in 1819 ^' 
cause his officers and crew were here 
enabled to claim the bounty of;^5ooo 
voted by Parliament to those who should 
first reach no" west longitude. Bounti- 
ful Island, one of the Wellesley group 
in the Gulf of Carpentaria, was so named by 
Flinders in 1802, because of an abundant 
supply of turtle obtained by his men, who 
had been long without fresh provisions. 

Bourbon, the chief town of the Bour- 
bonnais, possesses hot springs, which were 
dedicated by the Gauls to their healing 
Deity, the sim-god Bormo or Borvo, 
identified with Apollo by the Romans, 
who called the place Aqua Borvonis, 



A castle on a rock above the town gave 
a name to the Bourbon dynasty, from 
whom the Isle de Bourbon, now 
usually called Reunion, and other places 
have been named. Several other places 
in France with hot springs are called 
Bourbon or Bourbonnb. 

Boursres, the capital of the old French 
province of Berry {q.v. ) was the chief city 
of the Bituriges. The Roman name was 
Avaricum, but in Gregory of Toiu-s we 
find the name Biturigas, of which 
Bourges is a corruption. 

Bowen, Port, in Queensland, was dis- 
covered by Flinders in 1802, and named 
after James Bowen, one of the commis- 
sioners of the navy. His name is also 
borne by Cape Bowen in Baffin's Bay, 
by Port Bowen in Regent's Inlet, and 
by Bowen Strait on the north shore 
of Australia. The Bowen Downs and 
the town of Bowen in Queensland were 
named after Sir George Bowen, first 
Governor of Queensland, and grand- 
nephew of James Bowen. 

Bowery is one of the few surviving 
Dutch names in New York, having been 
the bouwerie or 'farm' of the Dutch 
Governor Stuyvesant. 

Boyne, a river in Ireland, is called by 
Ptolemy, Buvinda, 'the white cow,* a 
name which must contain some mytho- 
logical reference. According to Professor 
Rhys, Buvinda was a river goddess, who, 
in Irish mythology, was the wife of the 
sea-god Nodens or Nuada. We may 
compare the common Irish name iNis- 
bofin, which means the 'island of the 
white cow.* 

Brabant, a province in Flanders, is 
called Bracbantum in a document of the 
eighth century. It means the ' ploughed 
district* or 'arable land' from bracha, 
land newly ' broken ' up for tillage, and 
bant a district or gau. 

Brahmaputra, or less correctly Bur* 
rampooter, is a mythological name 
meaning the ' offspring of Brahma,' given 
by the Hindoos to the largest affluent of 
the Ganges. In Upper Assam it is called 
LoHiT, * the red ' river ; in Tibet, Sanpu, 
or Tsangbo-Chu, ' the pure water,' from 
tsangbo, ' pure.* 

Brancaster, in Norfolk, and Brampton, 
also in Norfolk, a place which abounds in 
Roman remains, are rival sites claiming 
to represent the Roman station of Bran- 
nodunimi. BraMPTON in Cumberland 
has been supposed to be the Roman 
Bremenium. 



74 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Bra]ld6Ilblirgr» * Prussian province, de- 
rives its name from a castle built on an 
island in the Havel. The bishopric dates 
from 945. The name was afterwards 
extended to the town, and then to 
the mark, which subsequently became a 
Margravate and Electorate. The name 
Brandenburg, which means the ' forest 
fortress,' is a corruption of the Slavonic 
Brtnnibor, from bor, ' wood ' or ' forest,* 
and hrenny, a * shelter,' • protection,' or 
' strong place.' 

Bras d'or, the ' arm of gold,' is an arm of 
the sea which divides the island of Cape 
Breton.in Nova Scotia, into two peninsulas. 

Bravo, Rio, the 'fierce river,' dividing 
Texas from Mexico, is also called Rio 
Grande del Norte. 

Bray, a town in Wicklow, called Bree in 
old records, received its name from Bray- 
head, which rises 793 feet above the sea. 
The name is from the Old Irish bri or 
hHgh (Gaulish briga), a ' hill.' 

Brazil was discovered accidentally in 1500 
by Pedro Alvarez de Cabral, who, saihng 
from Lisbon for India with twelve ships, 
was driven from his course, and reached 
the Brazilian coast on Easter Eve, at a 
place he called Pascoal. Bad weather 
arising, he took refuge in a neighbouring 
harbour which he named PoRTO Seguro, 
where on May ist, the festival of the In- 
vention of the Cross, mass was celebrated 
under a tree at the top of which a large 
wooden cross was fixed, and the country, 
which was supposed to be one of the 
Antilles, received the name of Ilha da 
Vera Cruz. Three years later Vespucci 
discovered that it was not an island, and 
the name was changed to Terra da Santa 
Cruz, If Columbus had not sailed in 
1492, America would thus have been dis- 
covered eight years later. Before Cabral's 
voyage, the name Brazil is foimd on maps 
attached to an imaginary island in the 
Atlantic to the west of Ireland. We learn 
from William of Worcester that in 1480 
John Jay of Bristol despatched two ships 
to search for the island of Brazil. There 
is no proof that the name was transferred 
to the land discovered by Cabral ; all we 
know is that as early as 1532 the country 
became known as the Terra do Brazil, a 
valuable red dye called brazil, from the 
Portuguese braza, ' live coal,' being 
obtained from the wood of the Casalpina 
brasiliensis, or brazil-wood tree, which 
the Spaniards had previously procured 
from Haiti. The origin of the name 
being forgotten, out of Terra do Brazil, 
'land of the Brazil,' a nominative O 



Brazil was constructed, and this became 
in English the Brazil, the Brazils, and 
finally Brazil, which strictly means the 
dyewood and not the country. The Ger- 
man name Brazilien is not open to this 
objection ; a corresponding correct English 
form would be Brazilia, or Brazil Land. 

Breadalbane is the bragat or ' breast ' 
of Alban — as Drum ALB an is the drum or 
' back ' of Alban. Braemar. the braigh 
or 'upp)er part* of Mar, preserves the 
name of the great Earldom of Mar, to 
which Cromar also belonged. At the 
time of the rising of 1715 Braemar was 
still the castle of the Earls of Mar. 

Brecon or Brecknock are English 

forms of the Welsh name Brycheiniog, 
derived, according to the tradition, from 
the name of Brychan, a Welsh prince. 

Bregagrlia, Val, north of the Lake of 
Como, is usually said to be a corruption 
of the Latin Praegallia, so called because 
it lay in front of Gallia Cisalpina. But 
the old form Vallis Bergallia, which occurs 
in 1036, points to the Italian berbicaglia, 
from the Low-Latin berbicaria, a ' sheep- 
fold,' as the source of the name. 

Breisgau, or The Breisgau, a district 

in Baden, was called in the eighth centm-y 
Brisagowe, which means the 'district of 
the breach,' either because it was liable 
to be flooded by a breach in the Rhine 
embankment, or because the river here 
' breaks ' into several channels. 

Bremen, anciently Bremun or Bremon^ 
is the dative plural of bram or brdm (Eng- 
lish brim), which means ' wave, flood, 
sea.' Bremen means, therefore, *at the 
waves,' or • by the sea-shore,' JBremer- 
HAVEN, the new ' harbour of Bremen,' 
was founded in 1830 on the Lower Weser. 

Brentford, Middlesex, is the ford over 
the River Brent, which here joins the 
Thames. The A.S. name was Bregent- 
ford, Braegentford, Bregantford, or Bra- 
gentford, and as there was here a ford 
over the Thames it is possible that, as in 
other cases, a River Brent may have been 
invented to explain the name Brentford. 
Brigant, as a British name, would mean 
the hill-country. 

Brent Klnoll, in Somerset, rising above 
the villages of East Brent and South 
Brent, is the 'steep knoll' (A.S. brant, 
'steep'). But Brentwood, Essex, is 
probably the 'burnt wood,' and not the 
'steep wood.* 

Brescia, the chief town of the Cenomani, 
a Celtic tribe, was the Brixia of Livy. 
Old Celtic M>, a' hUl.' 



GLOSSARY 



75 



Breslau, the capital of Silesia, is called 

Wrozlawa in 1018. The city arms are 

those of Wratislaw, king of Bohemia, by 

whom, according' to the local legend or 

tradition, the town was founded. 

Briancon, in the Hautes-Alpes, is a cor- 
ruption of the old name Brij^anitum, which 
was the chief town of the Brigiani or ' hill- 
men' (Gaulish dri£^a, 'a hill'). Brienz, 
in Canton Bern, which gives a name to 
the Brienzer See or Lake of Brienz, takes 
its name from the tribe of the Brigantii or 

* hill -men.' Bregenz, on the Lake of 
Constance, formerly Briganfium or Brig- 
antia, is also supposed to be named from 
the Brigantii, from whom the lake was 
called Lacus Brigantinus. An old name of 
Bregenz was super Brigam, which must 
refer to a bridge over the Rhine which 
here enters the lake. Names from the 
Gaulish briga, Irish brigh, ' a hill ' (which 
is cognate with the German berg), are 
liable to be mixed with names from the 
Teutonic brig, a • bridge.* 

Briare, a town in the Loiret, is a corrup- 
tion of the Celto-Roman name Brivo- 
durum, the 'fortress at the bridge.' 
Brioude in the Haute Loire, was Brivate, 
signifying a place where there was a 
bridge, and Brioude in the Ni^vre, for- 
merly Brives, must be explained in the 
same way. 

Blid^enortll, a town in Salop, is called 
in A.S. Bricg, Brycg, Brig, Cwatbricg, 
and Cwatbrycg, We are told in the 
Chronicle that ^Eihelfred built a fortress 
<Bt Bricge, 'at the bridge.' The form 
Cwatbrycg contains the Welsh word coed, 
*a wood or forest,' which helps to explain 
the later name Bridgenorth, which is 
believed to be a corruption of Bricg- 
Morfe, i.e. the bridge across the Severn 
leading to the great .Morfe forest, called 
Silva Moerhab oxMoreb in anearly charter. 

Blidgro'Wa.ter, in Somerset, is a curious 
corruption of the old name Burgh Walter, 
so called because it was a castle of Walter 
of Douay, who obtained the manor from 
William the Conqueror. It gave a title 
to the Egertons. Cape Bridgewater, 
Bridgewater Bay, and the town of 
Bridgewater, all in Australia, are be- 
lieved to have been named after the eighth 
Earl of Bridgewater, to whom we owe the 
Bridgewater treatises. 

BriegTy a town in Silesia, on the Oder, 
takes its name from the Polish word brzeg, 

* shore,' as is indicated by the translated 
name Civitas Alice Ripce, used in old 
Latin documents. The town of Brieg 
or Brig, in Canton Valais, was so called 



from tiie bridge over the Saline torrent 
In 1291 we have ad locum Brigce, in 1331 
via stiper Brigam. The German brUcke, 
a bridge, is pronounced brig in the Upper 

Valais. 

Brigrgrs His Mathexnatios, an island 

in Hudson's Bay, was so named by Fox 
in 1631 from Henry Briggs, a mathe- 
matician, who promoted Fox's expedition, 
and wrote a treatise on the north-west 
passage. 

Brigrhton is a corruption of the A.S. 
name Brihthelmestan, which means the 
• stone of Brihthelm.' There was a South 
Saxon bishop of that name. The word 
Stan may mean a stone house or castle, a 
boundary stone, or a stone marking a 
place for a religious or popular assembly. 
It has been conjectured that Brihthelm's 
stone may have been set up on the Old 
Steyne to which it gave a name. But this 
is doubtful, as the greater part of the old 
village was swept away by the sea in 

1599- 
Brindisl is a corruption of the name 
Brundisum or Brundiisium, the Latin form 
of the Greek name Brentision, which is 
explained from the Messapian word 
brention, a ' stag's head,' the configuration 
of the harbour with its branching gulfs 
resembling the antlers of a stag. 

Brisbane, the cap^"'^ ol Queensland, was 
so called because built on the River Bris- 
bane, which was discovered by Lieu- 
tenant Oxley in 1823, and named after 
General Sir Thomas Brisbane, then 
Governor of New South Wales. 

Bristenstook, a conspicuous mountain 
in Canton Uri, is named from the hamlet 
of Bristen at its base. 

Bristol is firi.t mentioned in the Chronicle, 
A.D. 1087, as Bricgstow. Later forms 
are Brycg-stow, Bricstow, Brigestou, 
Bristou, and Bristow, signifying the 
' place at the bridge ' over the Avon, and 
answering to the Roman Trajectus ad 
Abonam. The old spellini; favours the 
foregoing derivation from the A.S. bricg, 
'a bridge,' excluding another which has 
been proposed from the breach (A.S. 
brice) at the gorge of the Avon near 
Clifton. Before the rise of Liverpool 
Bristol was the most important English 
port after London, and hence the gulf by 
which it was approached acquired the 
name of the Bristol Channel. Bristol 
gave a peerage title to the Harvey family, 
and hence Cook named Cape Bristol 
and Bristol Bay after Admiral Augus- 
tus Harvey, the third Earl of the Harvey 



76 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



line. After an earl of an older creation 
Bristol Island in Hudson's Bay was 
named by Captain James in 1631. 

Britain, officially styled Great Britain 
to distinguish it from Brittany, is a name 
of obscure origin. The oldest form of the 
name is the Pretanic Island of Greek 
writers, followed by the Roman name of 
Britanni for the people, and Britannia for 
the country. The chief conjectures as to 
the meaning of the name may be briefly 
noted. It must have been either a native 
name, or one used by foreign merchants. 
If the Greeks obtained it from Phoenician 
traders, the only etymology which has 
been suggested is one from the Phoe- 
nician baratanak, the 'land of tin.' If 
from Basque sailors, the name Bretani 
may be compared 'with Aquetani, Lusi- 
tani, Mauretani, Oretani, and similar 
tribe -names, which contain the Basque 
plural locative suffix -etan, denoting ' in- 
habitants,' literally 'those who are in' 
the place denoted by the first part of the 
name, which in this case might be a 
Celtic word. Another hypothesis derives 
the name from the Welsh brethyn, ' cloth,' 
making the Britons the 'clothed men' 
as distinguished from the naked savages 
of the north. None of these etymo- 
logies have found much support among 
scholars. The most recent hypothesis, 
advocated by d'Arbois de Jubainville, 
. Stokes, and Rhys, makes the name 
equivalent to Cruithnech, 'tatooed' or 
* painted ' men, the Irish name of the 
Picts. Since an Irish c corresponds to a 
Welsh p or d, the Irish cn^iA is the Welsh 
pryd, just as cen becomes pen, and mac 
becomes map ; hence Cruitnech would 
answer to the Gaulish Pretanicos, whence 
the Pretanic island of Pytheas, and the 
Ynys Prydain of the Welsh writers, 
which may have been confused with a 
name from a different source, perhaps 
non-Aryan, whence the Roman name 
Britannia. 

Brittany, in French Bretagne, was 
originally called Armorica, a Celtic name 
meaning the land 'by the sea.' In the 
fifth century the Cymri, flying from the 
Saxon invaders of Britain, took refuge in 
Armorica, which in the sixth century 
begins to be called Britannia Minor, or 
Britannia Cismarina, as distinguished from 
Britannia Major or Great Britain. In the 
thirteenth century Britannia became Bre- 
teigne, and Bretaigne in the sixteenth. 
The Cornouaille of Brittany corresponds 
to the Cornwall of Britain ; the people of 
Brittany, like the people of Wales, calling 



themselves Cymri. Cape Breton is an 
island belonging to the province of Nova 
Scotia, which as early as 1504 was fre- 
quented by cod-fishers from Brittany. 
New Britain was discovered in 1616 by 
the Dutch navigators Le Maire and 
Schouten, and was ag^in visited by 
Tasman in 1642, but was supposed to be 
a part of New Guinea. Dampier, in 
1700, sailing through the strait which 
bears his name, proved that it was a 
distinct island, and called it New Britain. 
Carteret, in 1767, sailed through the 
channel called after him, and bestowed 
the name of New Ireland on the 
northern portion of the land which had 
hitherto been knovm as New Britain. 

Brixton, a suburb of London, is called 
Brixistan in Domesday, which must 
mean ' Brihtsige's stone.* Brixton 
Deverill, in Wilts, is also from a 
proper name, if, as is probably the case, 
it is to be identified with the Ecgbrightes- 
Stan (Egbert's stone) of the Saxon 
Chronicle. There are other places of 
the same name in Devon and the Isle of 
Wight. 

Broadstairs, in the Isle of Thanet, 
gathered 'round a chapel saluted by all 
passing vessels, dedicated to Our Lady of 
Bradstow, which means a ' broad place,' 
perhaps referring to the breadth of the 
chalk cliff, as seen from the sea. 

Brodick, a town in the Isle of Arran, 
stands on Brodick Bay, a corruption 
of Brathwik or Bradewik, the 'broad 
bay.' 

Brooklyn, now a suburb of New York, is, 
like Hoboken and the town of Utrecht, 
one of the Dutch names transfeired from 
Holland. Brooklyn is an English form 
of the Dutch Breukelen, a village between 
Amsterdam and Utrecht. It means either 
the broken ground (Dutch breuk, a ' break- 
ing') or the marshy land (Dutch broeky ' a 
marsh'). 

Broussa. or Brusa, in Asia Minor, the 
capital 01 the Bithynian kings, and after- 
wards of the Ottoman Turks, is said to 
have been founded by Prusias, king of 
Bithynia. 

Bro'wn's Strait, Point Brown, and 
Mount Brown, in Australia, as well as 
Cape Brown and Brown's Channel, 
in the Arctic Archipelago, were named 
after the botanist, Robert Brown, who 
accompanied Flinders in his voyage. 
Brown Island, Boothia Felix, was 
named by Ross after Mrs. Brown, a sister 
of Sir Felix Booth. 



GLOSSARY 



77 



Brugres, in Flanders (Flemish BrUgge), is 
called Brugae as early as 678. In the 
Saxon Chronicle it appears as Bryge and 
Brycg, 'the bridge.' The name is said 
to be derived from the bridge called 
the Brugstock, which was frequented as 
a market 

Bninn and Bninnen, common German 
place-names, are from the O. H.G. brunno, 
a 'weir or 'fountain.' Brunnen, on 
the Lake of Lucerne, was the meeting- 
place of the men of the Forest Cantons. 
BrUnn, in Moravia, is from the Slavonic 
brno, a ' ford.' 

Brunswick, ' Bruno's village/ called in 
German Braunschweig (formerly Brunes- 
wic), was founded by Bruno, Duke of 
Saxony, about 861 A.D. The town gave 
its name to the surrounding Duchy and to 
the House of Brunswidc, which after- 
wards became electors and kings of 
Hanover. New Brunswick, one of the 
English colonies in North America, was 
named in honour of the reigning family 
of England in 1784, when the colony was 
separated from Nova Scotia. Bruns- 
wick Bay, in Western Australia, was 
named by Captain King in 1820, ' in 
honour of the illustrious House of 
Bnmswick.' "" 

Brussels, in French Bnixelles, anciently 
Broxola^ Bruxelle, and Brosella, derives 
its name, according to the local tradition, 
from the • bridge,' which as early as the 
sixth century led to the ' cell ' of St. Gery, 
on an island of the Senne, a tributary of 
the Scheldt. The etymology may, how- 
ever, be the same as that of Bruchsal, 
near Carlsruhe, called in the tenth cen- 
tury Brochsale, and afterwards Bruchsala, 
Brusala, and Brusele, which probably 
means the ' house on the marsh,' from 
O.H.G. bruocht a 'marsh,' and seli, a 
'house.* 

Buccaneer Archipelagro, on the 

north coast of Australia, was so named 
by King in memory of Dampier's voyage 
along this coast. 

Buchan, a district in Aberdeenshire, 
formed one of the seven Pictish kingdoms 
or earldoms. Buchan is the genitive 
singular of the old name, the meaning of 
which is unknown. It is doubtless a 
Pictish word. 

Bucharest, the capital of Roumania, is 
locally called Bucxu-esci, the ' pleasant ' or 
' beautiful ' city, from bucurie, ' pleasure,' 
'joy,' or boukoure, 'beautiful,' a loan 
word from the Albanian, believed to be 
ultimately of Turkish origin. A local 



legend refers the name to Hilarius, a 
Roman Governor. 

Buckiuffliani, the county town of 
Buckinghamshire, is called Buccinga- 
ham in the Saxon Chronicle. This name 
is usually said to mean the -ham of the 
men of the beech forest (A. S. bdc^ ' a 
beech '). But in this case the A.S. name 
would have been Bbcingakam, and there- 
fore, the name of Buckingham must be 
referred to the family or clan of the Buc- 
cings, who took their name from an 
ancestor, called Bucca, the Buck, or whose 
totem was a buck. (A.S. bucca or buc^ 
' a he-goat.') The Bucinobantes, an AUe- 
mannic tribe, may have been the people 
of the land of beeches (O.H.G. buocAa, 
' a beech ' ). {See Brabant ) 

Bucklajid Island and the Buckland 
Chain in the Arctic regions, as well as 
Mount Buckland in Fuegia, were 
named after the geologist, William Buck- 
land, Dean of Westminster. Buckland, 
the name of twenty English villages, 
usually signifies book-land, that is, land 
given by charter out of the FoUdand to 
individuals or to monasteries. 

Buckrose, a parliamentary division of 
the East Riding, takes its name from the 
ancient Wapentake of Buc-cros, so called 
from the moot-place, which must have 
been a cross whose locality is indicated by 
Buckton, a lost township in the parish 
of Settrington, where a field still goes by 
the name of Buckton Holms. 

Buda or Buda-Pesth, called Open in 
German, is the capital of Himgary. It 
consists of two towns, Buda on the right 
bank of the Danube, and Pesth on the 
left. The German name Ofen is a trans- 
lation of the Slavonic word Pesth, which 
means an oven or gp'otto, and may refer 
to the remains of the Roman Thermae 
erected over the hot sulphur springs. 
Buda may be a Magyar translation of 
Pesth, or from the Slavonic word buda^ 
which means ' huts,' or, as has been con- 
jectured, it may refer to Buda the brother 
of Attila. 

Budaun, a town and district in Rohil- 
khand, was so called, according to the 
tradition, from Budh, an Ahar prince who 
founded the town about 905 A. d. 

Buenos Ayres, the capital of the Argen- 
tine Republic, was founded in 1535 by 
Don Jorge de Mendoza, and recaved its 
name on account of the 'fine weather' 
which prevailed at the time. 

Buffalo, in Western New York, now one 
of the largest cities in the Union, was 



78 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



founded in 1801, when the region was still 
frequented by the bison or North Ameri- 
can bufialo. The city of Buffalo is at the 
western corner of l^ake Erie, where the 
vast herds of buffaloes would easily 
pass the chain of lakes in their annual 
migration. 

BuitenzorgT) the mountain retreat of the 
Governor of Java, is a Dutch translation 
of Sans Souci (buiien, 'without,' and 
zorgt *care.* 

Bukovina^ an Austrian crown-land in 
Galicia, means 'beech land' or beech 
forest, from the Slavonic bukve, ' a beech- 
tree.' 

Bulgrajla takes its name from the Bulgars, 
a Turkic tribe which migrated from Great 
Bulgaria on the Volga, on whose banks, 
not far from Kazan, their capital of Bulgar 
or Bolgari was situated. In 487 they 
settled in a Slavonic district on the Lower 
Danube, to which they gave their name. 
The old theory which derives the name of 
the Bulgars from the name of the Volga is 
now given up, though the comparatively 
modern name Volga (called Bulga by 
Greek writers) may possibly be from that 
of the Bulgars. {See Volga.) Marco 
Polo calls the Volga by the name Tigris 
or Tigeri. Burgari or Wurgari, which 
are early forms of the name of the Bulgars, 
are analogous to those of the Onoguri,^ 
Uturguri, and Kutriguri. Vdmb^ry ex- 
plains the name as ' rebels,' deriving 
it from the Turkic bulga -mak^ 'to 
revolt.' 

Bundelcund, or in the modem spelling 
BUNDELKHAND, is an Indian territory 
which was conquered in the fourteenth 
century by a Rajput tribe called the 
Bundelas. 

Bungay is the 'good ford,' bon-gui, over 
the Waveney. The castle erected by 
Hugh Bigod to command the fordaccounts 
for the existence of this Norman name in 
Suffolk. 

Bunker Islands, on the east coast of 
Australia, bear the name of the captain of 
the whaler Albion. 

Burdekin, Australia, was so named by 
Leichhardt after a merchant at Sydney. 

Burdwan (Bardwdn) is a town in Bengal 
which gives a name to a district contain- 
ing valuable coal-pits. It owes its name 
to a temple of Vishnu, being a corruption 
of the Sanskrit Varddhamdna, the ' for- 
tunate,' an epithet of Vishnu. 

Burshliead,a promontory in Elgin be- 
tween the Findhom and the Spey, was 
the site of a borg or castle built in the 



ninth century by Sigurd, the Norwegian 
Earl of Orkney, on the southern border 
of his conquests in Moray. Burra, one 
of the Shetlands, is the ' castle-isle,' deriv- 
ing its name from a borg or castle, the 
remains of which can still be traced. The 
name Borgar fiord, ' castle frith,' occurs in 
1299. Burr AY, formerly Borgar, one of 
the Orkneys, is a similar name. In like 
manner Borrowdalg in Cumberland is 
believed to owe its name to a Scandi- 
navian borg or castle which stood on a 
rock now called CASTLE CRAG. 

Burgos, one of the few Teutonic names 
in Spain, and the capital of the former 
province of Old Castile, is said to have 
been founded in 884 by a German 
knight serving against the Moors. In 
its houses, streets, and Gothic cathedral, 
it exhibits the style of the Gotho-Cas- 
tilian period. The German burg occurs 
in at least 200 German names, dating from 
the first century onwards, as Salzburg, 
Regensburg, Magdeburg, and Freiburg. 
The Scandinavian form is borg as in 
Flemsborg, Svenborg, and Viborg in 
Denmark. In Gothic we have baurgs, 
a 'town.' The A.S. form burh gives 
burgh, borough, and bury, the last being 
from byrig, the dative sing, of burh, 

Burgrundy, anciently Burgundia, a dis- 
trict in Gaul, settled in 413 by the Bur- 
gundians, a Teutonic people called Bur- 
gundiones by Pliny, Jerome, and Orosius, 
and Burgundii by Ammianus Marcellinus. 
According to Grimm and Zeuss the name 
means * burghers,' the dwellers in burghs 
or strong p^ces. The two Burgundian 
realms are to be distinguished : the old 
Burgundian kingdom, whose capital was 
originally at Aries, which comprised the 
Rhone valley and Savoy, with the Nether- 
lands and the western cantons of Switzer- 
land, and came to an end in the eleventh 
century, ani the Burgundian duchy, a 
fief of the French kings, whose capital 
was at Dijon, which forms the district 
still known as Burgundy. 

Burma, or Burmah., is a corruption 

of Mranma or Mianma, the national 
name of the Burmese, which, unless 
speaking emphatically, they generally 
pronounce Bani-ma or Byamma. Mran 
or Mi in, the original name of the Bur- 
mese, is identical with the Chinese form 
Mien, used by Marco Polo, -ma being an 
honorific affix. According to Lassen it 
means 'those who are strong,' and was 
probably a title of the warrior caste. 

Burnett River, Queensland, was 
named after a Government surveyor. 



GLOSSARY 



79 



Burton, the name of some sixty English 

villages and towns, is usually from the 
A.S. biir-tilHt which denoted a iUn or 
farmyard containing a bur or ' bower,' 
the word biir meaning a ' storehouse ' in 
O.N., and in A.S. a 'chamber,' ' sleeping 
place/ or building of some kind. But 
when, as in the case of Burton-on- 
Trent and Burton in Warwickshire, 
the early form is Burh-tiin, it signifies a 
protected tun, the difference between a 
burh and a tun being that the tUn was 
the farmstead of the peasant surrounded 
by a hedge, while the burh was the 
dwelling of a more powerful man, pro- 
tected by a ditch with a bank of earth or 
sods; a Burh-tiin would therefore be a 
t^n subsequently protected by a bank, or, 
if protected by a wall, the name would 
be Walton, A.S. Weal-iitn. When, 
as in the case of Burton Constable 
or Burton Dale, the Domesday form 
is Bertun or Bortun, it may be suspected 
that the primitive name was Beorh-tdn, 
the ' hill-tun.' 

Bury, or St. Bdmundabury, or more 
commonly Bury St. Edmunds, is 

called in the Saxon Chronicle Eadmun- 
desburh. In 870, Edmund, the king 
of the East Saxons, was slain by the 
Danes, and a great abbey rose over his 
shrine. 

Bushire, a sea-port on the Persian Gulf, 
is a corruption of abu-shahr, the ' father 
of towns.' 

Bushnan Island and Bushnan 

OOVG, in the Arctic Archipelago, were 
named from John Bushnan, a midshipman 
in the Hecla. 

Bustard Bay, on the eastern coast 
of Australia, was so named by Captain 
Cook from a large bustard, which was 
caught in a trap, and which furnished, as 
he tells us, an excellent dinner. 

Bute, one of the Hebrides, is probably 
the Ebuda of Ptolemy, which, owing to a 
misreading in a MS. has given rise to the 
ghost-name of the Hebrides [q.v,). The 
meaning of the name is uncertain. 

Byam Martin Island, Byam Martin 

Channel, and Byam Martin's Mountains, 
all in the Arctic regions, were so named 
by Parry, Beechey, and Ross (1810-1826) 
after Sir Thomas Byam Martin, comp- 
troller of the Navy, 

Byron's Island, in the South Pacific, 
and Cape Byron, New South Wales, 
were named after Commodore Byron, 
grandfather of the poet. 



Oabes, Gulf of, Tunis, takes its name 
from the town of Cabes or Khabs, 
anciently Tacape. 

Oaoeres, the capital of the Spanish pro- 
vince of the same name in Estremadura, 
is a corruption of Castra Caediia, the 
Roman name. 

Cader IdriS, the seat or ' chair of Idris,' 
is the name of a mountain in Merioneth, 
which from the north bears some resem- 
blance to a chair. Idris, according to 
the Welsh myth, was a giant, and it was 
believed that if a man spent a night on 
the mountain where Idris had his seat he 
would, when he descended in the morning, 
be eitho- a madman or a bard. 

Cadiz, which has kept its unbroken posi- 
tion as a great city longer than any other 
in Europe, longer even than Marseille, 
preserves nearly unchanged the Roman 
name of Gades, though the Greek form 
Gadeira approaches nearer to the Phoeni- 
cian name Gadir or Gaddir, the ' enclosure ' 
or ' walled place. ' The wall was probably 
carried across the sandy isthmus to pro- 
tect the city, which stood, like the modem 
Cadiz, at the western extremity of the 
spit, which is about six miles in length. 
We have the same Semitic name in 
Gadara and Gedor in Palestine, while 
Agh ADER on the coast of Morocco retains 
the form Agadir, which we have on the 
Phoenician coins of Cadiz, where the first 
letter merely represents the prosthetic 
article. 

Oaen, the capital of the Calvados, is a V 
name of obscure meaning. Old forms 
are Cadon, Cathum, Kadum, Cat him, 
Cahent, Cahen, and Caem. The name has 
been supposed to be from the French cade, 
a kind of juniper, caden meaning a place 
surrounded by a hedge of juniper, or it 
may be Teutonic, involving a personal 
name. The medieval Latin form Cadomus 
would point to a Celtic Catumagos^ the 
'battle-field.' 

Caerleon, Monmouthshire, was the 
Roman I sea Silurum, so called because 
it stood on the Usk (Isca), in tlie territory 
of the Silures. Here the second Augustan 
legion was stationed, whence the Welsh 
name Caer-leon, the 'city of the legion.' 
The British word Caer, a 'stone fort,' 
and hence a ' walled city,' was commonly 
applied to Roman sites, thus correspond- 
ing to the A.S. ^^aj/^r (Chester). It is 
often contracted to Car, as in Carlisle 
or Carnarvon. Caerv^ent was the 
Roman Venta Silurum. There is a 
Roman camp at Caer-Mote in Cumber- 
land, while at Caersws, Caerwys. and 



8o 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Caergwrle, places in Wales, Roman 
remains have been foimd. In Salop 
there are two hills called Caer Caradoc, 
crowned by British earth-works, and Caer 
Badon is the invented name of the great 
earth-work overhanging Bath. Caer- 
VORAN in Northumberland is Caer Vawr, 
the ' great castle.' Carstairs, in Lanark- 
shire, is probably the caer or fort of a 
man named Toras. Carew (pronounced 
Carey), on Milford Haven, is a corruption 
of the Welsh caerau, the plural of caer, 
and means 'the forts.' In Cardinham 
near Bodmin, the suffix is not the English 
'ham, the name being a corruption of 
Caer-dinam, the Caer or * fort of Dinam.' 
In Ireland caer is found in the form 
cathair, pronoimced caher, which usually 
denotes a stone fort, though the word is 
glossed cimtas. There are more than 
thirty Irish townlands so called, the best 
known being Caher in Tipperary. There 
are also more than five hundred townlands 
or towns whose names begin with Caher 
or Cahir, thus Cahergal (Cathair-geal), 
the 'white fort,* is the name of eleven 
places. 

Cafifres. (5^^KXfiristXn.) 

Gagliari, Sardinia, is a corruption of the 
ancient name Caralis or Calaris. 

Gahors, in the Department of the Lot, 
was anciently Civitas Cadurcorun, 'the 
city of the Cadurci.' Cahors is a corrup- 
tion of Cadurcis, the dative plural of the 
tribe-name. 

CaimB, a town in Queensland, bears the 
name of Sir William Cairns, a brother 
of Lord Cairns, formerly Governor of 
Queensland. 

Cairo, in French Le Caire, is a corruption 
of the Arabic El Kdhira, ' the victorious,' 
so called h&c2MSt Kdhir {Mbis), the planet 
of victory, was visible on the night when 
the city was founded. El Kdhira is, how- 
ever, a mere epithet or nickname, the 
natives calling the city El Misr, or El 
Masr, from Mizraim, the Semitic name of 
Egypt, sometimes adding the honorific 
epithet Masr-el-Kdkira, 

Caitliness is the northernmost county 
of Scotland. From the old name Caith 
the Norwegians formed the name Kata- 
nes, Latinised Catfianesia, and spelt in 
the Book of Deir, Cat-nes, meaning the 
ness or promontory of Caith, which is 
supposed to be the same word as Keith, 
found in several local names in the Pictish 
region, such as Keith in Banff and Elgin, 
Dalkeith near Edinburgh, Inch-keith 
in the Firth of Forth, as well as Pen- 
CAITH - LAND, KEITH - HUMBIE, and 



Keith Water on the Upper Tyne. In 
the legendary history of the Picts, Cait is 
a son of Cruithne, the eponymus of the 
Cruithneach or Picts. Hence Cait or 
Keith may be regarded as the epon3nnus 
of one of the Pictish tribes, and, as a 
Gaelic k corresponds to a Welsh/, Keith 
is probably the same name as the Welsh 
Peith (Pict), a probability supported by 
the fact that the sea north of Caithness is 
called the Pentland Frith (q^v.) a cor- 
ruption of Pict-land Frith. 

Calatayud, the birthplace of Martial, 
and afto* Zaragoza the chief city in 
Aragon, is the Arabic Kalat-AyM, the 
castle of the Wali Aydb (Job), the nephew 
of the Moorish chief Musa (Moses), 
who became the Fourth Emir of Spain. 
Calatrava is the 'castle of Rabah,' 
iDut Calahorra, on the Ebro, is a cor- 
ruption of the classical name Calagurris. 
With the prefixed article we get the form 
Alcala, as in Alcala-real, the 'royal 
castle,' or Alcala-de-Henares, the castle 
on the River Henares, which is the Arabic 
an-Nakr, ' the river ' (p. i6o). The word 
Jiaia'f is also found in such Sicilian names 
as Calatafimi and Calatablanca, 
which have Italian suffixes, but Calata- 
bellotta is Kaldt-el-Belut, 'oaktree 
castle,'and Caltanisetta is firom Kala'U 
el'Nisa, the ' castle of the women ' or the 
' ladies' castle.' 

Calais has been derived from the Caletes, ^ 
a tribe-name which may more probably 
be recognised in the Pays de Caux, near 
the mouth of the Seine, the district where 
we should place the Caletes, who were 
probably the 'men of the inlet' or estuary 
of the Seine. The name of Calais may 
be either from the Celtic caolas or caolish, 
a ' strait ' .(Old CqUic koilos, 'narrow'), 
which we have in the Ktles of Bute, 
and in Balla-chulish, the 'village of 
the strait,* or from the word cale or cala, 
an ' inlet ' or ' harbour,' which we find in 
Partus Cale, the old name of Oporto, 
whence the name of Portugal (q.v. ). 

Calaveras, a county in California, takes 
its name from the Pimta Calaveras, a 
Spanish name meaning the Cape of the 
cattle skulls. 

Calcutta, called Kalkatta in the Ain-i- 
Akbari, has been supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of the Indian name Kdli-Kdta, 
the 'dwelling' or 'sacred place' of KAli, 
the wife of Siva. At KAHghat, on the 
Ganges near Calcutta, there is a temple 
of Kdlf , erected because of the legend that 
one of her fingers fell here when her body 
was cut to pieceis. Calicut [UToliiddu), 



GLOSSARY 



8i 



on the Malabar coast, whence we obtain 
the word calico^ was the first place in 
India visited by European ships, Covilham 
landing about i486, and Vasco de Gama 
arriving in 1498. It is supposed to be 
the Indian Kolikotta, the ' cock fort, or 
possibly Kalikot, the 'fortress of Kdlf,' 
a goddess whose name is found in 
Kaliganj, • Kali's market,' Kalimath, 

• Kali's temple,' Kalinadi, ' Kali's river,' 
and Kalipani, ' Kali's water.' 

Caldas, or Las Oaldas, the 'hot 

baths/ is the name of towns in Spain, 
Portugal, and Brazil. 

Caledonia, the land inhabited by the 
Caledonii, was probably the great central 
forest of Scotland which stretched from 
Inveraray to Inverness. The name pro- 
bably means a ' forest,' the root of Cale- 
donia answering to the German holt, which 
we have in Holstein. As called means 

• thistles ' in Gaelic, Caledonia was sup- 
posed to mean the land of thistles, and 
hence the thistle has been adopted as the 
national emblem. The usual et)mlology, 
which makes Caledon the 'dun of the 
Gael' must be rejected. Nev^t Cale- 
donia, discovered by Cook in 1774, was 
the name given to a large island near the 
New Hebrides, which marches with the 
neighbouring islands of New Ireland and 
New Britain. Caledon, in the Cape 
Colony, was named in compliment to 
Lord Caledon, an Indian official. 

Oalf of Man is a small island south of 
the Isle of Man. The Norsemen called a 
smaller island lying off a larger one its 
calf. So when a fragment breaks off 
from an iceberg it is said to calve. 

California bears a name which the 
Franciscan monks attributed to Cortez, 
and explained as meaning calidafornax, 
the 'hot furnace.' It has also been 
supposed to be a corruption of the native 
name of a small inlet at the south-east end 
of California, discovered by Ximenes in 
1533, named Santa Cruz by Cortez, and 
now called Puerto de la Paz. But Dr. 
Hale's investigations have made it prob- 
able that the name was taken from a 
Spanish romance, Las Sergas de Esplari' 
dian, a continuation of Amadis de Gaula, 
published by Montalvo in 1510, in which 
the writer describes an imaginary island 
abounding in gold and precious stones, 
for which he invented the name of Cali- 
fornia. As applied to the peninsula the 
name first appears in Preciado's diary 
of UUoa's voyage. On the map which 
Dr. Dee gave to Queen Elizabeth in 1580, 
the name of Cape California is given to 



the extreme southern point of the penin- 
sula. In 1579 Sir Francis Drake took 
possession of Upper California in the 
name of Queen Elizabeth, calling it New 
AlbiocL The Gulp of California for- 
merly bore the name of Mar de Cortez, 
from its discoverer. No more appropriate 
name than the Gulf of Cortez could be 
found, and it is a pity that such a 
memorial of the daring Captain should 
have lost its place upon the map. 

Calvados, a department in the North of 
France, received its name at the time of 
the French Revolution from the Calvados / 
reef, a dangerous ledge of rocks stretching 
for fifteen miles along the coast, on which, 
according to the local legend, one of the 
ships of the Armada, said to be the San 
Salvador, was wrecked in 1588. 

Cambay, Gulf of, in Gujardt, takes its 
name from the town of Cam bay or 
Khambhat, formerly Kumbdyaf, from 
Khumbavati, 'the city of the pillar,' so 
called because of the pool of Mahadeva, 
worshipped here under the form of the 
pillar god. Marco Polo uses the forms 
Cambaet or Cambeth, which are less 
incorrect than the Anglicised name Cam- 
bay. In the time of the Portuguese it was 
a wealthy and populous city, of sufficient 
importance to give the European name 
to the gulf on which it stands. \See p. 312.) 

Cambodia or Camboja, a country in 
further India, possibly a European cor- 
ruption of the Annamese name Cao-mer, 
is believed by Yule to be a Sanskrit name 
transferred from North- Western India to 
Indo-China. 

Cambrai (Nord) is a corruption of the old 
name Cameracum, which, according to 
d'Arbois de Jubainville, is from the per- 
sonal name Caraarus, a preferable ety- 
mology to that which makes it a place 
appertaining to a camera or demesne 
house. 

CambuS, in Stirlingshire and in Tyrone, 
is the Gaelic camus, which means a ' bay,' 
or the • bend' of a river, whence Cambtjs- 
NETHAN, the 'bend of the River Nethan,' 
Cambuslang, Cambusbarron, Cam- 
BUSKENNETH, and Other names. 

Cambridgro ^ usually supposed to mean 
the bridge over the River Cam, the real 
name of which is the Granta. In the 
A.S. Chronicle it is called Grantabrycg, 
Graniebrycgy and Granianbrycg, and in 
early charters Cambridgeshire is called 
GrantebrigicB comitatus, Grantecestrice 
comitatus and Grantebrigeshire, which 
must in some way have become corrupted 
into Cantebruggescr^ , which first appears in 



82 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



a charter of 1 142. The name of the Granta 
is retained by Grantchester, a village 
two miles above Cambridge, which, as the 
name implies, must have been a Roman 
station. Cambrid^ castle, which stands 
near the bridge which must have replaced 
an older ford, is believed to be the site of 
another Roman station, as b indicated by 
the adjacent suburb of Chesterton, the 
• tun by the Chester. ' This second station, 
from which we may perhaps derive the 
name of Cambridge, has been identified 
with considerable probability with the 
Caniboritum of the Fifth Itinerary. Cam- 
boritimi would represent an ancient British 
name Camboriton or Cambo-rhed, the 
•crooked,' or 'skew ford,' a name 
paralleled by the Derbyshire name of 
Cromford, the 'bent or crooked ford.' 
Cambo-rhed would normally become 
Cambret, and when the ford was re- 
placed by a bridge, by popular etymology 
Cambret would become Cambrycg, easily 
confused with, and ultimately replacing, 
the name Grantebrycg, a change which 
dates from the time of Henry li. In the 
same way the A.S. Hreddford^ ' reed ford,' 
in Hampshire, became Redbridge aSier 
the bridge was built. As early as the 
time of Milton the River Granta had come 
to be called the CAM, doubtless in order 
to account for the name of Cambridge, 
Just as the river Eden in Kent acquired 
its present name in order to explain the 
name of Edenbridge. The Celtic word 
cam, which means 'crooked,' could not 
have been used to designate a rivo* whose 
course is so remarkably straight, not to 
say that Celtic speech had disappeared 
long before the twelfth century, when 
Cambridge acquired its present name. 

Cajnbrid^e. near Boston in Massa- 
chusetts, is the seat of the Harvard Uni- 
versity, foimded in 1636, and endowed by 
the munificent bequest of John Harvard, 
a graduate of Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge. The place was originaUy called 
Newtown, which wss changed to Cam- 
bridge in honour of John Harvard's 
university. Cambridge Gulp, on the 
northern coast of Australia, was named 
by King in 1819 in honour of the first 
Duke of Cambridge. 

Camden Town, a suburb of London, 
was built on part of the Prebendal Manor 
of Cantelows, the lessee of which was 
the Marquis of Camden, who took his 
title from Camden Place in Kent, whidi 
had been the residence of the great anti- 
(juary William Camden. Camden Bat, 
in Australia and in Arctic America, were 



named in honour of Lord Camden. 
Campden, in Gloucestershire, which gives 
a title to Viscount Campden, prolxibly 
means the ' crooked valley.' 

Oamelford, Cornwall, is the A.S. Ga/o/- 
ford^ the ford where tribute was paid 
(K,%,gafol^ 'tribute'). Guildford(^.w.) 
may be a similar name. 

Oameroons, properly Camaraons, the 
European name of the greatest mountain 
mass in Western Afiica, is called by the 
natives Mongo-ma-loba, the 'throne of 
thunder. ' Curiously enough the Europea n 
name of this great mountain means 
'shrimps,' the Portuguese having given 
the name of RiO DOS CamarAos (Cama- 
raons), the ' river of shrimps,' to the Diba, 
a stream south of the mountain, which sub- 
sequently took its name from the river. 

Campbell Island, an isolated volcanic 
isle south of New Zealand, was discovered 
in 1 8 10 by the whaler Perseverance ^ owned 
by the Messrs. Campbell of Sydney. 
Campbeltown, in Cantire, bears the 
family name of the Duke of Argyll, head ot 
the Clan Campbell, a name which, though 
Latinised as de bello campo, is a Gaelic 
nickname, cam beul, 'crooked mouth.' 

Campeacliy, a town in Yucatan, which 
has given a name to the Bay of Cam- 
peachy, is a corruption of Quimpech^ the 
native name of the district. 

Canaan is a biblical name given to some 
twenty places in the U.S.A. The word, 
which means the 'lowlands,' originally 
designated the narrow strip of coast be- 
tween the Lebanon and the sea, where 
the great Phoenician cities lay, after- 
wards being extended much further to 
the south. 

Canada, called La Nouvelle France by 
the French settlers, is probably the native 
word Kanata, which means a collection 
of huts or wigwams. Cuoq, in his 
Iroquois Lexicon, defines the word Kan- 
ata as meaning 'ville, village, bourg, 
boiu-gade, camp, groupe de tentes.' The 
Canada River, in the State of Missis- 
sippi, is a tributary of the Arkansas River. 
It flows through a deep gorge, and the 
name is explained by the Spanish Canada, 
*SL ravine.' The gorge of the St. Law- 
rence below the Falls of Niagara has sug- 
gested a similar etjrmology for Canada, 
but this is inadmissible, Canada bdng a 
French and not a Spanish colony. 

Canara. properly Karnada, a coast 
district m Western India, probably means 
the ' Black Country,' from its black cotton 
soil. The Carnatic (KarndHk), a dis- 



GLOSSARY 



83 



trict on the Kastem Coast, is believed to 
have the same signification, the Sanskrit 
Karndtaka being the adjectival form of 
Karndta, of whidi Canara is a Portuguese 
corruption. 

Oanaiy Islands, a group in the North 

Atlantic, were identified by the Spaniards 
with the FortunatcB InsulcB of Phny (vi. 
202, seq.), one of which, according to 
Ptolemy and Juba (quoted by Pliny), 
was called Canada, from the multitudine 
canum ingentis magnitudinis. The 
Spaniards in 1492 found a breed of large 
dogs, now extinct, on the largest island 
of the group, which they called Gran 
Canaria. On his second voyage, Colum- 
bus took with him some of these dogs 
to fight the natives of Haiti and Cuba. 
The Cuban bloodhound probably con- 
tinues the race. A finch with a patch 
of yellow on the wing coverts, brought 
from the island of Grand Canary, was 
called the canary bird, the colour which 
the bird developed under domestication 
being afterwards called canary. 

Candahar. {See Kandahar. ) 

Candia is a mere ghost-name, improperly 
used by Western geographers for the 
island of Crete. The error arose from 
the city of Megalo-Castron having 
t)een called Candia by the Venetians. 
The usual etymology is from the Arabic 
khandak^ signifying the * moat ' or 
'trench,' which the Saracens were sup- 
posed to have constructed round their 
fortified camp when they conquered Crete 
in the ninth century. This explanation 
cannot, however, be supported, Candia 
being merely the neo-Hellenic word kan- 
dia, used by Greek sailors to denote the 
narrow, navigable 'channel' through the 
mud-locked harbour. Even for the town 
the name Candia is never used in the 
island, the local designation being ' Cas- 
tron.' To call Crete by the name of 
Candia is an error of the same kind as if 
England were to be called the Nore. 

Candlemas Isles are a Pacific group 
discovered by Captain Cook on Candlemas 
i3ay (Feb. 2nd), 1775. From the same 
festival comes the name Bajios de Can- 
DELARIA, given by Mendana in 1567 to a 
reef in the Salomon Islands, which is now 
usually called el Roncador, ' thesnorer,' 
from the noise made by the breakers on 
the rocks. 

Candover, the name of three contiguous 
parishes in Hampshire, is probably Celtic, 
perhaps can dwfr, the 'white water,' or 
cam-dw/r, the 'crooked water.' The 
River Itchin rises in the parish of Chilton 



Candover (A.S. Can^defet or Cendefer). 
There is a Candover in Teviotdale, and 
CoNDOVER is the name of a hundred and 
a parish in Shropshire. 

Candy. (5<?« Kandy.) • 

CaJine, in Apulia, presei-ves the old name 
Cannae^ the 'reeds' or 'canes.' Cannes 
on the Riviera, and several places in South 
America called Canete or Caneta are 
so called because overgrown with reeds or 
'canes.' 

Canonbie, Dumfriesshire, takes its name 
from a priory of Austin Canons, founded 
in 1 165. 

Canosa, the castle in the Parmese Apen- 
nines, where Hildebrand kept the Emperor 
Henry waiting in the snow, was probably 
so named from the hoary limestone cliff 
on which it stands, or perhaps from the 
ashy paleness of its walls. 

Cantaly a French department, takes its 
name from the volcanic mass of the Cantal, 
which is perhaps connected with cantalon, 
a Gaulish word occurring in inscriptions, 
which appears to mean a ' tower.' 

Canterbury was the burh of the Cant- 
ware or men of Kent. We are told in the 
Saxon Chronicle that in 675 Cantwara- 
burh was burnt. The oblique case Cant- 
warabyrig, from which comes the modern 
form Canterbury, is seen in such entries 
as to Cantwarabyrig (a.d. 655), or innan 
Cantwarabyrig{A.li. 689). Kent is called 
Cantwararice^ ' the realm of the men of 
Kent,' where wara is gen. pi. of ware, 
the same word which we have in burghers 
(A.S. burhware), Bavarians {Baio-varii), 
or in the German land-wehr. It means 
primarily defenders, warders, or guardians, 
and then inhabitants. The men of the 
Isle of Wight were called Wihtware, just 
as the men of Kent were called Cantware. 
(See Kent.) 

Canton is the European name of the 
city called by the Chinese either Kwang- 
chou-Fu or Sang-Chivg. It is the capital 
of the province of Kwang-tung or Quang- 
tung, of which Canton is a Portuguese 
corruption. Quang-tung is the 'wide 
east,' /««^ meaning the ' east,' and qztang, 
' extent' or ' width.' The province to the 
west of Quang-tung is called Quang-si 
(Kwang-si), 'the wide west.' 

Cape Town and the Cape Colony, 

of which it is the capital, take their names 
from the Cape of Good Hope, discovered 
in 1487 by Bartolomeo Diaz, despatched 
in July or August, i486, by King John ir. 
of Portugal, with two vessels of fifty tons 
each, in order to find a sea route to India. 



^ 



84 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Diaz reached the mouth of the Congo and 
erected a pillar north of Wallfisch Bay. 
At Cape Voltas he found the coast 
•trended' eastward to St. Helena Bay. 
Battling with . tempests for thirteen days 
he doubled, without knowing it, the 
southern extremity of Africa, reaching 
the mouth of the great Fish River and 
landing in Algoa Bay, whidi he called 
Angra dos Vaqueiros, ' bay of the cow- 
herds.' On hiis return he sighted the 
Cape of Good Hope, which he called in 
memory of the tempests he had braved, 
Cabo de todos los Tormientos, 'Cape of 
all the storms,' or more shortly, Cabo 
Tormentoso, ' the stormy cape.' In the 
*good hope' that the sea route to India 
had at last been found, King John 
changed this appropriate but ill-omened 
name to Cabo de B6a Esperanqa^ of which 
the English name Cape of Good Hope 
is a translation, llie Cape was not again 
visited for ten years after it had been 
thus discovered. Diaz commanded one 
of the ships in Cabral's expedition by 
which Brazil was accidentally discovered, 
and in crossing the South Atlantic from 
Brazil to the Cape he was lost in the fear- 
ful storm of May 23rd, 1500. There is also 
a Cape op Good Hope which appears 
on man}r English maps as the northern- 
most point of New Guinea. The name 
properly belongs to another cape on 
Schouten's Island further to the east, which 
in 1616 was called Caep van Goede Hoop 
by Le Maire and Schouten, in the good 
hope they entertained of speedily rejoining 
their fellow-coimtrymen. Tasman and 
Dampier erroneously transferred this name 
to the northern point of New Guinea, and 
Columbus also gave the name of Cabo de 
Buena Esperanza to the furthest point 
he reached on the south-western shore of 
Cuba in his second voyage, because, 
finding the coast here trending to the 
south, he felt assured that Cuba was a 
part of the Asiatic Continent, and there- 
fore believed himself to be nearer Chins. 
. than Diaz was at the other Cape of Good 
, Hope discovered seven years before. 

•'^Cape Verd was discovered in 1445 hy 
Diniz Dias, who had been a page of King 
John I. of Portugal, and was named Cabo 
Verde, the * green cape,' because it was 
covered with palms, thus upsetting the old 
belief derived from Aristotle, and enter- 
tained by Ptolemy, Edrisi, and Roger 
Bacon, that the tropics were so burnt up 
bv the heat of the sun as to be uninhabit- 
able deserts. The Cape Verd Islands 
were called by the Portuguese discoverers 



Ilhxis do Cabo Verde, because they lay 
opposite the Cabo Verde. 

Cappadpoia, according to Herodotus, 
is a Persian name. ■ In old Persian Hvas- 
padakhim would mean ' the land of good 
horses.' 

CaprerCL a small island near Elba, the 
retreat of Garibaldi. Cabrera, one of 
the Balearic islands, the IsoLA Di Capri, 
in the Bay of Naples, and two of the 
Azores called Ilhas das Cabras, are 
names signifying • islands of goats.' 

Capricorn, Oape, in Queensland, was 
so named by Cook in 1770 because it lies 
precisely on the Tropic of Capricorn. 

Capua, in Italy, called Campanus by Livy 
and Cicero, and Campana Urbs by Virgil, 
was the chief town of Campania, the great 
' plain,' now called Campagna Felice. 
Its coins bear the legend Cappan and 
Campana. 

Carabela. a rocky two-peaked island in 
the West Indies, near St. Thomas, was so 
called because at a distance it resembled 
the Spanish ship called a caravel. 

Caracas, or Santiago de Caracas, 
the capital of Venezuela, was founded in 
1567, and named from a warlike native 
tribe. 

Cardiff, according to a local legend, was 
the Caer or fortress of Didius (Aulus 
Didius), a legend supported by Caerddydd, 
the Welsh form of the name. It has also 
been explained as the Caer or fortress on 
the River Taflf. 

Cardigran, the county town of Cardigan- 
shire, is properly the name of the county, 
and not of the town, which the Welsh call 
Aber-Teivi, because it lies at the ' mouth of 
the Teivi.' The old name Keredigion, of 
which Cardigan is a corruption, was de- 
rived, according to the Welsh tradition, 
from Keredig or Caredig, son of Cunedda, 
a prince who conquered the district in the 
sixth century. 

Caribee, or Windward Islands, in the 
West Indies, were so called because at 
the time of the Spanish discovery they 
were inhabited by the Caribs, a native 
word meaning the 'fighters,' which was 
given by the more peaceful islanders to 
the fierce invaders from the South Ameri- 
can coast. Columbus seems to have mis- 
heard the native term Cariba as Caniba, 
and this served to confirm his belief that 
he had discovered the islands on the 
eastern coast of China, supposing they 
were subjects of the Great Khan {i.e. 
Genghis Khan) of Pekin, whom it was his 
object to convert, and to whom he carried 



GLOSSARY 



8S 



letters of introduction. On December 
nth he makes this curious entry in his 
log, ' Caniba must mean subjects of the 
Chan, who must reside in the neighbour- 
hood.' The imaginary name Caniba was 
then transferred to the man-eating savages 
of South America, and the word cannibal, 
originally a corruption of carib^ was de- 
rived from canis^ ' a dog,' and supposed 
to have been given propter rabiem caninam 
anthropophagorum gentis. 

Carinthia and Carniola are the Latin- 
ised forms of the German names Karn- 
THEN and Krain. They are believed to 
denote the land of the Carni, a tribe 
whose name probably meant • the moun- 
taineers.' 

Ccuisbrooke, in the Isle of Wight, is first 
mentioned in the Chronicle, where we read 
• Her Cerdic and Cynric genamon (took) 
Wihie ealond^ and of slogan {slew) /eala 
(many) men on Wiktgarasbyrg.' The 
forms Wihtgarahyrig and Gwihtgara- 
hurhg are also found. In a lata* MS. of 
the Chronicle we have Wihtgaresburh, 
from which the form Carisbrooke was 
obtained hy dropping the first syllable. 
The Chronicle also informs us that of 
lotan (the Jutes) cotnon Caniware and 
Wihtware, which suggests the theory 
that Wihtgaraburh was the burh of the 
men of Wight, just as Cantwaraburh 
(Canterbury) was the bttrh of the men 
of Kent. But in the Chronicle Wihtgar 
is the nephew of Cerdic and Cynric, 
although Cynric was the son of Cerdic, 
which looks as if Wihtgar was an epo- 
nymic name invented to explain Wiht- 
garesburh, just as Port is an epon)anus 
invented to explain the name of Portsmouth 
(the Portus Magnus of the Romans), 
where he is saicf to have landed. The 
difficulty lies in the change, at such an 
early date, of Wihtwara to Wihtgara. 
Professor Earle suggests that the original 
name of Carisbrooke was WtAt-caer, the 
*city of Wight,' and that there was an 
assimilation of this Celtic name and the 
Teutonic Wiht-ware, the 'men of Wight,' 
out of which Wihtgar and Wihtgaraburh 
were evolved. (5^* Canterbury.) Pos- 
sibly the change may have been due to a 
surviving British element in the popula- 
tion, Welsh regularly changing w to gw, 
the Latin loan words vinum, ventus^ and 
virgo becoming in Welsh gwin, gwynt, 
and gwraig» 

Carlisle, owing to its . position in the 
British kingdom of Strathclyde, has pre- 
served a purely Celtic name. It is the 
Lugwallum or Luguvallium of the An- 



tonine Itinerary, the Lvgubalum and the 
Luguvalio ad Vallum of the Ravenna geo- 
grapher, and Baeda's Lugubalia^ which 
was corrupted into Liuel, Simeon of Dur- 
ham speaking of 'Lugubalia, which is 
called Luel.' With the British prefix caer, 
a ' city,' this became Caer-luel. In the 
ninth century we find the Anglo-Saxon 
equivalent Lul-chester, but in the tenth we 
again find the British form Caer-luely 
which degenerated into Carliol, and finally 
became CARLISLE. Carlisle- was at one 
extremity of the vallum oi Hadrian, which 
extended from Wallsend to Carlisle. Lug- 
u-vallum signifies the 'wall-tower,' that 
is the tower or fort at the end of the 
vallum. The Celtic lugus of Mela, and 
the Cornish lug, meaning a tower, is seen 
in the name Lugdimum, ' tower-hill,' now 
Lyons [q.v.). 

OarlO'W, an Irish county, takes its name 
from the coimty town of Carlow, on the 
River Barrow, which, according to the 
tradition, here formed four lakes. The 
old name was Cetherloch (pronounced 
Caher lough), which means the 'quad 
ruple lake.' 

Carlenilie, properly Karlsruhe, * Charles* 
rest,' the capital of the Grand Duchy of 
Baden, was originally a hunting seat, 
built in 1715 by Karl Willhelm, Margrave 
of Baden, on a spot where he had rested 
in the shade. Karlsbad, or Kaiser- 
karlsbad, is a mineral bath in Bohemia, 
with hot saline springs, which are said 
to have been accidentally discovered by 
the Emperor Karl iv. diu-ing a hunting 
excursion. 

Carlstad and Garlskrona, two towns 

in Sweden, capitals of the provinces to 
which they give their names, were both 
founded by Charles ix. of Sweden. Carl- 
stad in Croatia, and Carlowitz on the 
Danube are named from German em- 
perors, and Carlshamma, a Swedish 
port, is 'Charles' enclosure.' 

Garmarthen, the county town of Car- 
marthenshire, IS believed to be the Roman 
Maridunum, the fort or ' dun by the sea.' 
This name was contracted to Mariken, 
and with the prefix caer, 'fortress' or 
'city,' became Caer-marthen. Another 
Maridunum in Devon has become Seaton, 
a translated name. 

Carmel, a cape and mountain in Syria, 
now called Ras-el-Kirmel, or Jebel 
KiRMEL, is believed to have been named 
from an altar to Karm-el the 'vinejrard 
god.' It was a venerated sanctuary in the 
time of Thothtpes ill* 



86 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Carnarvon, or Oaemarvon, the 

county town of Carnarvonshire, was the 
town which gathered round Edward's 
castle, and became the capital of the land 
of Arfon. The Welsh name is Caer-yn- 
Arfon, ' the city of Arfon,' Ar-fon (with the 
regular letter change of m to/) meaning 
the land over against Mon, Mon being 
the island of Mona, now called Anglesey. 
Gray's line, 'on Arvon's dreary shore 
they lie,' preserves the memory of the 
land of Arfon, now a Parliamentary dis- 
trict, as well as the true meaning of Car- 
n-arvon. Carnarvon took the place of the 
neighbouring Roman station oi Segontium, 
now called Caer Seiont, a name pro- 
bably invented by the antiquarians. 

Carolina. In 1629 Sir Robert Heath 
obtained from Charles i. a grant of the ter- 
ritory south of Virginia, on which he be- 
stowed the name of Carolina in gratitude 
to his royal master. No settlement was 
made under this patent, of which nothing 
remained but the bare name. In 1663 the 
patent was revoked by Charles li., and a 
new grant made to eight patentees, among 
whom were Lords Albemarle, Clarendon, 
and Ashley, who renamed the territory after 
Charles ll. In 1665 the patent was recast, 
and in 1667 a body of colonists landed, 
under the command of Captain William 
Sayle. In 1729 Carolina was divided 
into two colonies, North Carolina and 
South Carolina. The name Carolina had, 
however, been already given to a part of 
the territory included in the grant of 
Charles 11. In 1562 Admiral Coligny 
obtained permission to plant a colony of 
Huguenots on the coast of Florida, and 
the colonists erected a fort on an island in 
the St. John's river in the north of Florida, 
which they called Arx Carolina, after 
Charles ix. of France, the surrounding 
territory being called Florida Franpaise, 
The Spanish name was Tierra de Ayllon, 
from Vasquez Ayllon who had visited the 
coast forty years before. Carolina was 
the name given in 1686 by Lazeano to an 
island in the North Pacific in honour of 
Charles il. of Spain. The name was 
subsequently extended to the neighbour- 
ing group which go by the name of the 
Caroline Islands. 

Carpathians, the range of mountains 
north of Hungary, is a name derived from 
Krapat or Karpa, the local name of the 
main chain, which is explained by the 
Slavonic root chrb, signifying a ' ridge ' or 
'range of hills,' whence also the word 
Chrawat, or Croat, a 'highlander, and 
Croatia, the 'land of the Croats.' 



Carpentaria is the name of the great 
gulf on the northern coast of Australia. 
In 1623 Jan Cartensz gave the name of 
Carpentier to a small river near Cape 
Duyfhen, in honour of Pieter Carpentier, 
at that time President of the Dutch East 
India Company. After the second voyag^e 
of Abel Tasman in 1644 the great Aus- 
tralian Gulf which he explored begins to 
appear on the maps as the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria. It had, however, been dis- 
covered before the voyage of Cartensz, the 
Dutch ship Duyfhen having in 1606 sailed 
along the coast from Cape York as far as 
Cape Keer Weer (Cape Tumagain). 
The ship had missed Torres Strait, and it 
was supposed that the lands discovered 
were a part of New Guinea, but the 
Duyfhen had in reality been the first to 
discover Australia, as well as to penetrate 
into the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

Carriok-on-Suir, a town in Tipperary, 
is the Anglicised form of the old Irish 
name Carraig-na-Siuire, ' the rock of the 
Suir,' so called from a large rock in the 
bed of the river. Carrickfergus, in 
County Antrim, is so called fi-om a rock 
where Fergus, an Irish king, was drowned. 
Carrick-on-Shannon is 'a corrupted name, 
derived from a carra or ' weir ' on the 
Shannon. More than 600 Irish names con- 
tain the word car rick or carrig, a 'rock,' 
which also appears as creag, craig, crag, 
or creg. Carrick, an old Scotch earldom, 
now included in Ayrshire, is fi^om the 
same source, referring possibly to a big 
boulder on the march of Ayrshire and 
Galloway, now known as the Taxing Stone. 

Carrow is found in more than 700 names 
of Irish townlands. It is a corruption of 
ceaihramhadh, a ' quarter,' from ceihair, 
'four.' The old townlands were fre- 
quently divided into quarters, distinguished 
by their shape or position. Carrowbeg, 
the ' little quarter,' is common, while Le- 
carrow, the 'half quarter,' and Carrow- 
KEEL, the 'narrow quarter,' each occur 
more than sixty times. 

Carson City, the state capital of 
Nevada, was named from Kit Carson, a 
famous western hunter, who guided Fre- 
mont's exploring expedition across the 
mountains in 1842. 

Cartagena, or Carthagena, in Spain, 
was foundea, about 243 B.C., by Has- 
drubal. To distinguish it from Carthago 
Vetus, on the site of Tarragona, it was 
called by the Romans 'New Carthage,' 
Carthago Nova, whence the Arabic form 
Kartajina, of which Cartagena is the 
SpanisI) oorruptioi). Cartagena, oq 



GLOSSARY 



87 



the north coast of South America, was 
founded in 1533 by Pedro de Heredia, 
and named aiter Cartagena in Spain. 
There is also a Cartago in Costa Rica, 
and another near Bogoti. Cartagena 
means New-Newtown, the African Car- 
thage being a Tyrian colony planted on 
the site of the Sidonian colony of Byrsa 
(Basra, the 'city'), and called Keret- 
chadeschat^ the ' New town,' whence the 
Greek name Karthada and the Roman 
name Carthago. 

Carteret's Island, one of the Salomon 
group; Carteret's Harbour in New 
Ireland; and Carteret Point inEgmont 
Island were discovered and named in 
1767 by Captain Philip Carteret. 

Gartier River, an affluent of the St. 

La^vrence, bears the name of the dis- 
co vera*» Jacques Cartier, who, in 1535, 
sailed up the St. Lawrence as far as die 
site of Montreal. 

Casco Bay. in Maine, U.S.A., signifies 
' Heron Bay, from the native word casco, 
a • heron. ' 

Cashel in Tipperaiy, the capital of the 
kings of Munster, is from the old Irish 
caiseal, which denotes a circular stone 
fort. The word is derived from, or 
cognate with, the Latin castellum. No 
less than fifty Irish townlands are called 
Cashel, and in fifty more it forms the 
first element in the name. The Irish 
caislen, a 'castle,' is a corruption of 
castellum. Caislen-riabhach, the 'grey 
castle,' a town in Roscommon, gave to 
the surrounding barony the well-known 
name which has be^ Anglicised as 
Castlereagh, and Caislen-an-Bhar- 
raigh, ' Barry's castle,' has now become 
Castlebar in Mayo. 

Cashmere (Kashmir) is the European 
form of the Sanskrit Kasmira, probably 
the fCaspeiria of Ptolemy, since the native 
legend explains the name as K&syapa-mar, 
the 'dwelling of Kdsyapa,' a personage 
who, in Hindu m3rthology, opens the clefl 
through which the Jhelum drains the valley. 

Caspian, the European name of the 
great inkuid sea of Asia, was so called by 
file Greeks fi*om the Caspii, a tribe who, 
in the time of Herodotus, dwelt on its 
western shore, probably in the district of 
J ASP, which is supposed to preserve their 
name. 

Cassel, which crowns an isolated hill 
near Lille, is believed to be the Roman 
Castellum Morinorum. Cassel, the 
capital of the former electorate of Hbsse> 
^ASSEL, was probably also a Roman 



castellum. The name appears as Chas- 
selle in 913 and Casella in 1008. Bern- 
CASTEL, written BeriTicastelva the eleventh 
century, evidently contains a personal 
name. 

Castel-Sarrasin (Tam et Garonne), on 
the River Azine, is not a Saracenic castle, 
but merely a corruption of Castel-sur- 
Azine. So Pontresina in the Grau- 
btinden, formerly Ponte Saraceno, may be 
explained fi'om the Rhaetian word serras, 
a ' barrier.' 

Oastellamare (Castel-a-mare), a town on 
the Bay of Naples, surroimds the ' castle 
on the sea,' buUt by Frederic 11. 

Oastile is the English form of the Spanish 
name Castilla, so called from the line 
of castles erected against the Moors on the 
frontier of the kingdom of Leon in the 
ninth and following centuries. Old Cas- 
tile and New Castile mark the successive 
stages of the conquest. 

Castleton, in Derbyshire, is the town 
near Peak Castle, which was erected by 
William Peverel, a natural son of William 
the Conqueror. Castleton in Cleveland 
is the town near the Castle of de Brus 
(Bruce). Castletown, the capital of 
Isle of Man, is the English translation of 
the Manx name Bally Cashtel. It sur- 
rounds Castle Rushin, long the residence 
of the kings of Man. 

Castro, the chief town in the Isle of 
Chil(5e, was fotmded in 1566 by Lope 
Garcia de Castro. 

Castro Giovanni, in Sicily, occupies 
the site of Enna, a natural fortress called 
by the Romans Castrum Enna, a name 
which was assimilated by the Arabs as 
Kasr-Janni, and this, after the erection of a 
castle by Frederick 11. of Aragon, became 
Castro Janni, and finally by folk-etymo- 
logy, Castro Giovanni, which appar- 
ently would signify ' John's Castle.' The 
modem Greek names of Kastro, a town 
in Lemnos, and of Kastro, a town in 
Imbros, refer to castles erected by the 
Turks. 

Catalonia, in Spanish Catalui^a, is a 
name the meaning of which is unknown. 
It was occupied by the Alans, and about 
470 A. D. by the West Goths, whence the 
conjecture that the name might be a 
corruption of Gothalaniaf or Gotholunia, 

Catania, a town in Sicily, at the foot of 
Etna, anciently Kataua, is believed to 
be fi-om the Phoenician Kothon, 'small/ 
meaning either the little town, or more 
probably the little harbour, as compared 
\yitli the great harbours of the neighbom"f 



88 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



ing settlements of Syracuse and Messina. 
The variant form Catina, which has been 
referred to the Italic word catinus 
(Sicilian cetinon), a 'dish' or 'bowl,' is 
probably only an assimilated form of the 
Phoenician name. 

Catastrophe, Gape, at the western 

entrance of Spencer Gulf, South Australia, 
was so called by Flinders, because, on 
February 2nd, 1802, his cutter was upset 
with a loss of eight men. 

Cata'Wba River, South Carolina, is 
named from the Catawba, a Dakota tribe, 
once the most powerful people in South 
Carolina, but now reduced to some him- 
dred and twenty souls. 

Caterick, in Yorkshire, preserves the 
name of the Roman station of Catarac- 
tonium. 

Catmere or Catmore, in Berks, is the 
A.S. Catmere. There is no mere, the 
land being high, hence the name is pro- 
bably a corruption of the British Coed- 
mawr, the 'great wood.' To the O.N. 
katt, a. 'boat,' we may refer such names 
as Catfoss, the ' boat foss ' or brook ; or 
Cat WICK, Domesday^ Catinwic, the 'boat 
bay,' both in Yorkshire. Kkttwig, near 
Dusseldorf, was formerly Katwik, the ' boat 
bay.' 

Cato's Bank, off the Great Australian 
Barrier reef, was discovered in 1803 by 
the ship Cato. 

Catoohe, Cape, at the north-east comer 
of Yucatan, was aiscovered by Hernandez 
de Cordoba on March ist, 1517. Bernal 
Diaz tells us that the cazique welcomed 
the Spaniards with the words Con escotoch, 
Con escotoch, ' Come in to my house * ; and 
hence the Spaniards took Catoche for the 
name of the village, now transferred to 
the Cape. According to recent researches 
conex cotoch would mean in the Maya 
language ' come into our town.' 

Oattaro, in Dalmatia, i$ the Cattarus of 
Procopius, and probably the Dekadaron 
of the Ravenna geographer. 

Caucasus was anciently Graucasus^ ex- 
plained by Pliny as a Scythian name 
meaning nive candidus, an et3rmology 
partly supported by scholars, who think 
that the first element is grau or crau, a 
' rock ' or mountain, the second meaning 
•white.' 

Cavalli Islands, on the N.w. coast 

of New Zealand, were so named by Cook 
in 1769 because he obtained from the 
natives some fish which they called 
cavalle^. 



Cavan, a town occupying a remarkable 
hollow, gives its name to an Irish county. 
It is explained by the Gaelic cabhan, a 
' cavity,' whence also the Scotch names of 
Cowan and Caven. 

Cawthome in the West Riding, and 
Cawthorne Camps in the North Riding 
of Yorkshire, were probably named from 
some leafless or 'callow thorn,' an ety- 
mology supported by the Domesday form 
Caltom, 

Gawnpore (Kanhpxjr), in India, means 
the *city of Kdnha,' according to the 
tradition from a Zemindar named Kdnha, 
but more probably from Kd^ha (Krishna) 
the 'beloved one,' whence we have 
Cannanore, in Malabar, which is the 
English form of Kahniir or Kahnaniir^ 
the ' town of Kdnha.' 

Oajcamarca, a town high up on the 
Andes in Peru, is a corruption of Kassa- 
marca, the place or town of frost, the 
word marca meaning a 'stockade' in 
Quichua. 

Caxoeira or Cachoira, the 'water- 
fall,' is a not imcommon name in Brazil. 

Cayenne, at the mouth of the river of the^^^' 
same name, is the capital of French 
Guiana. It is probably a variant form of 
Guiana, as is indicated by the old form 
Cainana, 

Cayo, plural Cayos, a Spanish word of 
Celtic origin cognate with the English 
quay, is used in the West Indies and else- 
where to denote coral reefs or sandbanks. 
It often Englished as Cay or Key, as Gun 
Cay, Flamingo Cay, Key West, the 
Grand Cays, and the town of Las Cayes 
in Haiti. 

Cefalu (Greek Cephalcedium), on the 
northern coast of Sicily, is a conspicuous 
'skull-shaped' limestone boss on whose 
summit stood the Greek city, and at 
whose base is a noble Norman cathedral 
built by King Roger. Cephalonia, the 
largest of the Ionian Islands, preserves 
the old Greek name Kepkala, KefhaU 
Ionia, or Kephallenia, which is a sort of 
translation of the older Phoenician name 
Samos, the ' lofty. ' Keph ALO, the ' head , ' 
is the Neo-Greek name given to head- 
lands in Imbros and elsewhere. 

Celebes, one of the Sunda Islands, was 
called by the Portuguese Ilhas dos Celibes 
e dos Macafaresy from the native names of 
two tribes which inhabited it. From the 
Maca9ares comes the name of the town 
and peninsula of Macassar (^.v.). 

Celts, or Kelts, is a name which, owing 
to a curious misapprehension, has become 



GLOSSARY 



89 



attached to the Irish and Welsh, as well 
as to the ancient Gauls and Britons. The 
people called Celtae by classical writers 
were probably of Basque race, some of 
whom, in Central Gaul, acquired the 
language of the Belgae. Hence the term 
Celtic was wrongly applied to the Belgic 
speech, and the races speaking languages 
of the same family were called Celts. 
There is no evidence that the word Celtae 
was used by ancient writers to denote any 
of the so-called • Celtic' races of our islands. 

Cette, a French Mediterranean port, 
anciently StHon, Setius^ or Seta^ becom- 
ing Ceta in 1250, is probably a Greek 
name referring to the export of corn. 

Ceuta is a town on the coast of Morocco, 
nearly opposite Gibraltar. The Roman 
name Seftem Fratres, the 'seven brothers,' 
was derived from the seven conspicuous 
hills which rise above the town. The 
Maghrebi name Sebta^ 'the seven,' is a 
dialectic corruption of the Arabic Sebat 
which translates the Roman name. 

Ce venues, a range of mountains in the 
•^ south of France, called Ctvenna or Cebenna 
by Caesar, and Kemmenon Oros by Strabo, 
is a name explained by Gliick and others 
from the Celtic cefn, a • ridge,' but Helbig 
assigns reasons for referring it to a pre- 
Aryan word, meaning a hill or mountain, 
which survives as the word Ctma, which 
we have in the Cima de Jazi and other 
Swiss peaks, as well as in Cimiez, near 
Nice, and in the mountains of Viterbo, 
north of Rome, anciently called the 
Ciminian Forest (See CiMlEZ.) 

Ceylon is a corruption of the Sanskrit 
name Sinhala, ' the dwelling of lions ' ; 
the followers of Vijaga, who, according to 
Indian history or legend, conquered the 
island in 543 B.C., calling themselves 'the 
lions.' Lunka (Sanskrit Lanka), 'the 
island,' is, however, the oldest name in the 
literatiu*e of Buddhism and Brahminism. 
The name Siele diba in Cosmas Indicus, 
and the Serendib of the Arabian geo- 
graphers, are corruptions of the Sanskrit 
Sinhaladvipa, or Sinhala Island. The 
Malays, wishing to make the name signi- 
ficant in their own language, derived it 
from sila or sela, a ' precious stone,' and 
called it Pulo Selan, the 'isle of gems,' 
which was translated by the Arabs as 
Jazirdt-ul' Yakut, 'the isle of rubies.' 
Marco Polo, seemingly deriving his know- 
ledge from Javanese sources, calls it 
Seflan, whence the Portuguese forms 
Cilan and Ceilaon, from the last of which 
the English form Ceylon has been ob- 
tained. 



Chablais, a district in Savoy, south of 
the Lake of Geneva, is usually said to 
be a corruption of a I^w- Latin name, 
Pagus Caput lacensis, a translation of the 
Celtic name Pennelocos, 'the head of 
the loch,' which we have in the Antonine 
Itinerary. But the medieval form Chab- 
lasium points, as Gatschet contends, rather 
to the Yvenchchablis, Old French chaable. 
Low- Latin cadabalum, meaning faUen 
trees, or a place where the wind has 
levelled the trees on the mountain slopes. 
This is supported by the village-names of 
of Chablie and Ciiabloz in Canton 
Vaud. 

Cha.dileuvu, a Patagonian river, is from 
chadi, ' salt,' and leuvu, sl ' river,' whence 
the LiULEUVU or 'white river,' and the 
RuGiLEUVU or * reedy river.* 

ChBleur Bay, New Brunswick, was 
called by Jacques Cartier in 1534. Baye 
des Chaleurs, ' warm bay,' in contrast to 
the cold he had experienced on the eastern 
coast of Newfoundland. 

Ohallock, in Kent, has been identified 
with a place called in a charter <st Cealf- 
locan, which would mean an enclosure 
[loca) for calves. Shiplake. Oxon. may 
possibly be fh>m sceap-loca, a 'sheep- 
fold.' 

ChdJons-8Ur-Mame was the Roman ^ 
Durocatalaunum, ' the stronghold of the 
Catalaimi.' The name Chftlons is from 
Catalaunis, the dative plural of the tribe- 
name. Chalon-sur-Sa6ne is a corrup- 
tion of Cabillonum, supposed to signify a 
place where horses were bred, but referred 
by d'Arbois de Jubainville to the personal 
name Cabillo. 

Chalmers, the Port of Dunedin, New 
Zealand, bears the name of Dr. Thomas 
Chalmers, a leader of the Disruption. 

Chambery, the capital of the Dukes of 
Savoy, on the River Leysse, is a corrup- 
tion of the Celto-Latin name Camperia- 
cium, usually supposed to mean the place 
at the bend {cam) of the water [bior), but 
is more probably from a personal name. 

Champa^gn^ef one of the old provinces 
of France, owmg to the chalky soil, was 
free from forest, and hence obtained its 
name which signifies the ' open country ' 
or 'plain.' Down to the sixth century it 
was known by the Latin name Campania, 
which in the thirteenth had become Cham- 
pan^ie. In the Campagna of Rome the 
Italian form of the same word is used to 
designate the broad plain, formerly called 
Latium, whose inhabitants were called 
Latins. (5<r« Capua.) 



90 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Ohampion Bay, in Western Australia, 
was first visited by the schooner Champion 
in 1838. 

Chamounlx or Chamouni, in Savoy, 
is a corruption of Campus Munitus or 
Champ Muni, the 'defenced field,' a 
name given by the Benedictine monks to 
the site of their priory. In 1287 we have 
a mention of Richardus, prioratus Campi 
muniti, and in 1290 it is called la terre de 
Chamonix. 

Ghamplain, Lake, between the States 
of Vermont and New York, was discovered 
in 1608 by Samuel de Cham plain, the 
great French explorer, who also discovered 
the Lakes of Huron and Ontario, and 
founded the city of Quebec. The Cham- 
plain River, and Champlain, a city 
in the province of Quebec, also bear his 
name. 

Chaos Islands, a group near Port 
Elizabeth in South Africa, bear a Portu- 
guese name, Ilhas Chdos, the ' flat islands.' 

Charleroi is a town in Belgium, of which 
the citadel was built in 1666 by Charles il., 
king of Spain, when the name was 
changed from Charnoy to Charleroi. St. 
Charles, in Missouri, where a Spanish 
fort was established in 1769, was so called 
from the name-saint of Charles lil. , king 
of Spain. 

Charleston is the capital of South Caro- 
lina. In 1670 a town was built on Albe- 
marle Point to which Lord Shaftesbury 
gave the name of Charles Town in com- 
pliment to Charles 11., from whom the 
patentees had obtained the grant of 
Carolina. In 1680 the settlement was 
removed to Oyster Point, on the Ashley 
and Cowper Rivers, and was then for a 
time call^ New Charleston. 

Charlestown, in Massachusetts, was 
founded in 1629 on the River Charles by 
fifty colonists from Salem. The River 
Charles was one of the names placed 
on Captain John Smith's map of New 
England by Prince Charles, afterwards 
Charles i. 

Charlton Island, in Hudson Bay, was 
so named by Captain James in 1632 in 
compliment to Prince Charles, afterwards 
Charles 11. 

Charlottenburg". near Berlin, is so 
called from a schloss built in 1696 for 
the Electress Sophia Charlotte, wife of 
Frederick i. In Queen Charlotte 
Sound, Cook's Strait, Cook landed, and 
formally took possession of New Zealand 
in the name of George ill., naming the 
place after Queen Chariot^? of England. 



Her name is also borne by Cape Char- 
lotte, Point Charlotte, Queen 
Charlotte's Foreland, and Queen 
Charlotte's Island. 

Charmouth and Charminster, in 

Dorset, stand on the River Char. The 
Domesday names Cernemude and Cer- 
minstre show that the name of the CHAR 
was identical with that of the Churn, 
called C**r«-tfa (Cirn-water) by the Saxons, 
whence the names of Cirencester and 
of the village of Cerney. 

Charters Towers, Queensland, a place 
with basaltic hills resembling towers, 
bears the name of an officer of the 
colonial police. . 

Chartres (Eure et Loir), the Merovingian 
Caniotas, was a town of the Carnutes of 
Caesar. The surrounding territory, now 
called Pays Chartrain, was the PaiE^s 
Carnutensis, which becomes Pagus Car- 
notenus in Gregory of Tours. 

Chartreuse, anciently Catorissium, a 
wild valley in Dauphiny, was the place 
selected by St. Bruno in 1086 for his 
hermitage, which ultimately became the 
mother-house of the great Carthusian 
Order to which it gave a name, as well 
as to numerous Carthusian monasteries, 
which are called Certosa in Italian, 
Cartuja in Spanish, Carthause in 
German, and Charterhouse in Eng- 
lish. In like manner the Cluniac Order 
takes its name from Clugny, the Cister- 
cian from the forest of Citeaux {Cister- 
cium), and the Premonstratensian from ' 
Pr6 montr6. 

Chateauroux (Indre), in Latin docu- 
ments Castrum Eodolphi, * Rudolph's 
Castle,' took its name from a castle 
built in the tenth century by Raoul, prince 
of Deols. ChAteau-Gontier (May- 
enne) is named from a castle built m 
1037 by Gunther, the steward of the 
Counts of Anjou. ChAteau-briant 
(Loire Inferi^ure) is so called from a 
castle built in 1015 by Briant, Coimt of 
Penthi^vre. ChAteau-Thierry (Aisne) 
is named from a castle said to have been 
built by Charles Martel for Thierry iv. 
ChAtelherault was Castellum Eraldi\ 
ChAtelard was Castellum arduum \ 
ChAteaufort was Castrum Forte, and 
ChAtillon was Castellulum, 

Chatham, Kent, is in A.S. Cethaema 
mearc. Since Chetwood in Bucks is 
the A.S. Cetwudu, where cet is apparently 
the Welsh coed, a 'wood,' and Catmere, 
Berks, is probably a corruption of Coed' 
mawr, the 'great wQod,' Chfitham may 



GLOSSARY 



91 



perhaps be explained from the same 
source. (^^^Caen.) Chatham Islands, 
a group east of New Zealand, were dis- 
covered in 1791 by Lieutenant Broughton 
in the brig Chatham, 

Chaudi^re Falls, above Ottawa, are 
so called from the French Canadian 
chaudiire, a ' boiling kettle.' They give 
their name to an expansion of the Ottawa 
River which is called Lac de la 

CHAUDliiRE. 

Chautauqua is a town and county in 
New York, on Lake Chautauqua, a 
name signifpng a place where fish are 
caught. 

Cheam, in Surrey (called Ceigham or Ceg- 
ham in a charter of 727, and Cheham in 
one of 933), is possibly from a personal 
name, but more probably from caege, an 
•enclosure' or 'warren' — clausula, quod 
Angli dicunt caege, denoting the royal 
himting enclosure in which the palace of 
Nonsuch was afterwards built. Keysoe 
or Caysho, in Bedfordshire, is a related 
name. In 793, Offa, king of the Mercians, 
gave to the Abbey of St. Albans land at 
Caegesho or Caegsho^ now Keysoe. 

Chelmsford, the county town of Eissex, 
is at the ford over the River Chelmer. 

Chelsea, Middlesex, was formerly sup- 
posed to be the Cedles-ig, ' ship isle ' or 
' ship shore,' of the Chronicle (a.d. 1006), 
which is now identified with Cholsey 
near Wallingford, in Berks, and not with 
Chelsea. 

Cheltenham stands on a brook called 
the Chelt. The form cet Celtanhomtne, 
which we have in a charter, points to a 
nominative Celtanhom, the horn or 'en- 
closure' by the River Celte (genitive 
Celtan), 

Cherbourgf, traditionally explained as 
CcBsaris burgus, which occurs in a charter 
of 1234 {Caroburgus in 1252), is probably 
a Teutonic name, equivalent to our York- 
shire Scarborough, the 'burg on the 
scar,' or cliff. 

Chertsey, Surrey, appears as Cerotes ig, 
' Cerot's isle,' in a seventh century charter. 
The later forms, Ccortesig, Certeseye, 
and Cherteseye, give the transition to the 
modern name. 

Chesapeake Bay, which bisects Mary- 
land, is an Indian name usually said to 
mean * mother of waters ' or ' great water 
place,' from the number of rivers that are 
poured into its bosom ; but is probably 
from the Abenaki Kche-seippo^, meaning 
'great salt water.' At the tmie of the 
Settlement of Virginia a tribe c^ed 



Chesapians or Chesapeake Indians, lived 
on the banks of the Elizabeth River. 

Ohesham, Bucks, may take its name from 
the River Chess, which rises in a large 
pool in the middle of the town. Cashio- 
BURY, in Herts, near the junction of the 
Chess with the Colne, was the burh of 
the Hundred of Cashio, referred by 
Camden to the name of the Cassii, a 
British tribe who were ruled by Cassi- 
velaunus, but possibly to be explained 
from the name of the Chess. 

Chester, the county town of Cheshire 
(Chestershire), was the Deva of the 
Romans, so called from standing on the 
Dee, the ' divine river ' of the Britons. 
Being the station of a Roman legion it 
acquired the name of Civ it as Legion itm, 
the 'city of the legions.' This became 
the British Caerleon, from the Welsh 
Caer, a 'city,' and leon, a corruption 
of legione, an indeclinable substantive, 
formed, as in other cases, from the 
ablative of legio. While Caerleon on the 
Usk, which was the Roman Isca Silurum, 
has retained its British name, Caerleon 
on the Dee, the ' city called legione,' be- 
came in A.S. Lega-Ceaster or Lege-ceaster, 
the ' legion Chester,' and finally Chester, 
the prefix being dropped. Chesterton, 
near Cambridge, Chesterford, between 
Cambridgeshire and Essex, and Chester- 
field, in Derbyshire, are names which 
record the sites of Roman stations. 

Cheviots, a range of hills on the Scotch 
border, take their name from a massive 
broad-topped hill called the Cheviot, 
2767 feet high, which forms the loftiest 
summit in the range. The name, like 
that of Chevy Chace, is doubtless from 
the Welsh cefn, a 'ridge,' literally the 
'back,' whicti we have in the name of 
the Chevin, a hill near Otley in York- 
shire, and of another near Belper in 
Derbyshire, and perhaps in that of the 
Cevennes {q,v,), 

Cheyenne, the name of towns in Kan- 
sas, Nebraska, and Wyoming, is de- 
nved from the Shyenne or Cheyenne 
tribe, who dwelt on the Shyenne River. 
Their name, according to Boyd, means 
•those who speak a different language.' 
They are a branch of the Crees, who call 
themselves Nd-a-ya-og, ' those who speak 
the same tongue.' The Assiniboines call 
them Shi-i-ya, and the Dakotas call them 
Shi'i-ala, words of nearly the same 
meaning as Nia-ya-og^ 

Chiapas, the southern province of Mexico, 
i$ a conuption of Teochiapanecos^ the 



92 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



name of the tribe who held the district in 
the time of Cortez. t 

GhicaflTO, in Michigsb, stands at the 
mouth of the Chicago River, which rises 
in a boggy district of • evil savour,' either 
because frequented by * skunks' {cikak, 
plural cikakong), or because overgrown with 
garlic or 'skunk cabbage' {shikagou,2L 'leek' ). 

GMcliakoflr, a cape at the southern 
extremity of the Japanese Island of Kiusu, 
bears the name of a Russian Admiral. 

01licliester,in A.S. Cissan-ceaster, Cissa- 
ceaster, and Cisse-ceaster, forms which 
support the tradition preserved in the 
Saxon Chronicle that the Roman city of 
Regnum became the fortress of the Saxon 
chieftain Cissa, son of ^Elle, who, we are 
told, landed in 477 at Cymenes-ora, now 
Keynor on the Bill of Selsea, with his 
three sons Cymen, Wlencing. and Cissa. 
Wlencing being clearly the eponymus of 
Lancing in Sussex, makes it probable 
that Cymen and perhaps Cissa are also 
m)rthical names. 

Chickahominy, a river in Virginia, is 
said by Boyd to mean the ' turkey lick.' 

Chiemsee, a large lake in Bavaria, is 
usually said to mean the 'pine lake' 
(O.H.G. kien or chien, a 'pine tree*), 
but the oldest form of the name, Chiminc- 
see, points to a derivation from the vil- 
lage of Chieming. which must be from 
the personal name Chimo. 

Ohili or Chile, a South American re- 
public, was called by the natives Chili 
mapu, 'Chili land,' probably from the 
Peruvian word chili, 'cold,' which, 
according to Garcilasso de la Vega, was 
merely the name of the valley in which 
Santiago is situated. The popular ety- 
mology derives the name from Chile- 
Chile, the cry of a bird common in the 
country. Chiloe, a large island in the 
southern part of Chili, is the native name 
Chil-htie, which means a ' district of Chili. ' 

Cililloily a castle at the eastern end of the 
Lake of Geneva, called Chilon in 1224, 
was named from the stratified flagstone 
rock on which it stands. In the local 
patois paving stones are called chillond or 
chillottt strictly a slab of stone or ledge of 
rock. 

Chimborazo, a volcano in Peru, 20,498 
feet in height, takes its name, according 
to Humboldt, from the Chimus, a tribe 
near Lima who were conquered by the 
Incas. 

Clliiia was first known to Europeans as 
Serice, and the people as Sime, names 
which come to us from Ptolemy {c. 150). 



Serica must be the land of the Seres or 
' silk people,' from the Chinese ser, silk. 
Sinse must be from the name China, 
transmitted to the Greeks through a 
Semitic channel. The Periplus, A.D. 
80-89, has the form Thin, Cosmas Indicus, 
c. 545 A.D., has Tzinitza and Txinistan, 
and the Nestorian inscription of Singanfu, 
781 A.D., mentions the 'King ofTzinia,' 
and ' Adam, Bishop of Tzinesthan ' [i.e, 
Chinistan), a Persian form. Colonel Yule 
thinks the origin of the name is from 
Jih-nan, an old name of Tongking, which 
was the only port open to foreign trade at 
the beginning of our era. Professor 
Terrien de la Couperie* thinks that it was 
from Tsen (Mandarin, Tien), the old 
name of Yunnan, through which lay the 
trade route to the West. The more usual 
opinion is that the name was derived from 
the great Tchin or Thing dynasty. This 
is supported by the name Cathay, by 
which the country was known to Marco 
Polo, which is from the Khitai or Kitai 
dynasty, the Mongolian name of the Liao 
race which ruled China from 1125 to 1207. 
China is still spoken of in Central Asia as 
the country of the Kitai, a name which 
became Cathay in European ears. China 
is a Malay form which we obtained 
through the Portuguese, and the Malays 
seem to have obtained it from the Japa- 
nese. It is noteworthy that not only our 
name for China, but for Ceylon (Seilan), 
Siam (Siyam), Paigu, Barma, Ava, and 
Kamboja are all Malay forms. The 
Chinese call their country Chung- Kwok, 
the 'middle kingdom,' or Tien-chew, the 
'celestial dynasty.' The name of China 
has been curiously transferred to Canada, 
La Chine being now the name of a 
village near Montreal, and of the adjacent 
rapids on the St. Lawrence, which come 
from the name La Chine, given to the 
house built by La Salle on his feudal 
domain of St. Sulpice, either seriously by 
himself, or derisively by his neighbours, in 
allusion to his project of reaching China 
by descending the Mississippi, which he 
thought emptied itself into the China sea. 

Chippenham, in Wilts, stands at a 
bend of the Avon which almost surrounds 
it. In the Chronicle we have td Cippan- 
hamme and t6 Cyfpanhamme, which shows 
that the suffix is -hdm, 'an enclosure,' 
and not -hdm, a 'home.' The first element 
is usually explained from cypa, a 'mer- 
chant,' but is probably the genitive of the 
personal name Cippa. 

Chiusi, in Central Italy, is a corruption 
of Clusium, the Roman name of the 



GLOSSARY 



93 



£truscd.ti city of Camats, of which, 
according to the legend, Lars Porsenna 
was king. 

QhontaJeSy a district in Nicaragua, was 
so called from the tribe of the Chontals, 
an Aztec name meaning 'strangers.' 

Ohristchurch, the capital of the New 
Zealand province of Canterbury, was so 
called because Christchurch is the official 
name of Canterbury Cathedral. Christ- 
church, a town in Hampshire, is so 
called from a priory built by Ralph 
Flambard, Bishop of Durham, and dedi- 

' cated to the Saviour. Monte Christo, 
a small island i^ear Elba, takes its name 
from a convent with the same dedication. 

Ohristiania, the capital of Norway, was 
founded in 1624 by Christian iv., from 
whom are also named Christiansund, 
at the head of a sund or inlet in Norway, 
and Christianstad in Sweden. From 
king^ of the same name we have also the 
Danish settlements of Christiansborg 
on the Gold Coast, Christianshaab in 
Greenland, and Christiansted, the 
capital of St. Croix, one of the Danish 
West Indian Islands. Christmas Sound, 
Tierra del Fuego, Christmas Harbour, 
Kergfuelen's Land, and Christmas Is- 
land, Polynesia, mark the places where 
Cook spent Christmas in the years 1774, 
1776, and 1777. 

Ohun^Tgrarll is a famous rock-fort on 
the Ganges above Benares, apparently 
meaning ' plane-tree fort.' But the name 
is believed by Dr. Bumell to be a corrup- 
tion of Ckaranagiri, 'foot-hill,' a name 
probably given from the resemblance of 
the rock seen in longitudinal profile to a 
human foot. 

Chur, or Coire, the capital of the Swiss 
Canton of the Graubiinden or Grisons, 
was the Curia Raiarumt the Rhaetian 
court of justice. The name occurs in 
documents of the fourth century, but is 
doubtless much older. Chur is the 
German and English corruption of Curia, 
which takes the form Coira in Italian, 
and Coire in French, while in Romansch 
we have the local forms Quoira, Quera, 
and Cuera. The Latin word curia, which 
was used to denote the residence of a 
Roman procurator, is derived from the 
Curia at Rome, built, according to the 
tradition, by Curius Hostilius. The 
modem. French cour and court, as in 

COURCELLES, AGINCOURT, or GRAND- 
COURT, are from curtis, a corruption of 
cokors. 
Ohurfirsten. a range of mountains in 
Canton St Gallen, are not, as is usually 



supposed, named from the seven Electors 
(Kurfdrsten) but from the dialect word 
HrsUtty denoting the 'summits' which 
once formed the linguistic boundary to 
the north of the Rhaetian district of Chur. 

Ohurchill River, which enters Hudson 
Bay at Fort Churchill, is a name 
which first appears in x688, and was pro- 
bably bestow^ in compliment to the Duke 
of Marlborough, then Lord Churchill, the 
Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

Cimbrio Chersonese is a name some- 
times applied to Jutland, from the ancient 
inhabitants the Cimbri, whose name, 
according to Grimm, is a Teutonic word 
meaning ' the fighters.' 

Cimiez, a hill-town near Nice, is, accord- 
ing to Helbig, from the Ligurian or pre- 
Aryan word cima, meaning a 'hill.' 
Hence the name of the Ciminian forest, 
clothing the hills north of the Tiber, and 
probably of the Kemmenon Oros, now 
the C^vennes {q.v.), 

Cincinnati, in Ohio, was originally 
called Fort Washinjgton. The name was 
changed because General St Clair, the 
officer in command, had been decorated 
with the short-lived military Order of 
Cincinnatus, bestowed on soldiers of the 
revolutionary army who, like the Roman 
Cincinnatus, had left their wives and 
farms to serve their country. 

CirCEUSSia is the land of the Circassians, 
a Genoese corruption of the Turkish 
name Tcherkess, which means ' brigands,' 
literally ' those who cut off the road," from 
tcher, a ' road,' and kes-mek, * to cut off.' 

Ciroeo, or CiroellO, an Italian cape 
between Naples and Ostia, is the Circeii 
of the Romans. Here one of the 
Homeric legends of Ulysses was localised, 
and a temple was built to Circe. In like 
manner the Romans located the Isle of 
the Sirens at Cape Misenum, and the Isle 
of iSolus in the Lipari Islands. Caieta, 
the nurse of iEneas, is an eponymic name 
invented by Virgil from the place now 
known as fortress of Gaeta [qv.). 

Cirencester, in Gloucestershire, is the 
A.S. Cirett'ceaster, Cirnf - ceaster, or 
Cyren-ceasier, the Chester on the River 
Chum. The Roman name Corinium 
also contains the old name of the Chum. 
Cerney, A.S. Cernia, is a village on the 
Chum, a few miles south of Cirencester. 

Ciudad BodriSO, the • city of Rode- 
rick,' a border fortress of Spain, stormed 
by Wellington with great loss in January 
i8i2, was founded by Count Rodrigo 
Gonzalez Giron in zi5a 



94 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Civitfil Veoohia, the port of Rome, 
was the Partus Trajani, which in 828 was 
destroyed by the Saracens. In 854 the 
inhabitants returned to the site of what 
then began to be called the ' ancient city.' 

Claokmannan, a Scotch county, takes 
its name from the village of Clackmannan, 
' the stone of Manu,' a sacred stone which 
still remains. The word clack, which in 
the form clock is common in Irish names 
(j«^ Clogher), means 'stone' in Gaelic, 
and mannan is the genitive of manu, a 
name borne by Mona, now Anglesey, by 
the Isle of Man, and by a district on the 
Forth. The name of the district of Manu 
is also preserved by Sla-mannan Moor 
in the county of Linlithgow, which is from 
Sliab-mannan, ' the mountain of Manu.' 

Clanmaurice, a barony in Kerry, is 
named from the clann or descendants of 
Maurice Fitzgerald. Two baronies, in 
the counties of Tipperary and Limerick, 
called Clanwilliam, take their names 
from the descendants of William Burke. 
Clandeboy, in County Down, which 
gives the title of Baron to Lord Dufferin, 
is also a tribal name, being a corruption of 
Clann-Aedka-buidfu, the ' descendants of 
Hugh the yellow,' who was slain in 1283. 

Clare, an Irish county, takes its name 
from the village of Clare, so called from 
a plank bridge (Irii^ cldr, a. 'board') 
which crossed the stream. Clare, a 
town in Suffolk, arose round the vast 
castle of Gilbert de Clare, the last Earl of 
Gloucester and Hereford, who died in 
1313. Elizabeth, his sister, who foimded 
Clare College, Cambridge, married. 
William de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, carry- 
ing the lordship of Clare into that family. 
Her granddaughter, Elizabeth de Burgh, 
married Lionel Plantagenet, who inherited 
the Suffolk barony in right of his wife, 
whereupon his father, Edward IIL , created 
him Dux Clarensis, erectin^f the 'town, 
castle, and honour of Clare ' mto a duchy. 
From the Dux Clarensis we have the royal 
dukedom of Clarence and the Claren- 
ceux King-at-Arms. In compliment to 
William, Duke of Clarence, afterwards 
William iv.. Cape Clarence, Port 
Clarence, theCLARENCE River, and the 
Clarence Islands, all in Arctic America, 
were named in theyears 18x8-1 829. Cl are- 
MONT, Esher, once belonged to Lord Clare. 

Olarens, a village on the Lake of Geneva, 
is a corruption of glareanus {locus), the 
•gravelly' place, so called because built 
on gravel. 

Clarke's Island, near Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, bears the name of the 



master's mate of the Mayflowtr. Clarke's 
Fork, a branch of the Yellowstone River, 
was reached by Lewis and Clarke when 
they crossed the Continent to the Pacific. 
Cape Clark, on the east coast of Green- 
land, was named by Scoresby after his 
brother-in-law John Clark. 

Glee Hills, Salop, often called the Clees, 
are mentioned in a charter as Les Clives, 
'the cliffs,' which is probably an adapta- 
tion of an older name. Near the foot of 
the Clees stands the town of Cleobury 
Mortimer, in Domesday Claiberie, which 
must mean CUbury, *Clee town.' 

Clermont, in Auvergne, was the Roman 
Augustonemetum. The Merovingian / 
castle on the hill was called Castrum^ 
de Claro Monte, of which Clermont is 
the modern form. So Clara vallts, the 
mother convent of the Cistercian order, 
became Clairvaux, the daughter houses 
of Rievaulx and Jorvaulx, in the York- 
shire valleys of the Rye and the Ure, being 
designated as Rie-vallis and Yore-vallis. 
Lac Saint Clair, between Lake Huron 
and Lake E^e, was discovered and named 
by La Salle, in August 1679, probably 
from St. Clare of Assisi, whose festival 
is on August 12. Clermont, a town in 
Queensland, bears the name of Lord 
Clermont, a friend of the Governor. 

Oliffe, or Cliffe-at-Hoo, in Kent, has 
been identified as the place where the 
Council of Cloveshd \\as held. Hoo, 
spelt H6gk in the seventh century, and 
afterward H6, denotes the 'hough,' or 
heel of land which projects between the 
Thames and the Medway. 

Clobber, an Episcopal See in Tyrone, 
. means the ' stony place.' A local legend 
derives the name from the Irish clock-oir, 
the 'stone of gold,' a gilt idol of the 
heathen Irish, said to have been preserved 
in the church till recent times. Clooher 
is the name of sixty townlands in 
Ireland. Cloghan, Clackan, or 
Clachan, the 'stones,' is a common 
village name, sometimes denoting stepping- 
stones, also the stones in a churchyard, 
or the stones of which the houses were 
built. Claddagh, in Ireland and in the 
Isle of Man, and Cladich in Islay, are 
Gaelic names signifying a stony shore or 
shingly beach. 
Cl03rne, an ancient Episcopal See in 
County Cork, was formerly called Cluain 
Uamha, the ' meadow of the cave,' the 
cathedral having been founded by Colman 
on the meadow near a cave which had 
probably been the dwelling of a hermit. 
Clonmel, the county town of Tipperary, 



GLOSSARY 



95 



is a corruption of Cluain-meala, a name 
older than the town, since it refers to a 
meadow abotmding with nests of wild 
bees.- Clonfert, in Gal way, is a cor- 
ruption of Cluainferfa, the 'meadow of 
the grave,' on which St. Brendan built a 
monastery in 533. Similarly Clonturk 
is the • meadow of the boar,' Clonboy is 
the ' yellow meadow,' and Clonbane the 
'white meadow.' There are places in 
Scotland called Clone and Cluny, the 
' meadow.' Cloncurry, in Kildare, is the 
Old -Irish Cluain-Coftaire, the 'meadow 
of Conary,' a personage imknown to his- 
tory or tradition. Cloncurry, a town in 
Queensland, was so named by Mr. Law- 
less, a squatter, after Lord Cloncurry, the 
head of his family. 

Olyd©, the great Scotch river, is called 
Clofa by Tacitus. Professor Rhys thinks 
the name may be that of a Celtic river 
goddess. But the name cannot be con- 
nected with the Welsh river name Clwyd, 
which is supposed to mean ' warm.' 

Coati, an island in the Peruvian Lake 
Titicaca, is a corruption of Coya-ta^ the 
'place of the Coya,' or ' spouse,' from a 
temple of the moon-goddess Quilla, who 
being the sister and wife of Inti, the sun- 
god, was called Coya-Inti, the spouse of 
Inti, coya being the name given to the 
sister and wife of the reigning Inca. 

Coblenz, at the confluence of the Rhine 
and the Mosel, where a post was estab- 
lished by Drusus about 9 B.C., is called 
Confluentes by Suetonius, afterwards Con- 
fluentibus, and finally Castrum Con- 
fluentis by Gregory of Tours. Coblenz, 
or Koblenz, in Canton Aargau, at the 
confluence of the Aar and the Rhine, also 
a Roman station, was probably called 
Confluentes. The usual French corrup- 
tion of the word is Conflans. There are 
places of this name at the confluence of 
the Seine and the Marne, of the Seine and 
the Oise, and of the Orne and the Yron ; 
and a Confolens in the Charente at the 
confluence of the Vienne and the Goire. 

OoburgT) iii the principality of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha, appears in a document 
of the eleventh century as KoBURG, per- 
haps the 'cow castle (O.H-.G. Ko, 'a 
cow '). Co BURG Bay in Lancaster Sound, 
and the Coburg Peninsula in North 
Australia were so named in 18 18 in com- 
pliment to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, 
who married Princess Charlotte of Eng- 
land in 1817. 

CocllSt means a lake in Quichua. Hence 
the hybrid name of Cab^llo Cocha, the 
* horse lake,' in Peru. 



Cochin, a native state on the Malabar 
coast, takes its name from the town of 
Cochin {/Cochchi-banda), the 'small fort.' 
Here Vasco da Gama died in 1524, and 
Xavier preached in 1530. Cochin, on 
the delta of the Mekong River, was called 
by the Portuguese Cochin-China, a mis- 
leading name, in order to distinguish it 
from Cochin on the Malabar coast. The 
name is derived from kochi, a ' marsh.' 

Oockbtim Island, one of the South 
Shetlands, was named in 1843 after Ad- 
miral Sir George Cockbum, one of the 
Lords of the Admiralty, whose name is 
borne by many places in the Australian and 
the Arctic Regions, among them Cape 
CocKBURN, Point Cockburn, Cock- 
burn Bay, and the Cockburn Group. 

Ood, Cape, in Massachusetts, is the 
oldest English name in New England. 
It was discovered in 1602 by Bartholomew 
Gosnold, who landed on the headland, and 
named it from the abimdance of cod-fish. 

Cognac, in the twelfth century called / 
Coignac^ is supposed to be a corruption of v 
Contacum, ' the place in the corner,' from 
the Celtic kon (French coin), cognate with 
the Latin cuneus, a ' wedge.' 

Coimbra, in Portugal, was the Roman 

Conembrica. 

Colohester, Essex, on the Colne, was 
the Roman Colonia Camalodunum, the 
Welsh Caer Collun, and the A.S. Colen- 
cecLster and Colne-ceaster. The coinci- 
dence is puzzling, but the name signifies 
probably the Chester on one of the many 
rivers called the Colne (A.S. Coin) or 
'stony' river. It is possible, however, 
that the Essex Colne may be the river of 
the Colonia, but the River Colne in Glou- 
cestershire is Cunuglan or Cunugla in 
A.S. Geoffrey of Monmouth's King Coel 
is not an historical or mythological per- 
sonage, but merely the eponymus of 
Colchester. 

Coleraine, in Londonderry, takes its 
name from a piece of land covered with 
ferns, and hence called Cuil-rathain, 
'fern corner,' which was given to St. 
Patrick on which to build a church, round 
which the town grew up, 

Colesberg, a division in the Cape Colony, 
was named in 1839 after Sir Lowry Cole, 
then Governor of the Cape. 

Coll, one of the Hebrides, is named from 
the Gaelic coli, a ' hazel.' 

Colmar, in Elsass, was called Columbaria 
in 865. The medieval Latin form Collis 
Martis, ' Mars Hill,' is merely an attempt 
to explain the name. 



96 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



GolOgnQ fa the French form which we 
irrationally use of the German name K8ln. 
It occupies the site of the Oppidum 
UHorum, where in 51 A.D. a Roman 
colony was planted by the Emperor 
Claudius, and named Colonia Agrifpina, 
because it was the birthplace of ms wife 
Agrippina, the daughter of Germanicus. 
In the sixteenth century we called German 
and Italian towns by their right names, 
but owing to the general use of French, 
and ignorance of German and Italian, we 
have now unfortunately adopted such 
French forms as Cologne for Koln, May- 
ence for Mainz, Treves for Trier, Li^ge for 
Ltlttich, Malines for Mecheln, Louvain 
for Leuven, Aix la Chapelle for Aachen, 
Ratisbon for Regensburg, Alsace for 
Elsass, Nice for Nizza, Venice for Venezia, 
Rome for Roma, and Naples for Napoli. 

Colonnet, Cape, more correctly Kabo 
Kolonnais, is the modern name of Cape 
Sunium in Attica. It acquired the name 
from thirteen columns of white marble, 
belonging to a temple of Athene, which 
stand on the highest point, forming a 
prominent landmark for sailors. 

Colon, or Aspin'WaU, a town on the 
isthmus of Panama, bears the Spanish 
form of the name of the Genoese dis- 
coverer of the New World, Christoforo 
Columbo, who, when naturalised as a 
Spanish subject, called himself Colon. 
Columbus is the Latinised form of the 
Italian name Columbo, which is believed 
to have been derived through the Irish 
monks in Northern Italy from St. Columba, 
the • dove,' whence Colonsay, the ' Isle 
of St. Columba,' in the Hebrides. In 
memory of Christopher Columbus many 
American names have been bestowed. 
In 1790 the name of Columbia was given 
to the federal district in the United States 
which contains the city of Washington, 
the federal capital. Columbia is also 
the name of the State capital of South 
Carolina, and of more than sixty places 
in the United States. The State capital 
of Ohio, and some thirty other places in 
the United States are called Columbus. 
The United States of Columbia in 
South America were federated under this 
name in 1820, and the Spanish province 
of Nueva Granada, in Central America, 
was renamed COLOMBIA in 181 1. The 
Columbia or Oregon River, the en- 
trance of which had been missed by 
Captain Cook and by Vancouver, was 
discovered in 1787 by the Boston merchant 
ship Columbia of 200 tons, and the sloop 
WashingUm of 90 tons. On the second 



voyage of the Columbia in 1792, the com- 
mander. Captain Robert Gray, ascended 
the river as far as Gray's Bay, and named 
the great stream after his vessel. The 
colony of British Columbia was named 
in 1858, not from Columbus but from the 
river. 

Colorado, one of the United States, 
takes its Spanish name from a great 
river ultimately falling into the Gulf of 
California, which was called Colorado, 
the ' red' or ' coloured ' river, from the red 
mud held suspended in the water. The 
Red River, which forms the northern 
boundary of- Texas, is a translation of its 
former Spanish name Rio Colorado. There 
is a third Rio Colorado in the Argentine 
Republic. 

Columbo, the capital of Ceylon, is the 
Singalese KolUmbu, fColdmbo, KorHmbo, 
or Corumbu which is said to mean a 
' haven ' or harbour. 

Como, a city in Northern Italy which 
gives a name to the Lago di Como, was 
the Roman Comum, a name probably 
Graulish. The English combe, a loan word 
from the Welsh cwm, a ' hollow' or * val- 
ley' is the source of nmnerous English 
names. We have places called Comp- 
TON in Worcestershire, Berks, Somerset, 
Sussex, and Gloucestershire, all called 
Cumtun in A.S. charters, while Compton 
in Dorset and Surrey are spelt Cumbtun 
and Comptun. From the same source 
we have many French village names, such 
as La Combe, Combes, Comb as, and 
COMBET. (5^^ pp. 359. 375* ) 

Comprin, the Cape at the southern ex- 
tremity of India, is so called from a temple, 
which still exists, of Kumdrf, the ' virgin,' 
one of the names of the goddess DurgA, 
the wife of Siva. The temple must be 
very old. Cape Comorin being the Kam- 
aria Akron of Ptolemy, and Marco Polo 
mentions a country whidi he calls Comari. 

Comoro is the largest of the Comores, 
or Comoro Islands, west of Madagascar. 
Comoro is a Portuguese corruption of tiie 
Arabic Komatr, 'little moons,' or little 
moon islands. 

Compi^gne (Oise) is the Compendium of 
the Antonme Itinerary, so called because 
it lay on the direct or short road between 
Beauvais and Soissons. 

Conception Bay, in Newfoimdland, is 
the English translation of the Portuguese 
name, Bahia da Concepqao, given by Corte 
Real in 1501. Puerto de la Concep- 
CION, in Haiti, was the name given by 
Columbus to a bay discovered by him 



GLOSSARY 



91 



v/ 



on December 7th, 14^2, the eve of the 
feast of the ConcepUon of the Virgin 
Mary. Columbus also called one of the 
Bahamas (probably Rum Kay) /s/a de S. 
Maria de la Coruepcion. Concepcion is 
a town on the River Uruguay; and 
CiUDAD DE LA CoNCEPCiON IS the name 
of a seaport in Chili, founded by Pedro 
de Valdivia, 1550-1558. 

Concord, the State capital of New 
Hampshire, was so designated in com- 
memoration of the amicable settlement of 
a dispute as to the State and county to 
which it belonged. The Indian name 
was Penacook, and in 1733 it had been 
incorporated as a town of Essex County, 
Massachusetts, under the name of Rum- 
ford, many of the early settlers in Essex 
County coming from Essex in England. 

Condamine, a town in Queensland, 
bears the name of the secretary to Sir 
Robert Darling, Governor of New South 
Wales. 

Oond^, the title of an illustrious branch of 
the Bourbons, is derived from the town of 
Cond6 in the Nord, whidb, with many 
similar names, is derived from a Celtic 
word condate, denotinj§^ the confluence of 
two streams. Conde, called Condatum 
in 870, and afterward Condat, stands at 
the confluence of the Haine and the 
Scheldt. CoND^-sUR-NoiREAU, in Nor- 
mandy, is at the confluence of the Noireau 
and the Drouance. Cosne, in the Ni^vre, 
called Condat^ in the Antonine Itinerary, 
is at the junction of a small stream with 
the Loire, and Candes is at the junction 
of the Vienne and the Loire. Cannstadt, 
near Stuttgard, formerly Candistat, is at 
the junction of the Canbach and the 
Neckar. Cumber, Comber, Commer, 
and CoMERAGH, in Ireland, and Cummer- 
trees and Cumbernauld, in Scotland, 
are from the Gaelic comar, a ' confluence.* 

Conejera, 'coney island,' one of the 
Balearic group, is from the Spanish conefo, 
a 'rabbit' 

Con^ is an Irish name meaning a narrow 
strait or a river between two lakes. At 
Cong Abbey, in Mayo, which stands on 
the river connecting Lough Mask with 
Lough Carrib, the last native king of 
Ireland, Roderick O'Connor, passed his 
last days. 

Congo is the European name of the great 
river of Central Africa, which is called the 
Zaire {g.v.) by the natives. The word 
Congo, which means 'mountains,' is a 
mere ghost name, due to a curious 
blunder. In 1484 the Portuguese navi- 
gator, Diego Cao (Diego Cam), accom- 



panied by the geographer, Martin Behaim, 
reached the mouth of a great river, where 
he erected a PadrSo (Padran) \q.v.) or 
stone-pillar, bearing the Portuguese arms, 
and me name of a saint. Hence the 
river was at first called Rio do PadrSo. 
The Portuguese were informed by the 
natives that the country near the mouth of 
the river was subject to a great monarch 
whom they called Mwani Congo, or • Lord 
of Congo,' who lived at a place called Am- 
basse Congo. From this Congo kingdom 
the river which traversed it acquired the 
name of the Congo River. In tiie Man 
dingo language Kong means mountains, 
and the coast-range in Guinea goes by the 
name of the Kong Mountains [q.v,). 
In 1876-77 the river was descended by 
H. M. Stanley who called it the Living- 
stone, a barbarous name which has 
deservedly fallen into disuse. If any 
change is made, the native name of the 
Zaire should be restored. 

OOTinangllt is a corruption of the old 
name Con-nackt, Irish l^end divided 
Ireland into two halves, Leth-Chuinn or 
Conn's half, and Leth-Moga or Mog's 
half, which have dwindled to Connaught 
and Munster, Conn's half becoming Con- 
nacht, which may be rendered 'Conn's 
people' or Conn's descendants. The 
word -nacht may be recognised in the 
tribal name of the Nagnata of Ptolemy. 

Connecticut, one of the New England 
states, is named from its chief river, dis- 
covered by the Dutchman Adrian Block in 
1614, and called by the natives Quonekta- 
cut, Quonehtacut, or Qunnitukut, which 
means the ' long river,' literally the ' river 
without end,' from the Cherokee Koon or 
fCo, * river,' which we have in the rivers 
Ken-nebush and Ken-nebec, both in 
Maine. 

ConnemarCL, a corruption of the Old 
Irish name Conmaicne-mara, is a tribal 
name which has become territorial. Con- 
maic-ne are the descendants {ne, 'pro- 
geny') of Conmac, and tnara is the 
p^emtive of »f ««r, the 'sea,' Connemara 
IS therefore the land of the ' O'Conmacs of 
the sea.' 

Constantia, a district in the Cape 
Colony, was so named in 1686 after the 
wife of the Dutch Governor, Simon van 
der SteU. Here the celebrated Cape 
Vintage, called Constantia, was grown. 

Constantine, a town in Algeria, was so 
called because having been destroyed in 
311 A. D. it was rebuilt two years afterwards 
by Older of the Emperor Constantine, 
Constantinople is the Anglicised form 



98 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



of Constantinopolis, the ' city of Constan- 
tine,' the name given by Constantine to 
Byzantium when he made it the Eastern 
capital of the Empire, Stamboul, or 
IsTAMBUL, 'at the city,' is the modem 
Greek name, and may be compared to 
our own usage when we say of a visit to 
London that we are going ' to town.' On 
some Turkish coins, the name Istambul 
has been corrupted to Islambul or ' much 
Islam.' In Chinese vdXw became Fulin, 

Constanz, in French Constance, is a 
town which has given a name to the Lake 
of Constance, as we call the Boden See 
{q.v.). Local tradition assigns the 
foundation of the town to Constantius 
Chlorus, the father of Constantine, but it 
may well be a complimentary name of the 
same class as Florentia, Placentia, or 
Valentia. The same Constantius is also 
said to have founded Coutances, the 
Castra Constantia or Civitas Constantia 
of the Romans. It is the capital of the 
Co tantin or Pagus Constantinus. Kus- 
tendji, in Bulgaria, at the termination of 
Trajan's wall, is a corruption of Constantia 
or Constantiana. 

Oon"Way Castle guards the passage of 
the River Conway, beneath it nestles the 
town of Conway, believed to be the Cono- 
vium of the Antonine Itinerary. Whether 
the name of the Conway is connected 
with that of the Solway or the Medway is 
doubtful. 

Cook's Strait is the most important of 
the names which preserve the memory of 
James Cook, the greatest of English ex- 
plorers, to whom we owe innumerable 
names, so well chosen and appropriate 
that most of them still keep their places 
on the map. On August 26th, 1768, 
Cook sailed in the Endeavour on his first 
vo3rage in order to observe the transit of 
Venus at Otaheite (Tahiti) on June 3rd, 
1769. He then set sail for New Zealand, 
and explored the eastern coast of 
Australia, and after being wrecked on 
June loth, 1770, reached England in June 
1771. On July 13th, 1772, he sailed on 
his second voyage in the Resolution, with 
the Adventure, commanded by Captain 
Furneaux, and explored the Antarctic 
Seas, New Zealand, the New Hebrides, 
and New Georgia, and returned by Cape 
Horn to England, which he reached on 
July 30th, 1775. On his third voyage in 
the Resolution, with the Discovery com- 
manded by Captain Charles Clerke, he 
sailed on July 12th, 1776, and after ex- 
ploring Kerguelen Land, New Zealand, 
the Friendly Islands, Alaska, and Bering's 



Straits, he returned to Owhyhee (Hawaii), 
where he was killed by the natives on 
February 14th, 1779. '^h® ships reached 
England in October 1779. Cook's Strait, 
which separates the two larger islands of 
New Zealand, was missed by Tasman in 
1642-1643, and first discovered by Cook 
in 1770. Cook's River (or Cook's 
Inlet), in Alaska, was the most northern 
point reached by Cook while exploring 
the western coast of America in his third 
voyage, 1776-1780. As Cook had pro- 
posed no name. Lord Sandwich, the First 
Lord of the Admiralty, gave it the name 
of the discoverer, for whose untimely 
death the country was then mourning. 
Mount Cook, the highest summit in New 
Zealand, 12,349 feet high, was so named 
in 1862 by Julius Haast, in honour of the 
first explorer of the islands. The native 
name Ao-RANGI, meaning 'Scud-peak,' 
refers to the cloud banners constantly 
gathering over the summit. The usual 
translation, * sky piercer, 'is wrong. Cook's 
Islands, in the South Pacific, also called 
the Harvey Group, were discovered by 
Cook in 1777. Cook Town, Queens- 
land, commemorates the place where Cook 
careened his ships. 

Copenhagen, in Danish KjSbenhavn, 
the capital of Denmark, is first mentioned 
in 1027 by the name Hofn, 'the haven,' 
and in 1043 it was still a mere fishing 
village. Owing to its position it became 
a great resort for merchants, and to dis- 
tinguish it from other havens was called 
Kaupmanna hofn or Kjobmannshavft , 
names translated by Saxo Grammaticus in 
the twelfth century as /'^r/wj Mercatorutn, 
the 'haven of the merchants.' In Latin 
documents it is usually called Hafnia^ 
'the haven.' Similar names are NoRR- 
kOping, the 'north market,' and Soder- 
koping, the 'south market.' 

Coppermine River, flowing into the 

Arctic Ocean, was explored by Samuel 
Hearne in 1771, and so named because 
he believed (wrongly as it now appears) 
that the tribe called the Copper Indians 
procured copper from mines in the 
Copper Mountains, near its mouth. 
Hearne, by descending the Coppermine, 
was the first Englishman to reach the 
shores of the Arctic Ocean. 

Copiapo, a city in Chili, takes its name 
from the River Copiapo on which it 
stands. 

Copts, the name given to the adherents of 
the old Egyptian or Coptic Church, was 
unknown in Western Europe before 1600. 
It is the Arabic qubt, 3. collective term for 



GLOSSARY 



99 



the native Egyptians, derived from the 
Coptic gupiios, which is the Greek 
^gyptios, an Egyptian, and has taken 
the form Copt from a supposed connection 
with a town called Koptos by the Greeks 
(Hieroglyphic Qebt), now Koft, where the 
Copts are numerous, and which is an 
emporium for merchandise coming from 
the Red Sea. (See Egypt. ) 

Cordova, in Andalusia, represents the 
Roman Corduba, supposed to be a Phoeni- 
cian name. Bochart explains it from the 
Syriac coteb, an 'oil press.' Cond6, with 
more reason, prefers carta-tvba, the great 
or ' important city.' Cordova was at one 
time the capital of the Moorish empire, 
and hence we obtained the word cord- 
wainer for a worker in Cordovan leather, 
which we should now call Morocco. The 
name of Cordova was transferred to 
an Argentine province and city founded in 
1573, and also to a town in Mexico. 

Corea is the European form of the 
Japanese Koorat (Chmese Kaoli), a name 
which properly denotes only a small part 
of the peninsula. 

Corfe Castle, in Dorset, commands a 
defile called in the Chronicle, Corfes geat. 
The names of Ramsgate, Margate, and 
Reigate also exhibit this word geat, 'a 
defile or pass. ' 

Corfu, one of the Ionian Islands, is 
named from the town of Corfu, which is 
the Italian form of the Neo-Hellenic 
name Korphoi (Turkish Korfus), anciently 
Corcyra. The ancient Acropolis did not 
occupy the site of the modem citadel, 
which stands on an isolated rock whose 
summit is split into two peaks, which 
the medieval Greeks called Koryphd or 
Korypki, 'the summits,' a name which 
has now become Corfu, and has been ex- 
tended to denote the whole island. There 
is no etymological connection between 
Corfu and the old Illyrian name Corc)rra. 

Coiintll is the English name of the place 
called anciently Qorinthos, Korinihos, or 
Corinthus, and in modem Greek Gortho. 
The name is supposed to have been 
descriptive of the helm-shaped rock, 1770 
feet in height, called Acrocorinthus, on 
which the Acropolis was built. The town 
gives a name to the Isthmus and Gulf 
of Corinth, as well as to the ' currants,' 
small dried grapes thence exported, which 
were called raisins de Corinthe. 

Cork, an Irish county, takes its name 
from its chief city, which is called Corcack, 
•the marsh,' by those who speak Irish, 
In the sixth century St. Finbar foimded, 
on the edge of the great morass at the 



mouth of the River Lee, a monastery round 
which the city grew. It was long known 
as Corcach-nwr-Mumhain, 'the great 
marsh of Munster.' This became Corcach 
Mor, and then Corcach, which has 
been Anglicised as Cork. 

Corn'Wall is a tribal name, which, as in 
other cai^es, has become territorial. In 
A.S. we have Cornwealas, a nom. plural, 
which means ' Comishmen ' ; the dative 
plural on Cornwealum signifying 'in 
Cornwall.' Our modem form Cornwall 
cannot be obtained either from Comweal, 
which means a Cornishman, or from 
the nom. plural Cornwealas ^ which, since 
Wealas gfives Wales, would have given 
Comwales, but it is doubtless from the 
gen. plural Comweala, the form Cornwall 
being thus an abbreviation of Comweala- 
land, the 'land of the Comwelsh.' The 
syllable com is usually said to have been 
a Welsh word meaning a horn or pro- 
montory, equivalent to the Latin comu, 
but Cemyw, the Welsh name of Cornwall, 
which is as old as the tenth century, 
rather points to the Cornish word kemow, 
the plural of cam, a 'rocky hill,' which 
we have in Porthkernow, in Comwall. 
This is supported by the Greek and late 
Latin forms Komaoutoi and Cornubia. 
CoRNOUAiLLES, the old name of Lower 
Brittany, was Latinised as Cornu-Gallice, 
the horn of Gaul, but is probably from the 
Breton Kemeo (Cemyw) or Comwall, 
whence 'the Bretons had come. North 
CoRNV^TALL, a district lying north of 
Belcher's Channel, was so named by 
Belcher in 1852, from the ducal title of 
the Prince of Wales. For the same 
reason Cook, in 1770, gave the name of 
Cape Cornwall to one of the capes in 
Prince of Wales Island, in Torres 
Strait. 

Comwallis Island, in the Arctic 
Archipelago, was so named by Parry after 
Admiral Sir William Comwallis, his * first 
naval friend and patron. ' 

Coromandel Coast, the name given 
to the coast of the Carnatic, is a Portuguese 
corruption of Ch6ra-mandala,^t. mandala 
or ' realm ' of Ch6ra, the Tamil title of a 
dynasty which reigned in Tanjore. The 
town of Coromandel, from which the 
name of the Coromandel Coast was 
formerly derived, is a corruption of 
Kareimanaly the 'sandy coast' The 
two names have been assimilated. 

Coronation G-ulf, at the mouth of the 
Back River, was discovered by Franklin 
on July 19th, 182 1, the Coronation day of 
George iv. Cape Coronation, in New 



lOO 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Caledonia, and Coronation Islands. 
on the Australian Coast, were discovered 
on September 22nd, the Coronation day 
of George iii. 

Corrientes, a city at the confluence 
of the Parani and the Paraguay, called 
officially La Ciudad de Siete Corrientes^ 
the 'city of the seven currents.' takes its 
name from seven channels formed by 
islands in the river. Cape Correntes, 
inaccurately called Corrientes, on the 
African Coast, north of Natal, was so 
named by the Portuguese on account of 
the dangerous currents setting against the 
rocks. 

Oonyvreokan is the Sound between 
Jura and Scarba. The Gaelic coire. 
Anglicised as Corrie or Corry, means a 
cauldron, and appears frequently in the 
names of deep round hollows in the moun- 
tains, such as Corrie in the Isle of Arran. 
It also denotes the swirling pool under a 
water-fall, and hence was used to denote 
a whirlpool in the sea. In a whirlpool 
between Antrim and Rathlin Island, 
Brecan, son of Nial of the nine hostages, 
was lost with fifty ships. Hence the whirl- 
pool was called Corryvreckan, or ' Brecan' s 
cauldron.' The name was subsequently 
transferred by the monks of lona to the 
whirlpool between Jura and Scarba, and 
the legend having been forgotten, the 
name has been explained as the ' boiling 
cauldron, ' from the Gaelic bruich^ * to boil. ' 

Corsica, in French la Corse, was the 
Greek Kurnos, and the Roman Corsica. 
It is explained by Bochart as a Phoenician 
word, meaning the * wooded ' or * forest ' 
island, a very appropriate name. 

Corunna, in Spanish La Coruria, was 
formerly called La Cruna, which became 
ike Groyne in the mouths of English 
sailors. All these forms are corruptions 
of the old name Caronium. 

Cossack, more correctly written Kazak, 
has given a name to a part of the valley of 
the Don which is called the country of 
the Don Cossacks. The Kazaks were at 
first those whom we term Kirghiz, the 
Kirghiz calling themselves Kazaks. The 
word was used to mean a gazelle separated 
fi*om the herd, hence a vagabond or 
wanderer, then nomads or horsemen, and, 
in a secondary sense, ' robbers.' 

Oosseir, a place on the Red Sea, is an 
Arabic name meaning the 'little castle,' 
or perhaps the * breach ' which forms the 
harbour. 

Costa Rica, the ' rich coast,' a Central 
American republic, was originally named 



the Costa del oro, or 'gold coast/ by 
Columbiis on his third voyage in 1502. 

Cotopaxi (in Spanish Cotopaji). in the 
Andes near Quito, is the loftiest volcano 
in the world, 19,613 feet in heightT Its 
snow-clad cone, standing out in bold 
relief against the sky, bears a descriptive 
name signifying the 'shining pile,' the 
word ccoto meaning in Quichua a ' heap ' 
or ' pile,' and pasca, 'brilliance, splendour, 
brightness.' 

CotSWOldB, a range of hills in Gloucester- 
shire, is apparently a hybrid name from 
the Celtic cotd^ 'wood' or 'forest,' and 
the A.S. weald, M.E. tooldt which was 
used in the sense of waste or iminclosed 
ground. (See Catmere. ) 

Cottian Alps, the western part of the 
main chain, commemorates the Segusian 
chief Cottius, who became an ally of 
Rome in the reign of Augustus, and 
constructed a road for the Romans. The 
triumphal arch, erected by Cottius in 
honour of Augustus, still stands in SuSA, 
anciently Segusio, the capital of Cottius. 

Cotton'WOOd is a common name given 
to North American rivers, valleys, and 
islands, from a species of poplar, Populus 
monilifera, called the Cottonwood. 

Ooudres, Isle aux, in the Gulf of St. 

Lawrence, was so named by Cartier in 
1535. It is also known by the translated 
name Filbert Island. Coudray, 
CoUDRET, LE Coudr6, and the like, are 
common French village names, corrup- 
tions of Cory let um, a ' hazel grove.' 

Council Q-rove, a flourishing city in 
Kansas, was formerly a meeting-place of 
the Indian tribes. 

Council Bluff, on the Missouri River, 
was so called by the American explorers, 
Lewis and Clarke, because they landed 
here to hold a council with the Otoes. 

Coventry, in Warwickshire, is usually 
supposed to mean the 'convent town' 
(Welsh tre, a town), from a Benedictine 
priory founded in 1043 by Earl Leofric 
and his wife the Lady Godiva (a mona- 
chorum conventu sic dictum putant qui- 
dam). But the A.S. form Cofantred or 
Cofentred \>To\e.s that the name must mean 
the cave-tree (AS. cofa, genitive cofan, a 
cove, cave, chamber, or bed, and tred, a 
tree), either a large hollow tree or a tree 
near a cave. So Runcorn in Cheshire is 
called Rumcofa, the 'roomy cave' or ' cove,' 
in the Chronicle ; and Coveney, in Cam- 
bridgeshire, is A S. Coveneia, (See p. 359. ) 

Cozumel, or Cocumel, an island off 
the coast of Yucatan, was discovered by 



GLOSSARY 



101 



Juan de Grijalva, on May 3rd, 1518, the 
feast of the Invention of the Cross, and 
called by him, from the day of the dis- 
covery, Santa Cruz. Copumel is a cor- 
ruption of the native name Acusamil, 
which means ' swallow island.' 

OrarCO'W, the capital of Galicia, and a 
former capital of Poland, is the English 
form of the Polish name Krakov, said to 
have been founded about 700 A.D. by the 
Polish Prince, Krak I. (Krakus), who is 
doubtless a mere eponymus. 

Oradock, a district in the Cape Colony, 
bears the name of the Governor, Sir J. 
Cradock, afterwards Lord Howden. 

Oray, a village in Kent, on the River Cray, 
is in A. S. Cregsetauahaga, the 'enclosure 
of the settlers on the Cray.' The neigh- 
bouring village of Crayford is in A.S. 
Crecganford, the ' ford over the Cray.' 

Orexnome, a barony in county Monaghan, 
is a corruption of .the old name Crioch- 
Mughdhorn^ • the country,' crioch, of the 
people called the Mughdhoma^ who 
claimed to be descended from Mughdhom, 
the son of CoUa Meann. In the twelfth 
century a tribe of the MacMahons emi- 
grated from Crcmome and settled in County 
Down in a place to which they gave their 
tribe-name of Mughdhorna, and which is 
now the barony of Mourne, whence the 
name of the Mourne Mountains. From 
a Lord Cremome the Cremome Gardens 
in Chelsea were named. 

Oressa^e, Salop, was an early preaching 
station, being called in Domesday Cristes- 
ache, evidently meaning ' Christ's oak.' 

Crew, a common Irish name, is a cor- 
ruption of Craebh, a ' wide-spreading tree,' 
undOT which games or religious rites were 
celebrated. Hence also Crewe, Cravie, 
Corriecravie, and other names in Scot- 
land. 

Cricklade, Wilts, is the A.S. Crecca- 
geldd and Crecca-ldd. In A.S. crecca is 
a ' creek,' and Idd or geldd means a ' way ' 
or 'course,' and also a 'lode' or water- 
course. The name Cricklade therefore 
denotes either a 'road over the creek/ or 
the lodes or passages dug to facilitate the 
entrance of a small stream or creek into 
the Thames. 

Crimea^ in Russian Krym, the modem 
name of the Tauric Chersonese, is de- 
rived from the village of Stari-Krym (in 
Tartar Eski-Krim), or 'Old Krym,' a 
heap of ruins probably representing the 
Greek city of Kremnoi^ ' the crags.' 

Croatia is the country of the Croats 
(Slavonic cArawai), the men of the hills 



or mountaineers, {See Carpathians.) 
From the Croats or Chrawats we get the 
word cravat 

Croker River, Croker Island, and 
Cape Croker, in the Arctic and Aus- 
tralian regions, were named after John 
Wilson Croker, secretary to the Admiralty, 
in whose honour John Ross, in 1818, laid 
down on the chart a lofty range of moun- 
tains extending across the entrance to 
Lancaster Sound, which he named the 
Croker Mountains. In the following 
year the Hecla and Griper, under Parry, 
sailed right across this imaginary chain of 
hills, thus giving occasion to the epigram : 

' Old Sindbad tells us be a wbale bad seen 
So like the land, it seemed an island green ; 
But Ross has told the converse of this tale, 
The land he saw, was — very like a whale.' 

Crooked Lake or Lao de la Croix. 

north-west of Lake Superior, was so named 
from its shape. There is also a Crooked 
Lake in Assiniboia. 

Cross Sound, on the north-west coast 
of America, was discovered by Cook on 
May 3rd, 1778, the day of the Invention 
of the Cross. The Isle k la Cross, in 
Winnipeg, is where the Indians assembled 
to play the game of La Cross. 

Croydon, Surrey, is spelt Crogden in a 
ch^er of 871. In a twelfth century copy 
of the same charter it becomes Croindun, 
whence the transition to Croydon is easy. 
The A.S. crog (or croc) means a 'bottle' 
or pitcher. Hence Crog- den might de- 
note a bottle-shaped den or valley in the 
chalk hills. This is preferable to the 
usual et)rmology from A.S. croh-dun, the 
' hill of meadow saffron.' 

Croyland or CrO'Wland, in Lincoln- 
shire, is in A.S. Crouland, Cruland, 
Crowland, Cruwland, or Croyland de S. 
Guthlaco, a name explained by the pseudo- 
Ingulf as cruda et canosa terra. The 
name appears as Croland in William of 
Malmesbury, Cruiland in Roger of Hove- 
den, and as Croyland from the thirteenth 
to the eighteenth century. It has been 
doubtfully explained from the A.S. crdwe, 
a 'crow' {crdw in composition), or from 
croh, 'meadow saffron,' from which we 
have Crowle in Worcestershire, which 
is Croh-led in a Saxon charter. 

Crozier Island, Crozier Creek, Point 
Crozier, and Cape Crozier, all in the 
Arctic regions, were named after Captain 
Crozier, who commanded one of Franklin's 
ships. 

Crozet Islands, south-east of the 
Cape of Good Hope, were discovered in 
1773 by the French Captain Crozet* 



102 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Cuba, the largest island of the West 
Indies, was discovered by Columbus in 
1492, on his first voyage. He sighted 
the island on October 27 or 28, and re- 
cords in his log-book that the land can 
only be Zipangu {i.e. Japan). He landed 
at Puerto de las Nuevitas, where he ob- 
served the natives smoking certain herbs 
rolled up in dry leaves like cartridges, 
which they called tabocos. Here he heard 
of a town four days' march inland which 
was called Cuba, to visit which he des- 
patched Luis de Torres, a baptised Jew, 
who knew Hebrew, Chaldee, and a little 
Arabic, in order to interview the Emperor 
of Japan, who, he hoped, might be able 
to understand Don Luis. A neighbour- 
ing cape Columbus named Cabo de Cuba 
(now Punta de Mulas), and from this cape 
it is believed that the name of Cuba was 
extended to the whole island. The word 
Cuba seems to have been a general terra 
meaning 'district,' since we learn from Las 
Casas that the district was called Cuba 
nacan, the 'central province,' from cuba, 
a 'territory' or 'province,' and ttacan, 
'middle.' Columbus called the island 
Juana in honour of Don Juan, son. of 
Ferdinand and Isabella, and heir to the 
Spanish throne, it was afterwards called 
Fernandina, after King Ferdinand, and 
subsequently Santiago, from the patron 
saint of Spain. 

CuIIoden, in Invemess-shire, is from the 
Gaelic ciil, 'behind,' and Iddan, the 
diminutive of Idd, 'a pool' or 'swamp.' 
The preposition ciil is common in Gaelic 
topography, as Culross, 'behind the 
promontory,' or Culben, 'behind the 
hill.' The second element is seen in 
CuMLODEN and Loddamore, the ' great 
swamp.' 

Cumberland, an English county, is a 
small part of the district which in the 
Saxon Chronicle appears as Cumbraland, 
' the land of the Cymry,' as the Welsh 
called themselves, the name meaning 
' compatriots ' or ' fellow - countr)mnen,' 
Combrog meaning the ' united people,' just 
as Allo-broges means the ' other men ' or 
foreigners. After the Northumbrians had 
taken Chester, the two divided lands of the 
Cymry were called indififerently Cambiia 
and Cumbria. The latter, which is the 
more correct form, was gradually special- 
ised to denote the land of the Straecled 
Wealas, or Welsh of Strathclyde ; Cum- 
bria, or Cumbraland, denoting the king- 
dom which stretched as far as the Clyde. 
In 1 132, when the northern part of the 
Cumbrian kingdom was annexed to the 



Scottish crown, the name retreated south- 
wards to the modern county of Cumber- 
land, just as Northumberland retreated 
northwards from the Humber. As late as 
the reign of Edward iii. Ranulf Higden 
speaks of Caerlielleshire cum Cumberland. 
Cumberland Sound, a large gulf on 
the western side of Davis' Strait, was ex- 
plored by Davis in 1585, and named after 
his friend George Clifford, Earl of Cum- 
berland. Cumberland River, in Ken- 
tucky, a tributary of the Ohio, was dis- 
covered in 1747 by Dr. Walker of Virginia, 
the first white man who penetrated into 
Kentucky, and named by him after the 
victor of Culloden. The Cumberland 
Islands, off the coast of Queensland, 
were discovered by Cook in 1770, and 
named after the Duke of Cumberland. 
Cape Cumberland, in Kerguelen Land, 
and Cumberland Bay, in South Georgia, 
were also discovered and named by Cook. 
Cumberland Strait, on the north coast 
of Australia, was discovered by Flinders in 
• 1803 in the ship Cumberland. 

Cumnor or Oumner, in Berks, immor- 
talised by Scott, belonged to the neigh- 
bouring Abbey of Abingdon. The A.S. 
name Cumen-ora, from atmena, the geni- 
tive plural of cuma, a guest or sti anger, 
literally a ' comer,' shows that it was the 
landing where visitors descending the 
Thames, either to Abingdon or Oxford, 
would land, thereby cutting off a great 
bend in the river. 

Curacao or Ciira9oa, variously spelt 

by E)ampier, Qurisao, Curasao, and Cor- 
risao, an island off the coast of Venezuela, 
is said to have been so called from a 
gallinaceous bird which inhabited it called 
the curassow by the natives. But Cura- 
saote, the oldest form of name, points 
rather to a Guarani word which means 
' the great plantation.' 

Clirragb, an Irish word meaning a ' bog,* 
is a common Irish name, the best known 
being the Curragh of Kildare. The 
great bog in the north of the Isle of Man 
is also called the Curragh. 

Ourtis' Isles, in Bass Strait, and Port 
Curtis, in Queensland, were named after 
Admiral Sir Roger Curtis. 

Cuttacky the capital of Orissa, was one of 
the five ancient fortresses of Odradesa 
(Orissa). The name is a corruption of 
Kataka, a Sanskrit word meaning ' army ' 
or ' camp,' and hence ' fortress ' or ' royal 
city.' 

Ouvier, Cape, West Australia, was so 
named by Baudin in 1800 in honour of 
the great French naturalist 



GLOSSARY 



103 



OUZCO, in Peru, the capital of the empire 
of the Incas, is a native term meaning the 
'navel' of the realm, so called from its 
central and dominating position. 

Cyclades, a group of islands in the 
^gean, which as Callimachus says lie 
* encircling ' Delos, and forming as it were 
a belt of dangers ; and so distinguished 
from the Sporades or ' scattered ' islands. 

Oyprus, which gave a name to copper 
{ms cyprium), is believed to be a Phoeni- 
cian name meaning the island of the 
tree, called chopher in Hebrew, which was 
probably a kind of pine. 

Dacca (Dhaka), the • concealed,' is a city 
in Bengal which grew up, according to 
the legend, round a temple built on the 
spot where about 400 A.D. an image of 
Durga, wife of Siva, was found concealed. 
The legend probably arose to account for 
a name derived from the dhdk tree [Butea 
frondosa). 

Daghestan, in the Caucasus, is a Turko- 
Persian name meaning the ' mountainous 
country.' 

Dahomey is a West African town and 
kingdom. According to the native tradi- 
tion. Da, a chief who ruled in the seven- 
teenth century, having been killed by a 
rival, the body was ripped up, and a new 
capital was built on the spot where it was 
buried, whence the name Da-omi, which 
means literally ' the belly of Da.' 

Dakota, one of the United States, takes 
its name from a confederation of seven 
tribes calling themselves Dahcota, which 
signifies 'friends,' 'allies,' or 'confeder- 
ates,' who occupied the watershed of the 
Upper Mississippi and the Missouri, 
finally retreating into the territory which 
forms the present State of Dakota. I'he 
Dahcotas were called by their enemies 
Nadowe-ssi-wag, an Algonkin term which 
signifies 'the snake-hke ones,' 'the ene- 
mies,' and a portion of this opprobrious 
name, ssi-wag or si-joug, was corrupted by 
the French into Sioux. The term Sioux 
or Sioan is now used as a linguistic term, 
Dahcota being reserved in a narrower 
sense as an ethnic designation. 

Dalai Noor, a Mongolian lake, means 
the great or ' sea-like lake ' (da/at, 'sea,' 
and noor, 'lake'). 

Dalxnatia, an Austrian crown-land, takes 
its name from its former capital, Del- 
minium or Dalmium, an Illyrian name 
believed to signify a ' sheep pasture.' 

Dalryznple, a. Tasmanian port, was so 
named in 1798 after Alexander Dalrymple, 



hydrographer to the navy. Cape Dal- 
RYMPLE m Sagalin Island also bears his 
name. 

Damascus, the Greek form of the Semitic 
name Dammeseq or Darmeseq, means, 
according to Gesenius, the ' place of in- 
dustry. It is now called Dimeshk-ash- 
Shdm, abbreviated in common parlance to 
ASH ShAm or ShAm, ' the left,' i.e. Syria. 

Damietta, the third largest town in 
Egypt, is the Italian form of the native 
name Damiat or Datnyat, a corruption of 
the Old Egypto-Greek name Tamiathis, 
the first element of which is probably the 
Egyptian Tema^ a ' city,' which we have 
also in DamanhOr, between Cairo and 
Alexandria, in old Egyptian Tema-en- 
Hor, the ' city of Horus. ' 

Dampier Strait, at the western end of 
New Guinea, bears the name of William 
Dampier, who sailed through it in 1700. 
The Dampier Archipelago, off the 
Australian coast, was discovered by Dam- 
pier in 1699. Dampier Land, and the 
Buccaneer Archipelago, on the north- 
ern coast of Australia, were also named 
in honour of the bold buccaneer. 

Dampiere, or Dompi^re, a name borne 
by eight places in France, is derived from *- 
the patron saint, Dominus Petrus, equi- 
valent to St. Pierre. In like manner the 
nine places called Dammartin or DOM- 
MARTIN [Dominus Martinus) are from 
dedications to St Martin, Domleger 
from St. Leger {Dominus Leodegarius), 
and DoMR^Mi, the birthplace of Joan of 
Arc, from Dominus Remigius. Dominus, 
abbreviated to Domnus, and afterwards 
to Dom, was an honorific title given in 
Merovingian times to ecclesiastical digni- 
taries, especially to bishops and abbots, 
such as St. Martin or St. Remigius. 

Danby'S Island, in James' Bay, was 
discovered by Thomas James in 1631, and 
named after the Earl of Danby. 

Danebrog, the name of the Danish flag, 
was given by Captain Graah in 1829 to a 
cape on the east coast of Greenland, the 
most northerly point which had then been 
reached. 

Dang'er River, West Afiica, is a curious 
sailor's assimilation of the Portuguese 
name-^/<? a'Angra, the 'river of the bay,' 
so called because it falls into the Bight of 
Biafi-a. Point Danger, near the boun- 
dary between New SoutW Wales and 
Queensland, was so called by Cook in 
1770 because of the dangerous shoals 
around it. Danger Island is the name 
of several coral atolls in the Pacific. (See 
Mount Warning.) 



to4 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Dantzig, more correctly Danzig, a Bal- 
tic port, is usually supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of Dansk-vik, the Danes* town, 
from & Danish settlement made in the 
time of Waldemar li. More probably, as 
suggested by the Slavonic name Gyddaniu 
or Gdansk, the name b a corruption of 
Godanske, the town ' of the Goths,' ske being 
the common derivative suffix in Slavonic 

Danube, the English name of the great 
river which the Germans call the Donau, 
is derived from the Roman name Dan- 
ubius or Danuvius. Zeuss and GlUck 
reject any connection with the Scythian 
don, which we have in the names of the 
Rivers Don and Donetz, and explain 
the name as Celtic, signifying the river 
with the strong current, the first element 
being the Celtic word dan, ' strong,' and 
the second being a formative suffix. From 
the Celtic name Dan-u-vios, the Teutonic 
invaders, when they reached the river, 
obtained the form which we have in the 
Nibelungenlied, Tuon-owe or Tuon-awa, 
which would signify the ' thundering water,' 
and from Tuonawa came the modern form 
Donau. The Greek name Ister or Istros 
only applied to the lower course of the 
river, and it is probable that the name of 
Istria gave rise to the curious belief that 
the Danube by one of its mouths dis- 
charged itself into the Adriatic. Donau- 
wt)RTH, in Bavaria, takes its name from 
an island (O.H.G. warid) in the Danube, 
while the reputed source of the river 
is a spring in the Castle)rard at Donau- 
eschingen. 

Dardanelles, the modem name of the 
Hellespont, is derived from two Turkish 
forts guarding the passage, called by the 
Italians Dardanelli, a name derived from 
the old Greek city of Dardanus in the 
Troad. 

DarfUr or Darfoor, in Central Africa, 
is the ' land of the Fur or Foor.' It con- 
sists of four circuits or provinces, Dar 
Dali being the Extern, Dar Uma the 
Southern, Dar Dima the South-Westem, 
and Dar-el-Gharb the Western Pro- 
vince. 

Darla {Darya) is a Persian word meaning 
*sea,' 'river.' The modern name of the 
Oxus of the Greeks, the Gihon of the Arabs, 
is Amu or Amu-DariA ; the Jaxartes is 
called the Syr-DariA, or 'yellow river,' 
while the Yaman-DariA is the ' bad river ' 

Darien, a city founded by Balboa in 1510, 
has given a name to the Gutf and Isthmus 
of Darien. Balboa's town, which he called 
Santa Maria del Darien, was built on the 
River Tarena, a native name of which 



Darien is a corruption. The Tarena, a 
small stream, has been commonly iden- 
tified with the Atrato, which the earliest 
Spanish settlers called the Rio Grande, or 
Rio S. Juan. It was Vasco Nunez Balboa, 
and not, as Keats sajrs, 'stout Cortez,' 
who in 1513, • with eagle eyes,' stared at 
the Pacific, and all his men ' Looked at 
each other with a wild surmise. Silent upon 
a peak in Darien.' In 1695 the projector, 
William Paterson, founded his bubble 
Darien Company, and three years later 
sent 12,000 Scotch emigrants to perish in 
New Edinburgh and New St Andrews, 
founded in the territory which they called 
New Caledonia. 

Daijeeling (dXrj/ling), a hill station 
in Sikkim, bears the name of a neighbour- 
ing monastery whose popular Tibetan 
spelling is Dorje-glin, the ' land of the 
Dorje,' i,e of the ' adamant ' or ' thunder- 
bolt,' the ritual sceptre of the Lamas. 
The correct spelling is probably Dar- 
rgyas-glin, which would mean 'island 
of contemplation,' from dar-gias, 'wide 
extension ' or ' extensive view, and hence 

. metaphorically ' contemplation/ and glin^ 
'land' or 'island.' 

Darlingr, one of the largest rivers in 
Australia, called the Callewatta by the 
natives, was discovered by Stuart and 
Hume, and named in compliment to 
Genersd Sir Ralph Darling, then Governor 
of New South Wales (1825-31), and not, 
as sometimes supposed, from Sir Charles 
Darling, who forty years later was Gover- 
nor of Victoria. The Darling Downs 
in Queensland, and the Darling Range 
in West Australia also bear the name of 
Sir Ralph Darling. 

Darmstadt; capital of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
is a town which stands on a small stream 
bearing the descriptive name of Darm, 
the 'gut' But, from the eighth to the 
eleventh century, the town was called 
Darmundestadt, and hence it is supposed 
that the name of the stream is compara- 
tively modem, and derived as in other 
cases from the town, which would be from 
the personal name Taramimd or Dara- 
mund. 

Dartmouth, Devon (A.S. Dcsrenta* 
mutha), is at the mouth of the Dart, 
formerly the Darent, which rises in the 
wild upland district called Dartmoor. 
Dartford in Kent, a corruption of Dar- 
entford, is the ford on the river which still 
keeps the name of Darent, on which stands 
the village of Darenth (A.S. Derant- 
tun and Daren ton). The Southern name 
Darent or Dart is doubUess the same as 



GLOSSARY 



loS 



that which appears as Derwent in York- 
shire, Derb)^hire, Cumberland, and Dur- 
ham, the Kentish Darent being called 
Derguuint by Nennius. The etymology is 
unknown. The old explanation from the 
Celtic dwfr (afterwards dwr), * water,' and 
gwentt open country or plain, is now aban- 
doned. Professor Rhys suggests the Welsh 
Derwennydd, from derw^ ' an oak.' DART- 
MOUTH, in Massachusetts, is believed to 
have been so called from a fancied resem- 
blance to Dartmouth in Devon. Dart- 
mouth in Nova Scotia, and Dartmouth 
in Prince Edward's Island, seem to have 
been named in honour of Lord Dartmouth. 

Darwin Islet, one of the Danger Islets, 
South Shetland, Mount Darwin in New 
Zealand, and Port Darwin in Arnhem's 
Land, Australia, bear the name of the 
naturalist Charles Darwin. 

Dasht means a ' plain ' in Persian : — 
thus Man-dasht means the 'mid-plain.' 
The chief river of Beluchistan is called the 
Dasht, an abbreviation of Khor-i-Dasht, 
the ' river of the plain.' 

Dauphlny, in French DauphinjS, one of 
the old French Provinces, was so called 
from the dolphin assumed by the Counts 
of the Viennois in the twelfth century as a 
symbol of the mildness of their rule. In 
1349 the county was sold to Charles of 
Valois, but with the condition that the 
heir to the French crown should bear the 
arms and assume the style of Dauphin of 
the Viennois. In compliment to the 
Dauphin simdry capes, bays, and islands, 
have been named. Among them Fort 
Dauphin, at the southern extremity of 
Madagascar, founded by the French in 
1644. destroyed in 1672, and reconstructed 
in 1768 ; whence lU Dauphin, a French 
name for Madagascar. The Dolphin, 
Greek Delphis, was so called from its cleft 
tail, and Delphi, in like manner, was 
named from the cleft chasm over which 
the temple stood, and hence, from the 
resemblance of the name, the dolphin 
became the emblem of the Delphian Apollo. 

Davey, a Tasmanian river, flows into 
Port Davey, which was discovered by 
Captain Kelly in 18 15 and named after 
Colonel Davey, the Governor of Tasmania. 
Davy Island and Mount Davy, both 
In Arctic America, were named in com- 
pliment to Sir Humphry Davy, President 
of the Royal Society. 

Davis Strait, which divides Labrador 
from Greenland, bears the name of John 
Davis, our first great Arctic explorer, who 
was bom in Devonshire in 1550. In 1584 
Queen Elizabeth gave a charter to Sir 



Walter Raleigh, Adrian Gilbert, and John 
Davis, for the discovery of a North- West 
passage to China. Master William San- 
derson, a wealthy merchant, who had 
married Raleigh's niece, found the greater 
portion of the funds, and on June 7th, 1585, 
Davis sailed with the Sunshine of 50 tons, 
and the Moonshine, a pinnace of 35 tons. 
He reached the eastern coast of Greenland, 
probably near Cape Discord, naming it 
the Land of Desolation. He anchored 
near Goathaab, calling it GilbertSound, 
after his friend and playmate at Dart- 
mouth, and thence struck across Davis 
Strait to a point which he named Cafe 
Walsingham, anchoring in Exeter 
Sound close to a lofty chfif which he called 
Mount Raleigh. The point of land at 
the north of Exeter Sound he named 
Cape Dyer. He then explored Cum- 
berland Gulf, naming the point at the 
entrance the Cape of God's Mercy, and 
thence sailed homeward. On his second 
voyage, in 1586, he reached the southern 
extremity of Greenland, but finding it 
impossible to land on account of the pack- 
ice which extended for many leagues firom 
the shore, he called it Cape Farewell, 
and sailed north. He laid down the coast 
of Greenland from Cape Farewell to San- 
derson's Hope {g.v!), and then crossed 
the Strait, discovering the entrance to 
Hudson Strait, and fiimlly examining the 
whole coast of Labrador, thus preparing 
the way for Baffin and Hudson. He 
afterwards explored the Straits of Magel- 
lan, discovering the Falkland Islands, and 
also took part in Houtman's expedition 
to Achen, and went with Lancaster as 
pilot of the Red Dragon. He commanded 
a tender against the Spanish Armada, 
acting as pilot to the Lord High Admiral, 
and served in the brilliant attack on 
Cadiz. His last expedition was in the 
Tiger, which was boarded by the crew 
of a Japanese junk in the Straits of Mal- 
acca, Davis being killed in repulsing the 
attack. He needs no tombstone, as he 
has written his name conspicuously upon 
the map of the world. 

Davos Thai, in Canton Graubiinden, is 
a valley which turns round and runs back 
to the north from the Albula. Hence its 
name, from the Romansch davos, 'be- 
hind,' or 'at the back,' thus explaining 
the shelter from winds which causes so 
many invalids to resort to the chief village 
in the valley called Am Platz im Davos 
Thal, usually shortened to Davos Platz. 

Dazio Grande, a village on the Italian 
side of the St Gothard Pass, is the place 



io6 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



where the 'great toll' for the repair of 
the road used to be taken. 

Dead Sea is probably so called because 
it contains no fish. Dead Bird River, 
near Nain in Labrador, is the memorial 

' of a hunting expedition in which, though 
nothing was kiDed, a dead bird was found 
near the camp. The Mountain of the 
Dead on the Colorado River was so 
called because the Indians believed it to 
be inhabited by the spirits of the departed. 
On Deadman's Island, in the Great 
Slave Lake, there lay for many years 
the imburied bones of the victims of a 
■massacre of the Dogribs by the Beaver 
tribe. 

Deaae River flowing into Dease Bay, 

on the Great Bear Lake, bears the name 
of Peter Warrens Dease, an officer in the 
service of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

Deocan, properly spelt Dekhan, means 

* the South Country,' from dakkhinaj a 
Prakrit form of the Sanskrit Dakshina, 

* the right hand,* the south being to the 
right hand at simrise. 

Dee. the chief river in North Wales, was 
called by the Welsh Dubr-Duiu, or Dufr- 
dwyy the 'water of the goddess,' in Latin 
form Deva, equivalent to the ' divino ' 
river. The same meaning probably 
attaches to the names of other rivers 
called the Dee. 

Delagoa Bay, in South Africa, dis- 
covered by Vasco de Gama in 1498 is a 
curiously jumbled version of the Portu- 
guese name Bahia de Lagoa^ the ' Bay of 
Qie lagoon ' or swamp. 

Dela"Ware, one of the United States, 
originally a Swedish colony, takes its 
name from Delaware Bay, so called by 
Sir Robert Carr, when he took the colony 
from the Dutch in 1644, in memory of 
Lord Delaware, who, having been ap- 
pointed in 1609 Captain-General and 
Governor of the English colonies to be 
planted in Virginia, is believed to have 
anchored the following year in Chesapeake 
Bay. In 1617, on his second or third 
voyage, he died at St. Michael, one of the 
Azores, on his way out, poisoned, it was 
believed, by the Spaniards. 

Delft, a town in Holland, stands on the 
canal joining the Rhine and the Maas. 
The name dates from the eleventh century, 
and denotes the place beside a delf, which 
means a ' ditch,' or canal,' from delfan to 

* delve.' Here the delft pottery ware was 
mads. 

Delfirado, a cape south of Zanzibar, was 
called by the Portuguese Cabo Delgado, 



'the slender cape* (Portuguese delicado, 
'delicate,' delgado, 'thin, slender'). 

Delhi or Dehli was the capital of the 
Moghul emperors. Delli, the old Hindu 
form, dates from the first century A.D., 
Dehli being a later Moslem form. Accord- 
ing to the popular etymology the city was 
named from a Rdjdh Dilu, of the Mayura 
d3n[iasty which succeeded the Gautama 
line of princes. Other et)mnologies explain 
it as the 'threshold,' or the 'quicksand' 
(Sanskrit dahal), but the derivation now 
generally accepted is from an old Hindi 
word dtl, an 'eminence.' 

Deli, an ^gean island, is steep and rocky, 
forming a conspicuous landmark for 
sailors coming from the neighbouring 
seas. Hence the old name Delos, the 
'conspicuous.' 

Delly. Mount, a high mountain on the 
Malabar coast, is a corruption of the 
Portuguese name Monte dEli^ which is 
derived from the Malaydlam Eli Mala, 
' high mountain.' The name is sometimes 
applied to an adjoining city and state. 

Demavend, the great volcanic peak 
which towers over Teheran, is a corruption 
of Div-band, the ' dwelling of the ' Divs ' 
or Genii. 

Denbigh, the county town of Denbigh- 
shirk, means in Welsh the 'cliff.' It is 
the same name as Tenby {q.v.). 

Denison Hange, in South Australia, 
and Port Dknison, in Queensland, bear 
the name of Sir William Denison, Gover- 
nor of New South Wales ( 1854-60). 

Denmark is called Dan-mbrk in the 
Sagas. In Old Norse mork means a 
' forest,' and, as forests commonly formed 
the boundaries of tribes, we obtain such 
words as mearc in A.S. and marca in 
O.H.G. meaning a 'march land' or 
'boundary.' But marca in Old Saxon 
means a district, and in Modern Danish 
mark means a 'field,' 'plain,' or 'open 
country.' Hence Denmark probably 
means the 'forest of the Danes,' a name 
parallel to that of Holstein {q.v.) which 
also was densely wooded. The Anglo- 
Saxons would doubtless understand Dene- 
mearc or Dcenmarc, their own form of 
the name, as the Danish frontier. The 
Altmark, the Neumark, and the Bran- 
denburg Mark in Germany were the 
successive frontiers or marches against the 
Slaves, while Finmark, a name of Scan- 
dinavian provenance, might mean the 
plain of the Finns. In England the king- 
dom of Mercia, and the Welsh and Scotch 
marches were border-lands. 



GLOSSARY 



to7 



Dent du Midi, Dent de Morcles, and 
Dent Blanche are the French names of 
Swiss mountains like rocky teeth, which 
are usually designated in German as 
horns, as the Rothhorn, Schwarz- 
HORN, Weisshorn, Silberhorn, or 
MiTTAGHORN, named from their colour 
or position. The Dent de Morcles 
is so called from the village of Morcles 
at its foot. Morcles is a diminutive of 
Morge, which is from O.H.G. muorag, a 
•marshy moor.' 

Denver Oity, the commercial capital of 
the State of Colorado, was founded in 
1858 and named from James W. Denver, 
Governor of Kansas, to which the territory 
then belonged. 

Deptford, between Surrey and Kent, for- 
merly Depe/ord, is the * Deep Ford ' over 
the Ravensboume where it joins the 
Thames, 

Derbent, Derbend, or Darband, hter- 
ally a 'gate' or 'pass closer,' a Persian^ 
term for mountain passes, is frequently 
applied to forts or towns at the entrance 
to defiles. There are several places of the 
name in Persia, notably one representing 
the PylcB AlbanicB where the Caucasus 
approaches the shore of the Caspian so 
closely that the road has to pass through 
the two gates of the town. There is 
another, a Perso-Turkish name, in Mace- 
donia, and a third at the gorge where the 
Indus issues from the Himalayas. 

Derby, the county town of Derbyshire, 
appears in the Saxon Chronicle as Deoraby, 
a name usually explained as the 'village 
of wild beasts' (A.S. diora, gen. plural of 
dior, a 'wild beast,' our 'deer'). But 
such a signification is difficult to under- 
stand, and Deora-by might with equal pro- 
priety be explained as the 'village of 
Deinans' or inhabitants of the adjacent 
Deora nuBth, the ' province of the Deir- 
ians,' or possibly from the River Derwent 
on which it stands, an explanation sup- 
ported by the fact that on the same river 
there are two places called Darley, while 
Dorventania is used in Latin documents 
for Derbyshire. -But names in -by have so 
co mmonly a personal name as their first 
elementj -that it -is not improbable that 
Derby was so called ixoxA, an early Scandi* 
naviaiv«eHl«c. . The older name of Derby 
was Northwortkig, which would have 
become Norworth in modern English. 
We may compare Deerhurst and 
Derham in Gloucestershire, which are 
Deorhyrst and Deorham in A.S., but 
Dereham in Norfolk and Darlaston in 
Staffordshire are both derived from per- 



sonal names, as is shown by the A.S. 
forms Derhdm and Ddorldfesttin. 

Derry or Londonderry was originally 
Daire-Calgaich, the ' oakwood of Calgach' 
(cf. the Calgacus of Tacitus). It was 
afterwards called Derry-Columkille, be- 
cause St. Columba here erected a cell or 
monastery in 546, and the name was finally 
changed to Londonderry when James i. 
gave it by charter to a company of London 
merchants. 

Derwent River, in Tasmania, was so 
named (probably with reference to the 
English Derwent) by Captain Hayes in 
1794. In the previous year the French 
Admiral d'Entrecasteaux had discovered 
it, and given it the name of Rimire du 
Nord, 

Deserters is a corruption by English 
sailors of the Portuguese name as Desertas 
given to three 'desert' islands east of 
Madeira. Las Desiertas is the Spanish 
name of some small uninhabited isles in 
the Canary group. Desert is a name for 
the hermitages of Irish anchorites. [See 
Dysart. ) 

Desire River, in Patagonia, is so called 
because it flows into Port Desire, which 
was so named in 1586 by Thomas Caven- 
dish, the circumnavigator, from his ship 
the Desire, Cabo Deseado, the ' desired ' 
cape, now usually called Cape Pillar, 
guards the western entrance of the Straits 
of Magellan, whose sailors, we are told, 
wept for joy when, on November 27th, 
1520, they sighted the open sea, and 
found they had come to the end of the 
long dreary passage through the straits. 

Desolation Land was the appropriate 
name given by Sir John Narborough in 
1670 to a part of the western coast of 
Tierra del Fuego. Cook, again visiting 
this coast in 1774, gave the names Cape 
Desolation and Desolate Bay to two 
places in this region, which he describes as 
the most desolate and barren he had ever 
seen, ' entirely composed of rocky moun- 
tains, without the least appearance of 
vegetation. These mountains terminate 

■- in horrible precipices, whose craggy sum- 
mits spire up to a vast height, so that 
hardly anything in nature can appear 
with a more barren and savage aspect.' 
Desolation Island, on the west coast 
of Greenland, near the head of Baffin's 
Ray, was so called "n 1852 by Belcher. 
At the southern extremity of Greenland 
we find the names Desolation Land 
and Cape Desolation, which were given 
by John Davis in 1585 and 1587. 



io8 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Despair, Bay of, on the south coast of 
Newfoundland, is a pathetic name given 
by Hoare and his band of colonists, who 
were here nearly starved to death. 

Detention Harbour, in Coronation 
Gulf, is the place where Franklin was 
detained by ice in 1821. In Detention 
Cove. New Zealand, Cook was detained 
by calms. 

Detmold, capital of the principality of 
Lippe-Detmold, is a corruption of the old 
name Theot-malli, a 'folk-moot/ from 
O.H.G. mahal, *a place of assembly or 
of justice,' and diot, * people or tribe.' 

Detroit is a city in Michigan on the 
* narrow ' passage between La]ke Erie and 
Lake St. Clair, called by the French 
colonists Detroit River, which is be- 
lieved to be a translation of the native 
name. 

Devenish, an island near Enniskillen, is 
a corruption of Daimh-inis, the 'island 
of the oxen.' 

Deventer, on the Rhine, anciently Da- 
vontria, contains the name of Davo, a 
friend of St. Lebuin. 

Devil's Bridge, which spans a gorge 
of the Keuss in Canton Un, is a transla- 
tion of the German name Teufd's Briicke. 
So a lofty arch spanning the Ebro, and 
possibly of Carthaginian construction, is 
called the Puente del Diablo (Devil's 
Bridge), the peasantry believing that it 
could have been built by no human hands. 
The Diablere TS, near the upper end of 
the Lake of Geneva, are a range of torn 
peaks, from which disastrous falls of rock 
have frequently descended. Cook gave 
the name of the Devil's Basin to a 
desolate land-locked bay in Tierra del 
Fuego, mostly, even at midsummer, shut 
out from the sim by precipitous cliffs. In 
England such names as the Devil's 
Dyke, the Devil's Punchbowl, or the 
Devil's Arrows, testify to the popular 
tendency to ascribe to diabolic agency 
various natural or artificial objects for the 
origin of which it is difficult to account. 

Devizes, in Wilts, is one of the few 
names in England which are neither 
British, Roman, English, or French, but 
Latin without being Roman. As late as 
Clarendon's time it was called The De- 
vizes, and the present local name is The 
Vize. The name Divisce, of which De- 
vizes is a corruption, does not occur before 
the foundation of the castle of Bishop 
Roger of Salisbury, in the reign of Henry 
I., but may have been given at an earlier 
time to the march or frontier forest which 



divided the Saxon conquerors from the 
Welsh, who long retained the wooded valley 
of the Bristol Avon. In twelfth century 
documents the word is used to denote the 
boundary of an estate or of a jurisdiction, 
which may be its meaning in the present 
case. 
Devonsllire is a corruption of the A.S. 
Defena-scir, the shire of the Defenas or 
Devonians, Defena being a genitive plural. 
Devon is a corruption of the dative pliu^l 
Defenum or Defnum. The Defenas or 
Defnas are the Damnonii or Dumnonii of 
classical writers, a name explained by Pro- 
fessor Rhys from the Celtic dumno-s, which 
we have in Dumnorix, which may mean 
the ' king of the people,' in which case the 
Dumnonii w^ould be ' the people ' or ' tribe. * 
On the other hand it has been urged that 
Dumnonia may be a dialectic equivalent 
oiDufneintox Dyfneint, the Welsh name 
of Devonshire in the time of Nennius, 
which would signify the 'land of the 
deeps,' either the land of the deep valleys 
or of the deep seas. North Devon, in the 
Polar Archipelago, was so named from his 
native county by Lieutenant Liddon, who 
commanded the Griper in Parry's expedi- 
tion of 1819-20. Devonport, a suburb of 
Pljnnouth, is a modern name meaning the 
'port of Devon." 

De Vries Strait, between the two 

Kurile Islands of Iturup and Urup, bears 
the name of the discoverer, a Dutch sea- 
man despatched by Van Diemen in 1643 
on a voyage of exploration. 

De Witt's Land, North Australia, was 
discovered in 1628 by the Dutch ship 
Vianen which is believed to have been 
commanded by William de Witt. The 
De Witt Islands, Tasmania, discovered 
by Tasman in 1642, are commonly said 
to have been named by him after John de 
Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland. But 
as De Witt was only seventeen at this 
time, and his less celebrated brother 
Cornelius was only nineteen, this can 
hardly be correct Either the name must 
be of later date, or, more probably, 
Tasman may have named them after 
William de Witt, his predecessor in 
Australian discovery. 

Dhawalagriri, one of the loftiest peaks 
in the Himalayas, 26,836 feet in height, is 
the ' white mountain * (Sanscrit dhavala^ 
'white,' and ^>/, 'a mountain.') 

Diamantina is the modem name of a 
town in the diamond district of Brazil, 
formerly called Tejuco, 'dirt' town. The 
Diamantina River, Queensland, has no 
reference to diamonds, but repeats the 



GLOSSARY 



109 



Christian name of Lady Bowen, wife of 
the first Governor. 

Diarbekr, an important town on the 
Upper Tigris, derived its name from the 
' camp,' diyar, of Bekr, an Arab tribe. So 
Dera Ismael Khan in the Punjab is the 
' abode' or ' tent ' [iiera) pitched by Ismael 
Khan, which ultimately grew into a city. 

Diedenliofen in Lorraine, called Thion- 
viLLE in French, is a corruption of Thio- 
denhofen, Latinised as Theodonis villa, 
from a personal name cognate with the 
Gothic thiuda, * people.' 

Diego Ramires, a group of rocky 

islands oflf Cape Hoorn, were so named by 
Bartolomeo Garcia de Nodal, in 1619, 
after a cosmographer who accompanied 
his expedition. 

Dieppe, in Normandy, derives its Scandi- 
navian name from ' the deep ' (diep), or 
the 'deep water' (diupa) of the River 
Arques on which it stands. 

"^ Dijon, the former capital of the duchy of 
Burgundy, is from an oblique case oiDibio, 
believed to be a Celtic name referring to 
its position at the confluence of the two 
streams the Ouche and the Suzon. 

Dingle, in Kerry, is a corruption of the 
old~ Irish name Daingean 'strong,' de- 
noting a stronghold or fort. 

Direction Islands, Cape Direction, 
and Direction Bank, are so called 
because they give the direction to ships 
steering respectively for the Straits of 
Magellan, for an opening in the Australian 
Barrier reef, and for the harbour of 
Bombay. 

Dirk Hartogr's Island, Australia, 

was discovered in 1616 by Dirk Hartog of 
Amsterdam in the Eendragt{q,v. ) outward 
bound from Holland to the Dutch East 
Indies, which sailed along the western 
coast of Australia from S. lat. 23° to 26}^. 
A record of this strange voyage, scratched 
with a knife on a tin plate, was found in 
Sharks Bay in 1697, and again in 1801. 

Disappointment Bay, on the west 

coast of Patagonia, was so called by 
Fitzroy in 1830, on account of the disap- 
pointment of his expectation that it would 
lead out of Fitzroy Passage. Cape 
Disappointment, in South Georgia, was 
so called by Cook in 1775, because, on 
rounding it, he found that the land he had 
supposed might be a part of the great 
Antarctic continent, proved to be only an 
island. The Islands of Disappoint- 
ment, a group in the Low Archipelago, 
discovered by Byron in 1765, were so 
called because after two days' search no 



fresh provisions for his sick men were 
foimd. 

Disa43ter Inlet, in the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, was so called by Stokes in 1841 on 
account of the bursting of a fowling-piece, 
on which he had relied to procure food. 
On his third voyage Columbus gave the 
name of Rio de Desastre to a river on 
the Mosquito coast of Central America 
(now called the Bluefields River) because 
of the disastrous wreck of one of his ships 
in September 1502. 

Discovery Bay, South Australia, forms 
an interesting record of early Australian 
exploration. It was here that Major 
Mitchell, descending the Glenelg in his 
overland journey from the Murray River, 
reached the coast, and found the boat 
Discovery awaiting him. 

Disentis in the Graubilnden is a corrup- 
tion oi Desertina, the desert place in which 
Sigbert, the companion of Columbanus, 
foimded the monastery around which the 
town subsequently grew up. ( See Dys ART. ) 

Dislocation Harbour, in Tierra del 
Fuego. is an ill-chosen name bestowed by 
Fitzroy in 1829 because one of his officers 
here got his shoulder out of joint 

Dismal SlT^amp is the appropriate 
name of the great cedar swamp near Nor- 
folk in Virginia. 

Dispersion, Mount, on the Darling 

River, New South Wales, was so called 
by Mitchell because a threatening band of 
natives dispersed when a few shots were 
fired at them. 

Dniepr or Dnieper, a great Russian 
river, retains the old Scythic name Dana- 
priSf of which the later Greek name 
Borysthenes is believed to be a rough 
translation. {See Beresina.) In like 
manner the Dniestr or Dniester re- 
tains the Scythic name Danaster, whose 
later name Tyrasis preserved in its Turkic 
name the Turla. In Dan-apris and 
Dan-aster we may recognise the Scythic 
word dan^ a * river,* the Danapris being 
the ' northern * or * upper ' river and the 
Danaster the ' southern ' or ' lower ' river. 

Doab is a Persian term signifying the 
district between 'two rivers. In Upper 
India it denotes especially the tract be- 
tween the Ganges and the Jumna. The 
districts between the rivers of the Punjab 
are all called Doabs, with a distinctive 
prefix, the Richna Doab, for instance, lying 
between the Chenab and the Ravi. 

Dobrudja or Dobr'utcha (Bulgarian 
Dobritcn), a district on the Black Sea, 
south of the Delta of the Danube, means 



no 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



the good district or pasturage. The 
Old Slavonic dobru, * good/ common in 
Slavonic names, is a loan word adopted 
by the Turks from the Bulgarians. Mr. 
Freeman, in his Historical Geography, 
asserts that it was so called because it was 
part of the possessions of the despot 
Dobroditus, c. 1357, but more probably 
the despot took his name from the territory. 

Dodabetta, the highest peak of the Nil- 
gherries, is the ' great mountain,' from the 
Dravidian^^a, 'great,' and betta, 'moun- 
tain.' 

Dog River, an affluent of the Slave 
River, was so called because the banks 
were inhabited by the * Dog Rib ' tribe, a 
translation of the native name, Thling- 
chn-Dinneh. The Dog Ribs are also 
called Slave Indians, a translation of 
the name given them by their enemies the 
Crees. {See Slave River, p. 260.) 

Dog'g'er Bank, a trawling station in the 
North Sea, was so called because fre- 
quented by the Dutch fishing smacks 
called ' doggers.' 

Dollart. a bay at the mouth of the Ems, 
formed by a great storm in 1277, is from 
the Frisian word dolUrd or dullert, a 
* depression ' or ' hollow. ' 

Dolores, the name of sundry places in 
Spain and the Spanish colonies, is derived 
from Franciscan missions commemorating 
the sorrows of St. Francis, or from churches 
dedicated to our Lady of Sorrows. The 
oldest building in California is the church 
of the Mission de los Dolores de San 
Francisco, established by Father Serro at 
San Francisco in 1776. The Rio Dolores 
in Colorado also takes its name from a 
Franciscan Mission. 

Dolphin and Union Strait, in Arctic 

America, was discovered and traversed by 
Dr. Richardson in two small boats, the 
Dolphin and the Union, during Franklin's 
expedition, 1825-26. Dolphin Island, 
West Australia, was discovered by the 
barque Dolphin. 

Dominica, 'Sunday Island,' one of the 
Lesser Antilles, was the first land dis- 
covered by Columbus on his second voy- 
age. He sighted it on Sunday, November 
3rd, 1493. HiSPANiOLA, the Spanish part 
of Haiti, is also called San Domingo, 
from the town of that name founded in 
1496 by Bartolom^ Colon, the brother of 
Columbus. According to Las Casas it 
was so called because the first stone was 
laid on a Sunday, but Don Fernando 
Colon asserts, with greater probability, 
that it was named in honour of the patron 



saint of Domenico Colon, the father of the 
two brothers. The differentiated form 
Dominica is sometimes used to designate 
the whole island of Haiti. 

Don, the name of a river flowing into the 
Sea of Asov, must have meant ' river ' or 
* water ' in Sarmatian, and still bears that 
signification in Ossetic. Thus a stream 
in the Caucasus, which flows over black 
rocks is called by the Ossetes Saw-Dorg- 
iny-Don, the 'black-stone water.' The 
DoNETZ, and perhaps the Danube, the 
Dnieper (^. v.), and the Dniester may 
contain the same root The Don was the 
Tanais of the Greeks. 

Donairhmore, the • great church,* is the 
name of fourteen Irish parishes. The 
first part of the word is a corruption of 
the Irish domhnach^ an early loan word 
from the Latin dominica^ meaning, like 
the English word church, the Lord's 
house, or possibly a church consecrated 
on a Sunday, dies dominica, Donny- 
BROOK, near Dublin, famous for its fair, 
is a corruption of Domhnach-Droc^ the 
Church of St. Broc 

Doncaster, Yorkshire, in A.S. Dona- 
ceaster or Done-ceaster, the Chester on the 
River Don, is the place called adDanum, 
or Danum, in the Antonine Itinerary. 
The name is probably from the Celtic 
word danu, 'strong.' There is also a 
River Don in Aberdeenshire. 

Doneg'al, an Irish county, takes its name 
from the town of Donegal, anciently 
Dun-na-nGall, ' the fort of the strangers ' 
or Danes. The old Danish fortress, 
which stood at the ford over the Esk, was 
burnt by the Irish in 11 59. 

Dongola^ a district in Nubia, is named 
from its mhabitants the Dankla (singular 
Dongolavi). 

Dorchester, in Oxfordshire, where Cjme- 
gils and Cwichelm were baptised by Beri- 
nus, became the seat of the bishopric 
afterwards removed to Lincoln. In A. S. it 
is Dorces-ceaster, Dorcan-ceaster, Dorca- 
ceaster, Dorce-ceaster, or Dorceaster, the 
meaning of which is not obvious, but is 
probably from an older Celtic name, 
apparently unconnected with the name 
of Dorchester, the county town of 
Dorset {q-v.), which has been trans- 
ferred to Dorchester in Massachusetts, 
which was founded in 1630 at a place 
whose native name was Mattapan. The 
colony was projected by John White, 
the Puritan Rector of Dorchester in 
Dorset, and was carried out by merchants 
of Dorchester in order to obtain supplies 
for their vessels fishing near Cape Cod. 



GLOSSARY 



III 



Domford, the oldo: name of Ches- 
terton in Hunts, was the A.S. Dorman- 
ceaster or Dorm-ceaster, called in the 
Antonine Itinerary DurobrivcB^ * the for- 
tress bridge,' showing that a ford had 
replaced a Roman bridge over the Nen, 

Dorpat, in Livonia, is a corruption of the 
Lettish name Tehrpat^ Latinised as Tar- 
fatum, 

Dorset, a corruption of the A.S. Domscefe, 
afterwards Dor-see U, is a name of the same 
class as Somerset. It must mean the set- 
tlers near Dorchester, which is called in 
A.S. Dornwaran-ceaster, Dornwara-cester, 
Dornware-ceaster, Dornea-cester^ or Dom- 
ceasUr, names evidently derived from 
Durnovaria, the Roman name, which 
doubtless designated not the modern 
town, but the huge British fortress, now 
called Maiden Castle, which crowns the 
summit of a hill a mile or so south of 
Dorchester, to which it bears much the 
same relation as Old Sarum does to 
Salisbury. The Anglo-Saxons would 
understand Dorn-wara-ceaster as mean- 
ing the Chester of the inhabitants of Dorn. 
{See Canterbury). The meaning of Dur- 
novaria is obscure. In Celtic dur means 
a strong place, and -varia means a 'de- 
scent,' so that Dur-no-varia might be the 
'fortress of the descent,' Maiden Castle 
standing on the summit of a steep descent 
leading to Weymouth. It has also been 
suggested that the name may be from 
the Celtic dwr^ 'water.' Ptolemy calls 
the people of Dorset the Dour-o-triges^ 
(Cornish tri^e, 'to inhabit,') and Asser 
tells us that in the British tongue Dorset 
was called Dum-gueis, i.e, the Durn 
country (Welsh gwys^ ' country ' ). 

Dortmund, in Westphalia, is not, as 
might be supposed at the mouth of the 
Dort, but is a corruption of Throtmanni, 
which we find in the tenth century. 
Throtmanni, which is from a personal 
name, became successively Trutmonniat 
Druimunne, and Trutmonde, from which 
the transition to Dortmund is easy, 

DoubS, a French Department, takes its 
name from the River Doubs, anciently 
the Dubis, probably a Celtic name mean- 
ing the ' black water.' 

Doubtful Bay, in Tasmanland, was so 
called by Stokes because he was doubtful 
whether it was a bay or an estuary. 
Doubtful Island, in the Paumotu group, 
was so named by Cook because he was 
doubtful whether it had not been pre- 
viously discovered and named by Bougain- 
ville^ 



Douglas, which means the ' black brook ' 
(Gaelic dubh-glaise), is the name of several 
small streams, and hence of places on 
their banks; among them Douglas, a 
town in the Isle of Man, and Douglas, 
a village in Lanarkshire, which gave a 
patronymic to the great Douglas family. 
Cape Douglas, Cook's River, was so 
named by Cook after Dr. Douglas, Canon 
of Windsor. Port Douglas, Queens- 
land, bears the name of Mr. John Douglas, 
a Prime Minister of Queensland. 

Douro is the Portuguese name of the 
river called Duero in Spanish, and 
Durius by the Romans. It is usually 
explained as a Celtic name from rf«r, 
'strong,' or dwr, 'water,' but as the 
existence of Celtic names in Spain is 
doubtful it may not improbably be from 
the Basque Asiura, 'rocky river,' which 
was the old name of the Izla, its chief 
affluent. But the Doria in Piedmont, 
and the Dordogne, formerly the Dur- 
anius, which gives a name to a French 
Department, are probably Celtic. 

Dover, Kent, is the Roman Dubris, pro- 
bably a locative form. In the Saxon 
Chronicle the name appears as Dofere and 
Dofre^ and in the dative as cet Doferau 
and Dobrum, the inhabitants being called 
Doferware. The name was probably 
Belgic, from the Celtic dubr, 'water' (Irish 
dobhar, Welsh dwr[dwfr), Manx duobar), 
and may have denoted primarily the little 
stream which enters Dover haibour. We 
have the same word in Cam-diibr, the 
* crooked water,' in the Liber Landavensis, 
also in Pliny's Vemodubrum, 'aldertree 
water,' in Gaul, while the Tauber, an 
affluent of the Main, is called the Dubra 
by the Ravenna geographer. Dover- 
court, near Harwich, is Dovor-cort in a 
charter, and Doverdale, in Worcester- 
shire, is A.S. Doferdael and Dover del. 
We have Wendover in Bucks (A.S. 
WcendofraY Mitcheldever or Michel- 
dever, A.S. Myceldefer (mycel, 'great'), 
as well as Andover [q.v.) and Candover 
[q.v\ 

Do"WTl, an Irish county, takes its name 
from Down PATRICK, the county town, 
so called from a large entrenched dun 
near the cathedral, originally called Dun- 
keltar, the fort of Keltar of the baitles. 
The name of Keltar was ultimately 
dropped and that of St. Patrick substi- 
tuted from his connection with the place. 
Down is an English corruption of the 
Celtic dun, a strong place or hill-fort. 

Dragron's Mouth and Serpent's 
Mouth are the English translations of 



112 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



the Spanish names Boca del Drago and 
Boca delta Sierpe, given by Columbus 
in 1498 on his third vo3rage, to the two 
outlets of the Gulf of Paria, because of 
the dangerous surge caused by the furious 
currents firom the mouths of the Orinoco. 

Drakenstein, in the Cape Colony, was 
so named in 1675 in honour of the Baron 
van Rheede, Lord of Drakenstein in 
Geldem. 

Drake's Harbour, now usually called 
Sir Francis Drake's Bay, is a name 
which has been given by the Cahfornians 
to a bay at the entrance of the Golden 
Gate, near San Francisco, in order to 
commemorate the visit of Sir Francis 
Drake to the C^ifomian coast in July 
1579, during his circumnavigation of the 
globe. The older name Puerto de los 
Reyes, bore witness to the prior discovery 
by the Spaniards in 1542, on January 6th, 
the Festival of the Three Kings, which 
we call the Epiphany. 

Drave or Drau, a tributary of the Dan- 
ube, is the Dravus or Draus of the 
Romans. The name is distinctively neither 
Celtic, Slavonic, or Teutonic, but of the 
primitive Ar3ran type, and has been re- 
ferred by Bopp to the Sanskrit dravas, 
'that which flows.' To the same stem 
we may refer the name of the Trave in 
Holstein, formerly the Travena, and pos- 
sibly of the Traun, formerly the Druna 
or Truna. TravemOnde is the town ' at 
the mouth of the Trave.' 

Dreary, Mount, is one of two moun- 
tains m the York Peninsula, Queensland, 
which, in 1820, were appropriately named 
Mount Dreary and Mount Horrid by 
King. 

Drentlie, a province in the Netherlands 
between the Zuyder Zee and the DoUart, 
is a corruption of the old name TArianta, 
which Grimm explains as equivalent to 
Thri-banta, denoting the union of ' three 
districts.' (5<r^ Brabant. ) So the district 
of Twenthe in the Netherlands retains 
the name of the Tubantes of Tacitus, who 
were the people of ' two districts.' 

Dresden^ the capital of the kingdom of 
Saxony, is locally called Drdsen. The 
second d is intrusive, as is shown by the 
older form Dresen, which would mean ' at 
the ferry,' from the Slavonic trust , a 
* ferry.' Buttmann derives the name from 
the Wendish drezdzany^ a 'haven' or 
•wharf.' 

Dreux, in the Department of the Eure et 
Loire, is a corruption of the Low-Latin 
name Droca, a name which appears in 



the Antonine Itinerary as Duroeasses, 
apparendy a tribe nama 

Dro^heda is a corruption of Droichead- 
atha, 'the bridge at the ford,' so called 
from a bridge built at the ford where the 
northern voad crossed the Boyne. The 
Gaelic dYochaid^ Old Irish droichei, a 
•bridge,' is also the soiu-ce of the name 
Droch Head in Wigtownshire. 

Droit'Wicll, in Worcestershire, has brine 
springs rising in the centre of the town. 
It was the Salina of the Romans, and is 
called Saltwick in a charter of 880. The 
name Droitwich signifies the wych or ' salt- 
house' where the droits or dues on salt 
were paid« 

Dromedary, Oape, on the coast of 

New South Wales, was so called by Cook 
in 1770 from its shape. 

Drumxnoild, a common name in certain 
parts of Ireland and Scotland, is a cor- 
ruption of the Gaelic dromainn, 'a ridge,' 
derived from, and probably a diminutive 
of, the Gaelic druim, 'the back,' hence a 
* ridge,' a word cognate with the Latin 
dorsum. The Drummond Hills, at the 
source of the Spey, as well as Loch 
^Droma and AChadrum, may preserve 
the name of Drum-Alban, the Dorsum 
Britannia of Latin writers, erroneously 
called the Grampians {q.v.). Drum is 
found as the initial syllable in about 2400 
Irish names, and is often disguised, as in 
AUGHRIM, a corruption of Each-dhruim, 
'horse ridge,' or Leitrim for Liath- 
dhruim, ' the grey ridge.' It is also com- 
mon in Scotland, as in Tyndrum, Cairn- 
drum, and Dromore, the 'great ridge.' 

Druses, properly ed-DerUz, a people in 
the Lebanon, are so called from the 
prophet Ismael Darazi or el Derzi, the 
founder of their religion. 

Dsungaria, in Central Asia, is the terri- 
tory of the Soongarr, 'those to the left,' 
a nomad Mongol tribe, so called because 
they are on the left hand, that is to the 
north, of the other nomads. 

Dublin, anciently Duibh-linn (dubh-linn), 
the 'black pool,' is properly the name of 
that part of the Liffey where the city was 
built. Compare Blackpool in Lanca- 
shire. The older name was Ath-CUatk, 
the • ford of hurdles.' Dupplin Castle, 
in Perthshire, is a variant form of the 
name Dublin* 

Dubuque Oity, in Iowa, takes its name 
from Julien Dubuque, a French-Canadian 
trader who obtained permission to work 
the lead mines where the city of Dubuque 
now stands. 



GLOSSARY 



"3 



DucatO, Oape, at the South- West ex- 
tremity of Leucadia (Santa Maura), is 
an Italian corruption, with a prefixed 
article, of the ancient name Leucatas, so 
called from the dazzling cliff of white 
marble, which rises 2000 feet above the 
sea. 

Dudley, in Worcestershire, according to 
a baseless tradition preserved by Camden, 
took its name from Dodo, a Saxon prince, 
but is merely the leak or * field ' of some 
unknown person bearing the name of 
Dudda. Dudley Digges, a cape at the 
head of Baffin's Bay, was so named by 
Baffin, in 1616, after his patron Sir Dudley^ 
Digges, a contemporary writer and poli- 
tician, whose name is also borne by Cape 
Digges at the entrance to Hudson's Bay, 
a cape discovered and named by Hudson 
in 1 6 10. 

Duff Islands, in the Santa Cruz Group, 
bear the name of the missionary ship Duff, 
which visited them in 1797. 

Dufferin, a barony in County Down, 
which gives the title of Marquis to the 
Blackwoods, was anciently Dubh-thrian, 
the ' black third,' a name referring to an 
old tripartite division of territoir. Trean- 
LAUR, a similar name, is the 'middle 
third.' 

Dulcigrno, a coast town in Albania, is a 
corruption, with a prefixed article, of the 
Roman Olcinium, a name better preserved 

. in the Tiu-kish form Olkin or Olgun. 

Dumdum, a military cantonment near 
CalcutU, is doubtless from the Hindustani 
damdama, 'a mound,' hence an elevated 
battery. 

Dunbar, in Haddingtonshire, may be 
either the • fort on the height ' (Gaelic darr) 
or the hill of St Barr or Finbar, an Irish 
Saint. The Gaelic and Irish dun, a hill- 
fort or strong place, is the Welsh din, 
and the Gaulish dunon. Latinised as 
dunum, which we have in Autun and 
other French names. It seems to have 
obscure relations with the common Anglo- 
Saxon sufiix -don in English names, and 
also with the A.S. tUn (whence our word 
town) and the German zaun. It is a very 
common prefix in Irish and Scotch names, 
as DuNDRUM, County Down, the 'fort 
on the ridge.' It is often followed by a 
personal name as Dundonald, ^Dunall's 
fort,' DUNCANNAN, ' Conan's fort,' or 
Dungannon, in Tyrone, a corruption of 
Dun ' Geanainn, tiie 'fort of Geanan.' 
DUNDALK, originally the name of a great 
neighbouring earthwork, is a corruption 
of Dun-Dealgan, the 'fort of Delga,' 



one of the chieftains of Irish legend. 
DuNROBiN is supposed to be the 'fort 
of Robin/ of Robert, Earl of Sutherland. 
Doneraile, County Cork, anciently 
Dun-air-aill, is the ' fort on the cliff.' 
DUNMYAT, a peak of the Ochils, which 
overlooks Stirling, is believed by Professor 
Rhys to be the dun or hill-fort of the tribe 
of the Meatae. Dunkeld, called the Gate 
of the Highlands, is usually explained as 
the fort of the Calidones, whose southern 
outpost it was. But the Gaelic name Dun- 
celden or Dun-calden points, as Mr. Stokes 
has shown, to the ' fort of the woods ' or 
the • forest fort ' as the true meaning, 
caillen being the genitive plural of caill, 
a wood or forest. Dundee, at the mouth 
of the Tay, has been supposed to be a 
corruption oi Dun-Tatha, the 'fort on the 
Tay,' but this derives no support from the 
early forms of the name ; Dunde, a twelfth 
century form, being apparently ditn Di, 
the ' hill of God.' The prefix dun- some- 
times takes the form dum, as in Dumfries 
and Dumbarton. Dumfries, anciently 
Dun-fres, is probably the ' fort of the 
Frisians,' while Dumbarton, originally 
called Alclud (Al-clyde), the ' rock on the 
Clyde,' having in the sixth century been 
taken by the Welsh prince Rhydderch Hael 
who made it his capital, was called by the 
Gaels Dun-brettan or Dun-breatan. the 'fort 
of the Britons ' or Welsh of Strath-Clyde. 
The name became Z>«OT^f7Vo« in the seven- 
teenth century, and finally Dumbarton. 

Duncan Island, an isolated isle in the 
Pacific, N. W. of the Galapagos, bears the 
name of the Captain of a merchant ship 
by whom it was discovered in 1787. 

Dundas in Linlithgow is the Gaelic 
dun-deas, the 'southern fort,' hence the 
territorial surname Dundas, the source 
of many colonial names mainly due to 
Henry Dundas, Viscount Melville, First 
Lord of the Admiralty, whose name is 
borne by DuNDAS Strait between Mel- 
ville Island and the North Australian 
coast, by Fort Dundas on Melville 
Island, where an attempt was made in 
1829 to establish a convict settlement, as 
well as by Mount Dundas, and Point 
Dundas, in the Gulf of Carpentaria, dis- 
covered in 1803, and by Dundas Point in 
the Arctic Melville Island, discovered 
in 1820. 

Dunedin, a Gaelic equivalent of Edin- 
burgh [q.v.), was the name given to the 
capital of the New Zealand province of 
Otago, in which about 1847 a settlement 
was made by an association formed by 
the Free Church of Scotland, under whose 



H 



114 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



auspices a number of emigrants, con- 
ducted by a Captain Cargill, were landed 
at a place they named Port Chalmers. 
A neighbouring river was called the 
Clutha, which was supposed to be the 
ancient name of the Clyde, one of their 
towns receiving the absurd name of 

INVERCARGILL. 

Dun^eness or Dengeness, in Kent, is 
the dangerous shingle point which forms 
the extremity of Romney Marsh, formerly 
called Denge Marsh. In the Saxon 
Chronicle Dungeness is called simply Ncbs^ 
the ' Ness ' or nose ; the meaning of the 
distinguishing prefix, which is of later 
origin, is unknown. Dungeness might 
signify the ness at the extremity of the 
Denge Marsh, a name possibly derived 
from an old French word denoting ' a 
feudal toll ; ' the sea wall protecting the 
marsh being maintained by the ' Lords 
of the Marsh,' who levy scot-pajnnents on 
the district, and have the benefit of all 
fines, writs, and forfeitiu-es. But the 
Marsh may have been named from, the 
Ness, in which case the name might refer 
to the waves ' beating ' on the point, or 
to the ' noise ' of the sea rolling the large 
shingle of which the Ness is composed. 

Dunkirk (French Dunkerque) takes 
its name from a church founded in the 
seventh century by St. Eloi, on the sand- 
hills or dunes on the Flemish coast. Dun- 
Stable, Bedfordshire (A.S. Dunestapel), 
is the staple or market on the chalk downs. 

Durazzo, a Turkish port on the Adriatic, 
is a corruption of the old Greek name 
Dyrrhachion. 

Durban, properly D' Urban, the capital 
of Natal, was founded in 1834 by Captain 

" Gardiner, and named after Sir Benjamin 
D' Urban, Governor of the Cape Colony. 

Durham, capital of the County Palatine 
of the same name, stands on a precipitous 
hill, 80 feet high, almost encircled by a 
bend of the River Wear. Here, in 995, the 
monks of Lindisfarne, bearing the body 
of St. Cuthbert, took refuge from the 
Danes. They called it Dunholm, the holm 
or river island forming a dun or hill-fort. 
Dunholm was softened on Norman lips to 
Duresme, whence by assimilative folk ety- 
mology came the English form Diu-ham. 

Durness, in Sutherland, is probably the 
Norse name Dyrnaes, ' Stag Cape.' 

Dusky Bay, New Zealand, was dis- 
covered by Cook in the dusk of the even- 
ing of March 13th, 1770. He put out to 
sea without anchoring, because he found 
he could not land before it grew darld 



Dusseldorf.at the confluence of the Rhine 
and the River Diissel, was, till the thir- 
teenth century, merely a village, as its 
name implies. 

Dutch,, the English form oi Deutsche^ the 
national name of the German race, is 
from the O.H.G. diot (Gothic ihiuda), 
'people' or 'tribe,' whence the Teutoni 
of Caesar and the Teutones of Strabo. 
Deutsche, ' the people,' is used in opposi- 
tion to Walsche (Welsh), ' the foreigners ' 
or ' strangers,' a name which the Germans 
give to the Italians and Walloons, while 
we confine it to the Celts of Wales and 

" Cornwall {q.v.). An etymology recently 
advanced by Mr. Bradley derives Teutones 
from a primitive Teutonic theuth-o (Gothic 
thiuths), *good.' As late as the time of 
Charles I. we used the name Dutchland 
(German Deutschland) for Germany, and 
in the United States Dutchman still means 
a German. In England it is now re- 
stricted to the people of the Netherlands, 
properly the Low Dutch. 

Duxbury, near Pljnnouth, Massachusetts, 
was occupied about 1630, and named 
after Duxbury in Lancashire, the birth- 
place of Miles Standish, the puritan hero. 

Duyfhen Point, in the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, commemorates the visit of the 
Dutch yduchxDuyfhen, despatched in 1606 
from Bantam. (5^tf Carpentaria.) This 
was in fact the earliest discovery of the 
Australian continent, though at the time 
it was supposed that these coasts were 
part of New Guinea. 

Dwina is the name of two large Russian 
rivers. One, which flows into the Arctic 
Ocean, bears a name derived from the old 
Scythic word don, ' water ' or ' river.' The 
other, which falls into the Baltic at Riga, 
is of recent origin, being a Russian cor- 
ruption of the German name Diina, given, 
it is believed, to the river by Bremen 
sailors because of the dunes or sandhills 
at its mouth. 

Dyer, a Cape on the western side of 
Davis Strait, was named in 1585 by Davis 
after his friend Sir Edward Dyer, after- 
wards Chancellor of the Order of the 
Garter. 

Dysart, a populous town on the coast of 
Fife, has grown up near the cave inhabited 
by St. Serf. The Scotch and Irish her- 
mits often lived in separate cells in some 
solitary place. Hence diseart or desert, 
from the Latin desertum, became the 
Celtic name of a hermitage. Desert- 
martin in Derry was the hermitage of 
St. Martin ; Desert-Serges, in County 



GLOSSARY 



»i5 



Cork, of St. Sergius ; Iskrtkeeran of 
St. Ciaran. Isertkelly, a corruption of 
Disertkelly, is ' Kelly's retreat We have 
also Dyserth in North Wales, Dyzard in 
Cornwall, and Dysertmore, * the great 
hermitage,' in Kilkenny. (See Disentis.) 

Sa^le Island and Lizard Island are 
t\fo adjacent islets on the Queensland 
coast On the first Cook found an eagle's 
nest, on the other he saw only lizards. 

Ejam is a Perthshire river flowing from 
Loch Earn through Strathearn. The 
oldest form of the name is Eirenn, which 
Professor Rhys explains as Erann^ the 
genitive plural oi Erna, the Ivemians or 
Irish. 

Sastboume, in Sussex, is called Burne, 
the • brook,' in the Chronicle. The prefix 
is a later addition which may have served 
to distinguish the stream from another 
bum further west, now called the Cuck- 
mere River. 

Sast Gape, the extreme eastern point of 
Asia, was discovered and named by Cook 
in 1778. 

Easter Island lies in the South Pacific, 
midway between Peru and New Zealand. 
It was discovered in 1686 by Edward 
Davis, and hence Cook propos^ to call it 
Davis Land. Its present name is due to 
the rediscovery by the Dutchman Rogge- 
ween on Easter Monday, 1722. Fitzroy 
spent the E^ter of 1830 in a Patagonian 
bay which he called Easter Bay. 
Good Friday Harbour, in the Easter 
Islands, West Australia, was discovered 
by Stokes on Good Friday, April 17th, 
1840. 

Sbcliester, in Durham, represents the 
Roman Ep-eiacum. 

£jbro, a river in Spam, was the Iberus of 
the ancients. The Greeks acquired their 
earliest knowledge of Spain from their 
colonies near the mouth of the Ebro, and 
the names Iberia and Iberians are pro- 
bably derived from the name of the River 
Iber-us, south of which the Iberia of the 
Romans began. The name has been 
explained from the Basque ibarra, 'a 
valley,' and has also been compared 
with that of the Eure, anciently the 
Ebur-a, and of the Yorkshire Ure, for- 
merly, it is supposed, the Ebura or Ebora. 
(See York.) 

Eclipse Islands, off King George's 
Sound, West Australia, derive their name 
from a lunar eclipse here observed by 
King on October and, 1819. l^^^^ ^^ ^^ 
Eclipse Harbour, Boothia Felix, during 
the lunar eclipse of September Z2th, 1829. 



Ecuador, a South American State, is 
officially styled La Republica del 
Ecuador ; Quito, the capital, lying almost 
precisely upon the Equator. 

Edam, in North Holland, best known for 
its cheeses, takes its name from the dam 
or embankment of the small River Ee. 
or Ey, now called the Die. 

Eddingrton^ Wilts, apparently a patrony- 
mic, occurs in the Chronicle in the dative 
form to Ethandune^ where ithan is the dat 
def. of ithe^ 'desert, desolate, or waste.' 
Eddington therefore means the 'desolate 
dun ' or hill. 

Eddystone, a rock and lighthouse in the 
English Channel off Plymouth, doubtless 
obtained its name from the dangerous 
eddy round the rock. Byron in 1765, 
Cook in 1777, and Shortland in 1788 gave 
the same name for the same reason to 
dangerous rocks in the Falkland Islands, 
off Tasmania, and in the Salomon Group. 

Edelsland, Western Australia, was dis- 
covered in 1619 by Jans Van Edel, a 
Dutch seaman. 

Eden, a river in Cumberland, is not, as 
has been supposed, from the A.S. Ed-dene, 
the 'river valley,' but must be identified 
with the Ituna of Ptolemy, a pre-Teutonic 
name, seemingly a river -name cognate 
with the Welsh Ythan or Ithon. More than 
a hundred names in Ireland, and many 
in Scotland contain the word eden, which 
is usually from the Gaelic eadann, the 
forehead, hence the brow of a hill. Eden- 
derry, for instance, is the ' oakwood 
brow. ' 

Edenbrid^e, in Kent, is named from a 
bridge which crosses a river now called 
the Eden. But since it appears from the 
Textus Roffensis that Edenb ridge is a 
corruption of Eadhelm's Bridge, it would 
seem that the name of the River Eden is 
merely an inference from the name of 
Edenbridge, and there is reason to believe 
that the original name of the river was 
Avon, since, in a charter of 814, there is a 
mention of a river called the Avene, which is 
apparently to be identified with the Eden. 

Edge's Land, Spitzbergen, was dis- 
covered in 1616 by 'Thomas Edge, captain 
of a whaler. 

Edinbnrgrll) formerly Edwines burg, 
means ostensibly the fortress of Eadwine, 
the Northumbrian king, who was converted 
by Paulinus. He extended the Anglian 
dominion as far as the Forth, and may 
probably have erected a frontier fortress 
on the commanding rock on which Edin- 
burgh Castle stands. But in the Pictisb^ 



ii6 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Chronicle Edinburgh is called oppidum 
Eden, translated as Dunedin, and in the 
annals of Tighernac (a.d. 638) it appears 
•as Etin. These forms point to an older 
Pictish name, of which Edinburgh may 
possibly be an assimilated form. 

Sdmonton, Middlesex, is in Domesday 
Adelmetone, pointing to an A. S. ^adhtlm- 
tngtiittt from the proper name J^adhelm. 

Eendragrt, is a small river in Holland. 
In 1616 the Dutch ship Eendragt, named 
perhaps from the river, and commanded 
by Dirk Hartog {q.v.), discovered Een- 
dragt Land, West Australia. Eendragt 
Bay, in the Australian Island of Hoorn 
(or Horn), off Cape York, beaxs the name 
of the same ship. 

Swede's Minde, a Danish settlement in 
Greenland, was founded in 1759 by Cap- 
tain Egede, and named in mind {minder 
'remembrance') of his father Hans Egede, 
the first Greenland missionary, a Nor- 
wegian pastor who came to Greenland, 
and by his self-sacrifice and zeal civilised 
and converted many of the Eskimos. 

S^er, a town in Bohemia, is on the river 
Eger, formerly the Agara. 

E^mont Island, one of the Low Islands 
m the South Pacific, was discovered by 
Wallis in 1767, and named after the 
Earl of Egmont, First Lord of the Ad- 
miralty, whose name is also borne by 
Mount Egmont and Cape Egmont, in 
New Zealand, discovered by Cook in 1770, 
and by Port Egmont, in the Falklands, 
discovered by Byron in 1765. 

Eg3rpt is the Greek and not the native 
name of the country which on the monu- 
ments is called Kem {Ham), * the black,' 
probably from the dark alluvial soil. The 
Semitic name was Mizraim, a dual form 
denoting Upper and Lower Egypt, the 
two kingdoms symbolised by the double 
crown of the Egyptian kings. Mazor, 
the singu ar form, usually denotes the 
Delta. The meaning of the Greek name 
yEgyptos has been much disputed. It has 
been explained as the ' land ' [aia) of the 
vulture (gupios), or rather of the sacred 
kite of Horus, which is the most con- 
spicuous animal in the country. Another 
etymology derives it from the Copts (q.v.) 
or from the town of Koptos, the seat of 
the earliest dynasties, where the caravan 
route from the Red Sea reached the Nile, 
and hence the place that would first be- 
come known to strangers from the East. 
The latest conjecture explains the name 
as a Greek misconception of the sacred 
name of Memphis, Het-ka-Ptah, the 



'house of the Genius of Ptah' or Ha- 
ka - Ptah, ' the city of the Genius of 
Ptah.' 

Eider or Eyder, a large river of Germany, 
was called Egidora in the eighth century. 
Oegisdyr, the Scandinavian translation of 
an older Frisian name, shows the meaning 
to be the 'sea door' or 'sea entrance,' 
which aptly describes the great estuary 
to which, and not to the river, the name 
was originally given. iEgir was an old 
Scandinavian sea-god, and in A.S. and 
Old Frisian the River Eider was called by 
the translated name Fifel-dor, the word 
Jifel meaning in A.S. a 'giant' or *sea 
monster.' [SeeHvMSER.) Eider Island, 
in Smith's Soimd, was so called by Kane 
in 1854 from the multitude of eider ducks. 

Einsiedeln. a well-known place of pil- 
grimage in Canton Schwyz, appears in 
the eleventh century as Einsidelin, Latin- 
ised 2isSolitarium and Lx)cus Hermitarum. 
The great Benedictine Abbey, founded in 
the tenth century, was built near to the 
cell of St. Meinrad (Meginrad), who lived 
as a Hermit [einsiedler) in the forest, and 
was killed by two robbers in 861. 

Ekaterinburg', in the Ural, was one of 
the 216 towns founded by the Empress 
Catherine ll. of Russia. Others are 
Ekatesinodar, ' Catherme's gift ' ; 
(1790) ; Ekaterinograd, ' Catherine's 
city' (1777); and Ekaterinoslav, 
' Catherine's glory ' (1784). 

Elba represents the old name Ilva, which 
was probably, as Mommsen has pointed 
out, a Ligurian name, the Ilvates being 
one of the Ligurian tribes. Ilva may 
therefore be a dialectical form of Alba, 
Alb, or Alp {q.v.), a Ligurian word, be- 
lieved to mean a 'mountain.' Elba is 
notably a moimtain isle. 

Elbe River, the A ibis of Tacitus and 
Strabo, has been variously interpreted as a 
Celtic name, meaning the 'Whitewater,' 
the ' great water,' or the mountain river ' ; 
but is regarded as Teutonic by the best 
authorities, such as Pott and Forstemann. 
Elf means * river ' in Anglo-Saxon, Old 
Norse, and Swedish. In Sweden Elf or 
Elv is the usual word for a river, and in 
O. N. all the great rivers are called Elver. 
Other river names of this class in Germany 
are the Elber, the Alf, and the Alb. 

Elburuz, the highest summit in the 
Caucasus, bears an old Persian name 
which means ' the shining mountain.' 

Elephanta, an island six miles from 
Bombay, is locally called Gharipuri, the 
' place of caves.' The Portuguese name 



GLOSSARY 



"7 



Elephanta is derived from the colossal 
figure of an elephant carved on the rock, 
guarding the entrance to a magnificent 
cave-temple, which dates from the eighth 
century. Elephantine, the Greek name 
of the island of Philae at the first cataract 
of the Nile, was so called because it was 
the mart to which the Nubians brought 
their ivory for sale. 

Sjleutliera, one of the Bahamas, was 
granted in 1646 to Captain Sayle,who gave 
it the Greek name of Eleuthera, mean- 
ing the ' free' isle or the isle of free thought, 
in the hope, he says, that it would prove 
a place ' where every one might enjoy his 
own opinion on religion without control or 
question.' 

Slgfin, a Scotch shire which takes its name 
from the town of Elgin, represents the 
lowland part of the old Earldom of Moray. 
The name Elgin is an oblique case of 
Elf^a, an old poetical name of Ireland, 
which, according to Mr. Stokes, probably 
means ' noble.' 

Silas is a common mountain name in the 
Levant, Elijah being in the East the 
mountain saint, because of the altar he 
built on Carmel. Several peaks in Syria 
are called Mar Eli as (Saint Elijah) from 
churches or convents dedicated to him 
which have been built on their summits, 
among them the convent of Mar Elias 
on Carmel, the mother house of the Car- 
melite order. Mountains in Euboea, Pares, 
Scio, Melos, Santa Maura, and the Morea 
also bear the name of H agios Elias. In- 
directly we owe to the Russians the name 
of Mount St. Elias, the loftiest summit 
in North America, 14,970 feet in height, 
on the border line between Alaska and 
the Canadian Dominion. Bering in 1741 
gave the name of St. Elias to a cape whuch 
he reached on July 20th, the feast of 
St. Elias, and Cook in 1778 erroneously 
transferred the name to the snow-clad 
mountain behind the cape. 

Elizabeth Island, ofif the coast of 

Massachusetts, was discovered by Gosnold 
in 1603, and named after the English 
Queen. Elizabeth Island, in Magel- 
lan's Straits, which is said to have b«en 
discovered by Sir John Narborough, on 
his Patagonian voyage in 1670, had been 
named by Drake m 1578, who took pos- 
session of it in the name of Queen Eliza- 
beth. Elizabeth County, New York, 
was named after the daughter of James I., 
who married the Elector Palatine (the 
'winter king') and became the mother of 
Prince Rupert. Cape Elizabeth, Massa- 
9husetts, was one of the names placed by 



Prince Charles, in 1614, on John Smith's 
map of New England, doubtless in com- 
pliment to his sister, afterwards Electress 
Palatine. Cape Elizabeth, at the 
entrance of Cook's River, Alaska, was so 
called by Cook, because discovered on 
May 2ist, 1778, the birthday of the Prin- 
cess Elizabeth, afterwards Landgravine of 
Hesse Homburg. Cape Elizabeth, at 
the north end of Sagalin Island, was so 
named by Krusenstem, in 1805, in honour 
of the Empress Elizabeth of Russia. 
Port Elizabeth, in Cape Colony, bears 
the name of Elizabeth, the wife of General 
Donkin. 

Elk Mountains, Elk River, Elk 
Creek, Elk Island, Elk Lick, Elk- 
horn. Elkhart, and other North 
American names refer either to the Moose, 
{Cervus original) or to the Wapiti [Cervus 
Canadiensis) which are locally called the 
Elk. That the true Elk (Cervus alces) 
was found in some parts of Europe is 
proved by the ancient forms of such names 
as Ellwangen in Wiirtemberg (called 
EUhenwang, ' elk field,' in the eighth cen- 
tury), Altdorf, also in Wiirtemberg (for- 
merly Alahdoff), or Elbach in Bavaria. 

EllenbOSen, 'the elbow,' is a not un- 
common name in Germany for places 
which stand at the elbow either of a 
river or of a boundary. 

Ellore (Eli5r), in the Madras Presidency, 
is from El-iiru, the 'ruling city* (e/u, 
' ruling,' and vru, * a town '). 

Slmet was a British kingdom conquered 
in the seventh century by Eadwine of 
Northumbria. The name is preserved 
by the West Riding villages of Sherbum- 
in-Elmet and Barwick - in - Elmet. {See 
Leeds. ) 

Elmina^ a British setdement on the Gold 
Coast, IS the oldest European station in 
Africa. The name, which means 'the 
mine,' was given by the Portuguese dis- 
coverers, 

TJlTp hin is an episcopal city in Ireland. 
'The original church was built by St. 
Patrick near a spring over which stood a 
large stone called ai/'/inn, the 'rock of 
the clear spring.' 

ElsaSS is the German name of the land 
called Alsace by the French. In the 
eighth century we have Alisatia, and in 
the ninth Elisatia, which are Latinised 
forms of the O.H.G. alisazo, probably 
meaning the ' other seat ' of the Alemanni 
beyond the Rhine, or possibly the seat by 
the River 111, formerly called the Ell, 
which runs parall^ to the Rhine. Ii) 



ii8 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



England the form would have been Elset, 
as in Somerset and Dorset. 

Slton, the name of a large salt lake in the 
I-^wer Volga steppe, is a corrupt Russian 
form of the Kalmuc Allan Noor, the 
•golden lake,' which probably refers to 
the red glow on the surrounding cliffs at 
sunset. 

Ely, an episcopal city in Cambridgeshire, 
should have been called Ely borough or 
El5^bury, the A.S. name being Eligburh. 
Baeda's statement that Ely contained 600 
hides, shows that Ely, in A.S. ^lig, ' the 
isle of eels,' must have formerly de- 
noted not the town but the district now 
tautologically known as the ' Isle of 
Ely,' famous for the excellence and abun- 
dance of its eels, in which rents were for- 
merly paid. 

Embnin, a town on the Durance, in the 
Hautes Alpes, is the Eburodunum of the 
Romans. 

Emden-am-DoUart, in East Friesland, 
anciently Emedun, takes its name from 
the River Ems, anciently the Amicia or 
Amisius, at the mouth of which it stands. 
Ems in Nassau, stands on another River 
Ems, called Emisa in the eighth century, 
a river name probably cognate with the 
Latin amnis and the Sanskrit ambhas, 
' water.' There is a River Emme in Berk- 
shire, 

Emilia is a modem name given to an 
Italian province constituted out of the 
former Duchies of Parma and Modena, 
and of the Romagna, a part of the Papal 
States. It is a revival of the Roman name 
yEmilia, given to the district traversed 
by the Via Emilia, commenced by M. 
iErailius Lepidus. 

Encounter Bay, South Australia, was 
the spot where in 1802 Flinders encoun- 
tered the rival French exploring expedition 
under Baudin. At Point Encounter, 
in Arctic America, Richardson encoun- 
tered a party of Eskimos, and at En- 
counter Cove, in De Witt's Land, 
King, in 18 19, encountered some hostile 
natives. 

Endeavour River, Queensland, bears 
the name of Cook's ship the Endeavour, 
which on June loth, 1770, struck on a reef, 
and after being got off was hauled ashore 
for repairs in a bay at the mouth of a 
river which he called the Endeavour River. 

Enderby Land, South of the Cape of 
Good Hope, possibly a portion of the 
Antarctic Continent, was discovered in 
1599 by the Dutch Captain Dirk Gherritsz, 
who was 4riven out of his course by a 



storm, and was rediscovered in 1831 by 
the Tula, a whaler owned by Messrs. 
Enderby of London, from whom Ender by 
Island, one of the Auckland Group, was 
named, and also, it is believed, Enderby 
Island, on the north coast of Australia, 
discovered by King in 1818. 

Enfield, Middlesex, is Enefelda in Domes- 
day, apparently a mutilated form of an A. S. 
Enedfeld, the 'duck field.' Enmore, in 
Somerset, is Animere in Domesday, which 
may represent an A.S. Enedmere, the 
'duck pond.' 

Engadin, the upper valley of the Inn, 
is believed to be a corruption of the 
Roman sch en cb d*Oen, of which a form 
found in Latin documents, in capite Oeni, 
' at the head of the Inn,' would be a trans- 
lation. Another old form is Vallis Oeniga- 
dina, which gives the transition to the 
modern Italian name Engadina. In like 
manner Sam Aden, in the Upper Engadin, 
is a corruption of the Romansch name 
Summo d^Oen, ' at the top of the Inn.' 

Engelber^, a town in Canton Unter- 
walden, has gathered round a great Bene- 
dictine monastery of the same name. 
According to the legend the angel choir 
was heard singing as the founder died, 
and the monastery received from Pope 
Calixtus II. in 1124 the name of Mons 
Angelorum, of which Engelberg is the 
translation. The original name may 
have been Anger-berg, 'meadow hill,' 
out of which the legend was evolved. 

England is a corruption of Englaland^ 
the 'land of the Angles' (Latin Anglorum 
terra), from Engla, gen. plural of Engle. 
In Baeda's time, c. 731, it excluded Wes- 
sex, Sussex, and Essex, which were the 
lands of the Saxons, as well as Norfolk 
and 'Suffolk, which we now call East 
Anglia. The old England extended along 
the eastern coast from Lincolnshire north- 
ward as far as the Frith of Forth. Egbert, 
an Anglian prince who succeeded to the 
Saxon throne, extended the name of 
England to include the whole of his 
dominions. The Elngle or Angles, who 
gave their name to England, originally 
inhabited Anglen (A.S. ^«^tf/)inSleswick, 
and are identified with the Anglii of 
Tacitus and the Angili of Procopius. 
They were probably the same people as 
the Angrivarii, who are called A nglevarii 
in the Notitia. 2feuss and Forstemann 
make them the ' dwellers on the meadows,' 
from the O.H.G. angar, a 'mead' or 
'pasture.' New England is the name 
given to the north eastern portion of the 
United States, The coast from Cape 



GLOSSARY 



119 



Cod in Massachusetts to the Penobscob 
River in Maine was explored by Captain 
John Smith in 1614, and at his suggestion 
his patron, Prince Charles, afterwards 
Charles i. , gave the name of New England 
to this region, which had hitherto been 
known as North Virginia. Smith's ' De- 
scription of New England,' which appeared 
in 1616, gave currency to the name. In 
1643 a confederation styled the United 
Colonies of New England, consisting of 
the four colonies of Massachusetts, Ply- 
mouth, Connecticut, and Newhaven, was 
.formed for defence against the Indians, 
and survived till 1684. 

Bn^lish Ck}inpa«iiy Islands, on the 

north coast of Australia, were discovered 
by Flinders in 1803, and named in com- 
pliment to the East India Company, which 
had promoted his expedition. The islands 
composing the group were named Wig- 
ram, Cotton, Inglis, Bosanquet, and 
AsTELL, from prominent directors of the 
Company. 
Snnet - thur, in Switzerland, is the 
district ' beyond the Thur,' from the Swiss 
dialect -word ennet, 'beyond,' *on the 
other side of.' So Enned-A is the district 
' beyond the Aa,' and Ennet-linth, that 
•beyond the Linth.' 

Enniskillen. the county town of Fer- 
managh, built on an island in Lough 
Erne, is a corruption of Inis-Cethlenn, 
the ' Island of Cethlenn.' According to 
the legend she was the wife of Balor, an 
Irish kinglet, and fought at the second 
battle of Moyturey. 

Enterprise, Fort, on Winter Lake, 
was the name given by Franklin to the 
block house where he passed the winter of 
1820-21 in preparation for his descent of 
the Coppermine. 

Entreoasteaux Channel, at the 

south-east corner of Tasmania, usually 
called Storm Bay Passage by the 
colonists, was first traversed in 1792 by 
the French Admiral D'Entrecasteaux. 
Recherche Bay at the entrance of the 
channel, and Esperance Island near its 
termination, were named after hi^ two 
ships, La Recherche and L Espirance. 
The same names occur in the south- 
west corner of Australia, which was 
visited by the expedition; Point D'Entre- 
casteaux bearing the name of the 
Admiral ; the Recherche Archipelago 
and Esperance Bay the names of his 
ships. 
Entre RiOS, in the Argentine Confedera- 
tion, lies • between the Rivers ' Parani and 
Paraguay. Entre Doinio e Minho is a 



Portuguese province * between the Douro 
and Minho.' 

Entry Isle is the name given by Cook to 
an island at the western entrance to Cook's 
Straits, New Zealand. An island at the 
entrance to Dusky Bay he called Entry 
Island. Flinders named the island at 
the entrance to Port Bowen Entrance 
Island, and Stokes gave the same name 
to an island at the entrance to the Victoria 
River, and to another at the entrance to 
Roger's Strait. 

Epirots are the people of Epirus, the 
'mainland,' a name given to the western 
coast of Greece by the inhabitants of the 
adjacent islands, but now confined to the 
part of Albania opposite Corfu. Similar 
names are the Terra Firma, given to 
part of the South American coast, and the 
Spanish Main, i.e. the Spanish main- 
land, as distinguished from Cuba and the 
isles. 

EpsonL in Surrey, is a corruption of the 
A.S. Boesham, the ' home of Ebe.' As in 
the case of the adjoining village of Cheam 
(A.S. Cegham) the suffix -ham has been 
obscured. 

Ercal is a Salopian name appearing in 
High Ercal, Childe Ercal, and Ercal 
Wood near the Wrekin. In Welsh argel 
means a ' retreat,' and in Irish aireagcU is 
a ' hermit's cell.' Errigal, in Derry, was 
formerly Aireagal Adhamnan, the ' cell of 
Adamnan.' 

Erebus, Mount, an active volcano, 
12,400 feet high, in South Victoria, and 
the adjacent Mount Terror, an extinct 
volcano, 10,900 feet in height, are nearer 
to the South Pole than any other land 
hitherto sighted. They were discovered 
in 1841 by James Ross, and were named 
after his two ships, the Erebus and Terror, 
from which we have other Antarctic names, 
as Erebus Bank and Terror Cove. 

Erfurt, in Thuringia, called Erpesfurt in 
the eighth century, is from a personal 
name meaning ' brown.' 

Erie, one of the four great lakes of North 
America, bears the name of the Erie or 
' cat ' tribe of the Iroquois nation, which 
inhabited its banks when it was first dis- 
covered. In 1650 we find the lake called 
* Erie, ou du Chat* 

Brith, Kent, in A.S. Earhyth, is a doubt- 
ful name, possibly meaning the ' sea- 
wharf (A.S. ear, 'the sea,' or the ' mud- 
wharf; O.N. aurr). Cf. Clayhithe, 
near Cambridge, and Chalk in Kent 
(A.S. cealc-hyth), 

Erivan^ a city in Armenia, gives its nam? 



I20 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



to the Lake of Erivan. In Persian the 
city is called Rewan, from the name of its 
founder. 
Erlangen, in Germany, anciently Erlan- 
gun, is a patronymic derived from the 
personal name Erlo. 

SrmitafiOS, the • Hermits,' a group north 
of New Guinea, were so named by Maurelle 
in 178 1. A neighbouring group is called 
the Anchorites. 

Ehrzerum or Erzeroum, is the capital of 
Armenia. When the neighbouring town 
of Arzek was taken by the Seljuk Turks in 
1043, ^^'^ inhabitants fled to the fortress 
of Carana, which acquired the name of 
Arzek-el-Rum, 'Roman Arzek' (after- 
wards Erzerum), to distinguish it from the 
old Arzek, which became a Tiu'kish city. 
The district round Erzeriim was the last 
fragment of the Eastern Empire which 
held out against the Turks, and hence 
it acquired the Turkish name Arzi-rum 
meaning the ' lands of the Romans,' from 
araziy 'lands,' the plural of arz, an 
Arabic loan-word which means 'land.' 
The names of the town and the pashalik 
were naturally assimilated. 

Erz^ebir^e, the • ore mountains,' a range 
dividing Bohemia from Saxony, were so 
called from a vein of silver ore discovered 
in 1 163. 

Escape Point, in King's Sound, North 
Australia, commemorates Stokes' escape 
from an alligator, or, from the alligator's 
point of view, the alligator's escape from 
Stokes. Escape Channel, also in King's 
Sound, commemorates King's escape from 
shipwreck through a change of wind. In 
Escape River, North Australia, King's 
ship nearly grounded. On Escape Cliffs, 
in Clarence Strait, an apprehended attack 
by the natives was averted by the per- 
formance of a dance by two of his officers. 
On Escape Island, in the Ellice group, 
the American ship Rebecca narrowly 
escaped shipwreck. In Escape Rapid, 
on the Coppermine River, Franklin's 
canoes nearly foundered. 

Eschscholtz, one of the Marshall Islands, 
is named after a Dorpat naturalist who 
accompanied the Kotzebue expedition in 
1825, and after whom a gaudy genus of 
Californian flowers has also been named. 

Escorial, commonly but incorrectly called 
the Escurial, is a gigantic convent and 
palace near Madrid built by Philip 11. in 
the form of a gridiron, and called by him 
San Lorenzo el Real, having been dedi- 
cated to San Lorenzo in pursuance of a 
vow made by Philip after his victory over 



the French at St. Quentin on August loth, 
1557, the festival of St. Laurence. The 
official name is El real Monasterio de San 
Lorenzo del Escerial. During the con- 
struction the workmen were sheltered in 
a neighboming village. El E^orial, so 
called from the scoriae of some abandoned 
iron works. Cinderford, in the Forest 
of Dean, is an analogous name. \^See 
Tuileries.) 

Esdud is a village in Palestine which 
occupies the site of Ashdod, one of the 
five cities of the Philistines, believed to 
be a Semitic name meaning ' the strong ' 
place. 

Eskiinos is the Danish, and Esquimaux 
the French-Canadian corruption of the 
name given by the red men to the Arctic 
race who call themselves Innuit, the 
'people.' The name Eskimo, an Algon- 
quin word, seems to have originated in 
Labrador, being afterwards extended to the 
tribes in Greei^and and on the Polar Sea. 
The Ojibwa form Askimeg or Ayeskimeou 
is allied to the Abenaki name Eskimantsic, 
Eskimatsic or Eski-Manlic, all meaning, 
in various dialects, ' eaters of raw ' fish or 
flesh. 

Espirito Santo is a coast province of 
Brazil, where Vasco Femandes Continho, 
invoking the ' Holy Spirit,' established a 
Portuguese colony in 1548. 

Essen, where Krupp's great iron works 
are situated, is not from the German word 
eisen, 'iron,' as is shown by the unex- 
plained ninth century form astenidum. 

Essex, in A.S. Edst-Seaxe and Edst- 
Seaxan, or in the dative plural Edst- 
Seaxum, is a tribal name originally 
denoting the East Saxon jleople, and 
afterwards transferred to their territory. 

Essin^on, Port, in North Australia, was 
so named by King, in 1818, in memory of 
Admiral Sir William Essington. 

Esthonia, in German Esthland or EsT- 
land, is the land of the Esths, a Finnic 
people who are probably the Aestui of 
Tacitus. They call their land Wiroma, 
the 'frontier country,' and themselves 
Rahwas, the ' people, and they are called 
by the Russians Tchuds or ' foreigners.' 

Estremadura is the name of two pro- 
vinces on the Tagus, one Spanish, the 
other Portuguese. It is alleged that the 
old Eistremadura lay on the Douro (ex- 
tremum adDurium or extremaDurii), and 
that the name has retreated southward 
from the Douro, as Northumberland has 
retreated northwards from the Humber. 
The name is usually explained ^s Extrema- 



GLOSSARY 



I9T 



ora, the extreme or last conquest from the 
Moors made by Alfonso ix. m 1228, A.D. 

Staples, one of the names on the Saxon 
shore in the North of France, compares 
with such English names as Dunstaple or 
Barnstaple, where staple signifies a mar- 
ket held at a place marked by a post. 

Ethiopia is the land of the Aethiopes or 
' burnt faces,' a name given by the Greeks 
to the black races of Africa, who have 
since been called by the corresponding 
names MooRS and Negroes. Very pos- 
sibly the name may be an accommodation 
or translation of some older Egyptian 
word now unknown, 

Stnaii the great Sicilian volcano, is ex- 
plained by Benfey as a Greek name, 
aifna, from the root aith, to burn or 
smoke. Very possibly this may be an 
adaptation of an older name derived from 
the Phoenician attuna, 'the furnace.' 
After the Arab conquest it was called 
Gibel Uttamaty 'the mountain of fire.' 
The modem Sicilian name Mongibello 
is a combination of the Italian and Arabic 
words for a mountain. 

Ston, Bucks, is the ttin by the water {ed), 
Eaton (A.S. EdtUn), the more usual form 
of the name, is found in Berks, Oxon, 
Staffordshire, and Cheshire. 

£jtruila, in Staffordshire, was a name 
bestowed by Wedgwood on the place 
where he endeavoured to imitate the 
forms and patterns of the Greek vases 
which were then supposed to be Etruscan 
because they had frequently been found in 
Etruscan tombs. 

Bu, whence the royal castle of ChAteau 
D'Eu in the Seine Inf^rieiu-e, is derived 
from the Low-Latin Augia (German au\ 
which signifies a meadow or low marshy 
place. 

Eugenio, Oabo San, appears on the 
maps as the name of a prominent cape on 
the eastern coast of the Californian Penin- 
sula. The name has arisen out of a 
curious blunder of the map makers. The 
cape was discovered by UUoa in 1539-40. 
North of the cape the land trends due 
east for seventy miles, which led him to 
suppose that the peninsula was an island, 
and that he had found a channel leading 
into the northern part of the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. Hence he named the cape which 
had misled him Punia de Engdho, the 
'Point of Deception,' or 'Cape Mistake.' 
This name led to a more serious delusion, 
for the chartographers, misreading the n 
for a u, manufactured the name Cape St. 
Eugenio, which still remains on our maps. 



A Cape ENGAf7o m Haiti, and another 
in the Philippines have preserved the 
Spanish name uncorrupted. 

Eupatoria, a town in the Crimea where 
the Allies landed in 1854, derives its name 
from Mithridates Eupator, who foimded it. 

Euphrates is a name which has a long 
history. The pre-Semitic Accadian name 
was Fura, the 'water,' or Pura-nunu, 
the 'great water.' The Semitic Baby- 
lonians by the addition of the feminine 
suffix -/made this into Purat, Burat, or 
Puratu, which the Aryan Persians con- 
verted into Hufrat, which occurs in an 
inscription of Darius Hystaspes, the pre- 
fix having probably been added to make 
the name significant in Persian, as the 
'good abounding,' or 'very broad' river. 
Euphrates is merely a Greek adaptation 
of the Persian name Hufrat or U/rdtu. 
The later Persian form, Phrat or Fr&ta, 
has ag:ain been converted by the Arabs 
into Farat, the 'sweet water,' so as to 
make the name significant in Arabic. 
The upper course of the Euphrates is 
still called the Frat. 

Europe is a name which the Greeks 
explained by the m3rth of Europa, a royal 
maiden who was carried off" from Phoenicia 
to the West by Zeus, who took the form 
of a bull. She was followed by her 
brother Cadmus, who found her, m the 
form of a cow, lying down on the site of 
Thebes in Boeotia. The myth may be 
explained from Semitic sources. Cadmus 
is the man of the East, while the name of 
Europa is derived by Oppert frcm ereb, 
a Semitic word meaning the ' dark,' 
' the land of sunset,' ' the west,' and also 
' exchange ' or ' barter.' The Phoenicians 
called their trading settlement in the 
West by this name, and the Greeks, 
to make the Jiame significant in Greek, 
made it into Eiu-op^, 'the broad -faced' 
plain of Thebes. The original Phoenician 
m5rth may have related to I star (Astarte) 
the moon or the evening star, accompany- 
ing Taurus, the leader of the zodiacal 
constellations, on his westward journey. 

Evening Island, north-east of Gilolo, 

was discovered in 1767 by Carteret at 
sunset. It is also called Lord North 
Island, having been revisited in 1782 by 
a ship of that name. 
Everest, Mount, a Himalayan peak, 
29,002 feet above the sea level, is believed 
to be the highest mountain in the world. 
It would have been better to have selected 
one of the native names, Dcva Dungki, 
Gaurisankar, or Chengopatni, instead of 
giving it the name of a Colonel Everest of 



122 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



the Indian Survey. The second in height 
of the Himalayan peaks is one between 
Gilghit and the Karakoram Pass, offici- 
ally designated on the Indian maps as 
Kg, which Mr. Conway has proposed to 
call the Watch Tower, while the Royal 
Geographical Society has adopted the 
name Mount Godwin Austen, in hon- 
our of an officer of the Indian Survey who 
was the first to visit and describe the 
Mustagb peaks and glaciers. 

Svesham, in Worcestershire, is a name 
of which, owing to the preservation of 
early charters, we have a fairly complete 
record. In the earliest charters it appears 
as et Homme t 'at the enclosure,' which 
was corrupted into Ethom, and dis- 
tinguished as Cronuch-hom, or in the 
dative Cronuch-homme, a form which sug- 
gests that the enclosure was formed by a 
bend of the river frequented by cranes. 
The hamlet in this bend then became 
known as Eo/esham (in the genitive 
Eofeshammes) probably from the name 
of its owner, the usual etymology, the 
• ham by the eaves ' or margin of the river 
being rendered improbable by the oldest 
forms. Near this hamlet the great 
monastery was built around which the 
town of Evesham arose. 

Svian, in Savoy, is famous for its mineral 
baths, whence the old name Aquianum, 
which has normally become Evian. 

Svolena, a Swiss valley, is explained by 
Gatschet as the valley of the 'gentle 
stream,' ivoue lena being the dialectic 
equivalent of aqua lenis. 

Evora,in Portugal, was the Roman Ebora, 
probably a Phoenician name, meaning the 
'ford' or 'passage.' 

Bvreux, the capital of the Department of 
tiie Eure, was the chief town of a Belgic 
tribe called the Eburovices, whose name, 
meaning the dwellers on the Ebura or 
Eure, was softened into Evreux. 

Bwell, Surrey, called yEwille in an early 
charter, and Euwelle in a charter of 983, 
signifies a place by a spring, Uterally 'a 
welling up. ' (See ALTON. ) 

Exeter, the county town of Devon, is 
called in the Chronicle Exanceaster, the 
•Chester of the Exe,' Exan being the 
genitive of Exa, the Saxon form of /sea, 
the Brito-Roman form of Exe. The later 
AS. form Exac easier, and Exe ester used 
by Roger of Hoveden, give the transition 
to the modern name. The Roman name 
of Exeter was I sea Damnoniorum, just as 
^A^RLEON on the Usk was Isca Silurum, 



The present castle of Exeter represents the 
earthwork called by the Welsh Caer Isc, 
the 'fortress on the Isc,' Caerleon being 
the 'fortress of the legion.' This river 
name Isca, which has become Exe, Usk, 
and Axe, is believed to be an old form 
of the Welsh wysg, a. ' stream,' or of the 
Gaelic uisj^e, which means ' water.' 

Exmouth, Devon, at the mouth of the 
River Exe, is the A.S. Exanmutha. 
AxMOUTH, at the mouth of the Axe, is 
q\so Examuth in A.S., and Axminster, 
also on the Axe, is the A.S. Exanmynster 
and Axemynster, showing that Axe is 
only a variant form of Exe. Exmouth 
gave a title to Admiral Pellew, who com- 
manded the English fleet at the bombard- 
ment of Algiers, in memory of which 
achievement Exmouth Gulf in Aus- 
tralia, and Exmouth Island in the 
Arctic Archipelago received their names. 

Eyria, a great peninsula in South Aus- 
tralia, takes its name from the explorer 
E. J. E)rre, afterwards Governor of 
Jamaica, by whom Lake Eyre, north of 
Lake Torrens, was discovered. 

Fain, Val d£L in the Engadine, means 
• Hay Valley/ nrom the Romansch fain, 
hsitm /ainum. 

Fairweather, Mount, in Alaska, 

14,750 feet in height, was so named by 
Cooic in 1778, because a spell of fine 
weather began on May 3rd, the day he 
sighted it. The neighbouring cape is 
called Cape Fairweather. 

Falkirk, Stirlingshire, locally pronounced 
Fawldrk, is the English equivalent of the 
Gaelic name Eaglais breac, the ' speckled 
church' (A.S./Z4, 'of various colours'). 
In a Latin charter, the name is trans- 
lated as Varia Capella. 

Falkland, a town in Fife, gave a title to 
Lord Falkland, which has been transferred 
to the Falkland Islands in the South 
Atlantic. Amerigo Vespucci is believed 
to have sighted them on his third voyage 
in the year 1502, but did not name them. 
John Davis, the Arctic navigator, redis- 
covered them in 1592, and for a time 
they were known as Davis' Land. In 
1594, they were again visited by Richard 
Hawkins, who, combining his own name 
with that of the Virgin Queen, gave them 
the name of Hawkins' Maidenland. In 
1690, Strong landed and named the strait 
between the two larger islands the Falk- 
land Channel, after his patron Lord Falk- 
land. The name was then extended to the 
two islands, and in 1764 Byron took pos- 
session of the entire group as the Falkland 



GLOSSARY 



123 



Islands, in behalf of George iii. Rightly 
they should be called the Davis Isl^ds, 
as was proposed by Burney. 

False Point, in Orissa, is so called 
because vessels proceeding up the Bay of 
Bengal are liable to mistake it for Point 
Palmyras, a degree further north. False 
Bay, in the Cape Colony, was so called 
because of a delusion as to the anchorage 
it afforded. 

Fama^USt£L in Cyprus, is the Venetian 
corruption of the ancient name, which 
appears in the Assyrian inscriptions as 
Amtichadastit * the new fortress,' and 
in Ptolemy as Ammokhostos. It is the 
Amathus of Strabo and other writers, a 
name corrupted by the Turks to Ma'usa, 

Famars (Nord) is believed to occupy the 
site of a temple of Mars. It was called 
Fanum Martis in 861, and we have Pagus 
Fanomartensis in 671. 

Famine, Port, in Magellan Strait, is 
where Cavendish in 1592 inhumanly landed 
all the sick of his ship the Leicester, and 
left them to perish. Five years before 
he had given the name of Port Famine 
to the Spanish settlement of San Felipe, 
where in 1587 he found, and then left to 
their fate, eighteen survivors of the four 
hundred and thirty people sent out by 
Philip II. under Pedro Sarmiento. In 
1590 John Chudleigh took away the sole 
survivor, the rest having perished by 
hunger and cold, or by the attacks of the 
natives, [See-^, 250.) 

Fans are West African cannibals, who 
inhabit what is called the Fan coutitry. 
If the name is tribal it may be derived 
from the fa, a large knife carried by the 
natives, but it is more probably territorial, 
and derived from the native word fana, 
which means 'jungle.' 

Fanning", a Polynesian island, was dis- 
covered in 1798 b^ Edward Fanning, 
CRptain of the American ship Betsy. 

Fano, in Italy, a town on the Adriatic, is 
the Roman Fanum Fortuna, so called 
from a temple to Fortime, doubtless 
erected to commemorate some victory. 

Faraglioni is the name of seven pre- 
cipitous 'rocks' off the Sicilian coast be- 
tween Messina and Catania, and also of 
three rocks on the south of the island of 
Capri. Los Farallones, the Spanish 
form of the word, is the name of seven 
'rocks* which lie at the entrance of the 
bay of San Francisco. 

Farewell, Oape, is the southern point 
of Greenland. Ifi 1586 John Davis, on 
his second voyage, sighted the Cape, but 



the pack ice making it impossible to land, 
he called it Cape Farewell, and sailed 
northward up Davis Strait. Unlike some 
other names given by early voyagers the 
name has retained its place on the map, 
probably because it is the point where 
whalers on their homeward voyage take 
their farewell of Greenland. Cape Fare- 
well was also the name given by Cook 
to the point where, in 1770, he took leave 
' of New Zealand on his return to England. 
Farewell Island, the northernmost of 
the Fiji group, was so named by Wilson 
in 1797, because here, taking leave of the 
dangerous Coral Islands, the navigation 
of the open sea began. 

Faroe LslandS is the incorrect English 
name of a group of twenty-two small 
islands in the North Atlantic, which were 
discovered and occupied by the Nor- 
wegians in 86r. The name is Norse, and 
the correct form would be Faroer (O.N. 
Fcsr-eyjar, ' sheep islands '), or else Far or 
Fair Islands (O.N. /<?r, 'sheep') and not 
Faroe Islands, which means strictly ' Sheep 
Island Islands.' There is a Faro off the 
Swedish coast, and one of the Shetlands 
is called Fair Isle and one of the 
Orkneys Far AY, all of which mean ' sheep 
island.' Fairfield, the mountain nearest 
to Helvellyn, is the ' sheep fell." 

Far Out Head, better Farrid Head, 
near Cape Wrath, is believed to be the 
Vervedrum of Ptolemy, of which the 
modern name would be a popular cor- 
ruption. 

Famldinagar, in the Punjab, was 
founded in 1713 in the reign of the Mughal 
Emperor Farrukh - siyyar, after whom it 
was named by the governor of the country, 
a Beluch chief, Dalel Khan, better known 
by his title of Faugdir Kh4n. Farukh- 
ABAD, in the N.W. P., founded by Nawdb 
Muhammed Khdn about 1714, was named 
after the same Emperor. 

Faulliom, a mountain in the Bernese 
Oberland, is composed of dirty and 
crumbling schist. 

Fayal is a Portuguese word signifying a 
' place where beeches grow,' from fay a 
(Latin /<2^«j), a 'beech tree.' The name 
was given to one of the Azores at the 
time of the discovery, because the island 
was overgrown with the Myrica Faya, a 
shrub resembling the beech. Ihe word 
fagetum, a ' beech grove,' has been a 
fertile source of village names, such as Fay, 
Facet, Fayet, and F^e in France, and 
Faido, Faida, and Fai in Italy (p. 334). 

Fay dm or FayyOm is an Egyptian pro- 
vince, containing the great lake call^ 



124 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Moeris by the Greeks, which was supplied 
by the overflow from the inundation of 
the Nile. FayClm is the Arabic form of 
the Coptic Piom or Fhiam, in old Egyptian 
Fa-iuma, ' the water,' pa being the definite 
article, which we have in Potiphar, Philae, 
and other names. The Greek name 
Moeris is a corruption of the Egyptian 
ma-ur, the 'great water' or inundation. 

Fear, Cape, in North Carolina, is also 
spelt Cape Fair on old maps. Here the 
fleet of seven ships, sent out by Raleigh 
in 1585, under the command of Sir Richard 
Grenville, to establish a colony in Virginia, 
narrowly escaped shipwreck ' on a beach 
called the Cape of Feare.' 

Feam Island, sometimes called Hunter 
Island, east of New Caledonia, was dis- 
covered in 1793 by Captain Fearn of the 
ship Hunter. 

Feldkirch and Feldkirchen are not 
uncommon village names in Germany, 
denotini; a church originally standing in 
2ifeld uT open plain. 

Felix, Gape, the northern point of King 
William's Land, was so named in 1830 
by James Ross after Su: Felix Booth. 
{See Boothia Felix.) 

Fermoy, a district in County Cork, 
which gives a title to an Irish peer, is a 
tribal name which has become territorial, 
being a corruption of Feara-muighe, ' the 
men of the plain.' Fermanagh, an 
Irish county, is also, according to Irish 
tradition, a tribal name, having been 
peopled by" the Fir-AfonacA, the ' men of 
Monach,' who fled from Leinster to the 
shores of Lough Erne. 

Fernando Noronha. correctly Femao 

de Noronha, a lonely island in the South 
Atlantic, off the Brazilian coast, was 
bestowed in 1504 by the king of Portugal 
on Femao (Fernando) de Noronha. the 
commander of the ship which brought to 
Lisbon the news of its discovery in 
August 1503. In early voyages round 
the Cape it formed the objective where 
supplies were obtained. 

Fernando Po, correctly FernXo do 

Poo, an island in the Gulf of Guinea, 
bears the name of its discoverer, a 
Portuguese, who named it /lAa Formosa, 
'beautiful island.' The new name had 
come into use by the middle of the six- 
teenth century, less than a hundred years 
after its discovery by Femao do Poo, 
who, in 1474, was the second to cross the 
Equator, which three years earlier had 
been passed by Joao de Santarem and 
Pedro de Escoter, 



Ferns, an episcopal see in County Wex- 
ford, is a cormption of the old name 
Fearna, the 'alders.' Ferney and Fkr- 
NAGH in Ireland, Fearn and Fernan 
in Scotland, were also places producing 
alders. Vernon in Normandy is from 
the same Celtic word (Welsh gwem, an 
* alder '). Vernex, near Vevay, is a cor- 
ruption of verniacum, a place planted 
with alders. Ferney, Voltaire's retiieat 
near Geneva, is properly Frenex (fraxi- 
netum), an ' ash grove.' {See p. 334.) 

Ferro. meaning ostensibly the 'iron* 
islana, is one of the Canaries, from which 
longitude is reckoned in many German 
maps. Ptolemy drew his prime meridian 
through the most westerly of the Canaries ; 
believing that here the world began. 
Mercator drew his first meridian through 
Corvo in the Azores, because in his time 
the needle had there no declination. The 
Pope drew the line dividing the world into 
two hemispheres, Spanish and Portuguese, 
through Santiago, one of the Cape Verd 
islands. In 1634 a ro3ral commission at 
Paris fixed on the westernmost point of 
the island of Ferro, with the object of 
making Paris in exactly 20* East longi- 
tude, but this now proves to be 23' 09" 
too much. Hence the so-called meridian 
of Ferro does not actually pass through 
the island. The meridian of Greenwich 
is now increasingly adopted because the 
best charts have been made by English 
surveyors. It is believed that the name 
Ferro, in Spanish Hierro, is an adaptation 
from kero or herro, a Guanche word 
meaning 'wells' or 'cisterns.' 

Fetteran^US preserves the name of the 
old Scotch earldom of Angus, now called 
Forfarshire. The word Fetter, which is 
common in Scotch names, such as Fetter- 
CAIRN or Fetternear, means a ' croft,* 
a *bit of land,' or a field. It frequently 
becomesy^r, as in Forfar, the 'cold land,' 
Fordyce, the 'south land,' FoRDUN, the 
* land near the fort,' or Forteviot, called 
in the Pictish chronicle Fothuirtabaicht , 
the ' land of the abbey.' Forres is the 
Gaelic Foreas, the 'land by the waterfall,' 
and FoRTiNGALL is the 'land of the 
stranger.' {See FlUGKLL,) 

Feurs (Loire) is derived from the Roman 
name Forum Segusianorum. 

Fezzan, anciently Phazania, a district in 
Tripoli, is a corruption of the old tribe- 
name of the Phazanii. Fez, in Morocco, 
is probably an Arabic name meaning 
'fertile' or 'beautiful.' According to a 
local legend, the name is due to a hatchet, 
faSt having been found by the workmei) 



GLOSSARY 



"5 



when they were digging the foundations 
of the city walls. 

Fichtelg;ebir£re, the ' Pine Mountains,' 
in Bavaria, are so called from the pine 
forests which clothe them. 

Kfe, anciently Fibh, 'the forest,' one of 
the seven Pictish provinces, formerly com- 
prehended the greater portion of the 
territory between the Forth and the Tay. 
The county town is Cupar-Fife, and 
FiFENESS is the ness or nose at its Eastern 
extremity. According to the Irish Nen- 
nius, Fibh was a son of Cruithne, the 
qx)n3rmus of the Cruithni or Picts. The 
old earldom was called Fibh with Foth- 
reve, a name preserved in that of the 
Deanery of Fothri. 

Fiji Taln-TiHa are a South Pacific group, 
discovered on February 6th, 1643, by 
Tasman, who named them PHnz Willems 
Eylanden, in honoiu- of William of Nassau. 
The native name is Viti, the form Fiji 
being the Tonga pronunciation of Viti, 
which was learnt by the Wesleyan mis- 
sionaries in the Friendly islands from the 
native teachers sent from Tonga. The 
two largest islands in the group are 
Vanua Levu, the • great land,' and Viti 
Levu, • great Viti.* 

Piley, on the Yorkshire coast, is called 
Fivelac in Domesday, a name which is 
supposed to refer to the ' five pools ' made 
by a small stream which descends the cliff 
in the gorge near the church. Cf. p. 374. 

Fin^all, a district North of Dubhn. was 
anciently Fine-gaily the * tribe ' or terri- 
tory of the Galls, or Danish 'strangers.' 
FiNGAL's Cave, a basaltic grotto in 
Staffa, was, according to the legend, a 
temple built by the Ossianic hero Fingal, 
* the white stranger.* 

Finisterre^ the modem name of the 
extreme North- Western Department of 
France, is equivalent to our own • Land's 
En d. ' The same name has been bestowed 
on a cape at the North-Western extremity 
of Spain. The Spanish Finistera ap- 
pears on the Catalan Map of 1275. 

Finland is the land of the Finns or Suomi, 
who call themselves Suoma-laiset, the 
•people of the fens' (Finnish Suoma, a 
'marsh'). The name Fenni, which we 
have in Tacitus, is believed to be an early 
Teutonic translation of the native name. 
Finnland is the German, and Finland the 
Swedish speUing, which has been adopted 
in England. Both are translations of 
the Finnish name Suomen-maa, ' feu- 
land.' 

i^insteraarhom. (SuAargau,) 



Fish River, or Great Fish River, 
flowing into the Arctic Ocean, explored 
by George Back in 1834, translates the 
formidable native name Thlew-ee-choh- 
desseth. Another Great Fish River in 
South Africa translates the Dutch name 
Groote Vischrivier, which was given by 
the Boers to the Rio Infante, so called by 
Bartolomeu Diaz in compliment to Jofto 
Infante, the captain of his second ship. 
FiSCHA, a river in Lower Austria, was 
called Fisc-aha, * fish water,' in 798. 

Fitton Bay and Point Fitton, both in 
Arctic America, bear the name of Dr. 
Fitton, President of the Geological Society. 

Fitzroy River, in the Australian colony 
of Victoria, was named in 1836 after Sir 
Charles Fitzroy, then Governor of New 
South Wales. Fitzroy Island, Queens- 
land, Fitzroy Downs and Fitzroy 
River in North Australia, were named 
after Admiral Robert Fitzroy, commander 
of the surveying ship the Beagle, and 
afterwards Governor of New Zealand. 

Flume, a town in Croatia, 40 miles from 
Trieste, stands at the mouth of the Reka, 
a Slavonic word meaning ' river,' of which 
Fiume, formerly S. Vitus ad Flunun, is 
the Italian equivalent. The Latin^«»ftf«, 
which becomes fiume in Italian, becomes 
fiim in Romansch, whence the name of 
Flims in the GraubUnden. 

Flamborougrh Head, in the East 

Riding, is a lofty chalk promontory, with 
a huge prehistoric ditch or rampart, called 
the Danes' Dyke, making it into a burh 
or stronghold. The Domesday forms 
Flaneburg and Flaneburc, and Flaynburg 
in a charter of King Stephen, dispose 
of the old etymology Flame-burh, or 
' beacon-burh,' from a flame or beacon 
fire to warn mariners. This theory is 
untenable on other grounds, as also is 
the suggestion that the name may refer 
to ' flemings ' or refugees. The true ety- 
mology is 3ie A.S.ftdn, g&D\\.\\%Jldne, an 
'arrow' or 'dart,' which would hence be 
used to denote an obelisk, or needle rock, 
an etymology explained by the con- 
spicuous needles of chalk called the High 
Stacks (stakes) which stand out in the 
sea at the extremity of Flamborough 
Head. 
Flanders, called in French Flandre, in 
German t lander n, and in Dutch Vlaen- 
dem, is a name of unknown etymology, 
but possibly related to the Latin planum, 
the 'flat' country. We have Flamingi 
as early as the ninth century, and after- 
wards Flandri and Flandrenses, with 
Flandria and Flandra for Finders. The 



126 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Flemings, as Richthofen explains, are pro- 
bably the 'fugitives,' but it is doubtful 
whether tkere is any ethnological con- 
nection between Flamingi and Flan dr la. 

Flattery, Cape, on the coast of North 
Queensland, was so named by Cook in 
1770 because he had flattered himself that 
here he should find a passage out of the 
labyrinth of coral reefs in which he was 
entangled. Cook also gave the name of 
Cape Flattery to a promontory in 
Washington Territory, U.S.A., at the 
South side of Fuca Strait, opposite Van- 
couver's Island, because of an opening 
'which flattered us with the hopes of 
finding an harbour,' hopes doomed to 
disappointment. 

Flinders Island, in Bass Strait, bears 
the name of Captain Matthew Flinders, 
who in conjunction with George Bass 
surveyed a large part of the South 
Australian coast between the years 1795 
and 1803. In 1795 Flinders served as a 
midshipman in the Reliance, which took 
Captain William Himter to New South 
Wales. In command of the Investigator, 
with John Franklin as midshipman, he 
sailed from Spithead in July 1801. Re- 
turning home in the Porpoise, he was 
wreck»l, and obtained a passage in the 
Cumberland, which, in ignorance of the 
renewal of the war between France and 
England, touched at the Mauritius for 
water in 1803. ^^ was made prisoner by 
the French Governor and detained on the 
island for more than six years. Mount 
Flinders, Flinders Bay, Flinders 
Group, Flinders Isle, Flinders 
Range, Flinders River, and Flinders 
Reef also commemorate ' the adventures 
and sufferings of the intrepid Flinders, 
and his discoveries on the shores of the 
great continent, his imprisonment on his 
way home and cruel treatment by the 
French Governor of Mauritius.' 

Flintshire, North Wales, takes its name 
from the town of Flint on the estuary 
of the Dee. In old documents we have 
Castellum apud Fluentum, which some- 
what later becomes apud le Flynt, ' on 
the flow ' or tideway. The name of Flint 
afl^ords a good example of the old guess- 
work style of etymology, since we are 
gravely informed that it is so called be- 
cause It abounds in flints. 

Florence is the French form we have 
adopted for the city whose Italian name, 
formerly Fiorenza, is now Firenze. In 
one MS. of Florus the Roman name is 
Fhrentia, in another it is Fluentia. If 
the latter is the true reading, which on 



various grounds is improbable, Florence 
would be named from the confluence of 
the Arno and the Mugnone. In the other 
case it might be the 'flourishing city,' a 
name of the same class as Valentia and 
Faventia, or meaning, as the Romans 
seem to have thought, the city of flowers. 

Flores, in Portuguese Ilha DAS Flores, 
the ' isle of flowers,' the most beautiful 
island of the Azores, is now weU known 
from the opening lines of Tennyson's 
Revenge, 'At Flores In the Azores, Sir 
Richard GrenviUe lay. ' One of the smaller 
Sunda Iskuids is called Floris or Flores, 
which is also a name believed to be due 
to the Portuguese. 

Floriana, a colony in the Galapagos 
Islands belonging to Ecuador, was so 
named in 1832 in honour of General 
Flores. 

Florida, one of the United States, bears a 
name given by Juan Ponce de Leon, who, 
in search of the fountain of youth, landed 
near St. Augustine in 1513, on March 
27th, Easter Day, which is" called in 
Spanish Pascua Florida or Pascua de 
Flores, Ponce de Leon was not, however, 
the discoverer of Florida, as the coast-line 
appears on the Cantino map of 1502 — 
a strong argument that it was circum- 
navigated in 1498 by Pinzon and Solis, 
with Amerigo Vespucci as pilot La 
Florida, one of Uie Salomon Islands, 
was discovered by Mendana at Easter 
(Pascua Florida) in 1567. 

Foggy Island, on the N.W. coast of 
America, was passed by Cook during a 
thick fog. Bering had discovered it in 
1741, and for the same reason had called 
it Tummanoi-Ostrov, wliich means ' Foggy 
Island ' in Russian. 

Foix, the capital of the Arifege, which gave 
a title to a well-known line of Counts, is a 
corruption of the Roman name Fuxum. 

Folkestone, in Kent, is Folcanstan in 
an early charter, and Folcestan or Folc- 
stane in the Saxon Chronicle. It seems, 
like Brighton {q.v. ), to contain a personal 
name, meaning the stone or stone-house 
of Folca (Fulk), genitive Folcan, but is 
usually explained as the ' stone of the 
people' {A.S./olc, genixive/olces). 

Fonseca Bay, on the western coast of 
Central Amenca, was discovered in 1523 
by Andres Nifio, pilot of Gil Gon9ales, 
who named it after his patron Don Juan 
Rodriguez Fonseca, Bisnop of Badajos, 
Cordova, and Palencia, the powerful Pre- 
sident of the Coimcil of the Indies. 

Fontainebleau, a hunting-seat built in 
998 by Louis the I^ous, is called Foms 



GLOSSARY 



137 



Bleaudi in early documents. Fonte- 
VRAULT or FONTEVRAUD [Foru Ebraldi, 
or ad fontem Evj-aldi), is the name of the 
great abbey founded in 1099 ^7 Robert 
of Arbrissel, which contains the historic 
effigies of Henry ll. , Richard i. , and their 
wives Eleonora and Isabella. Fontenay 
on the Yonne, where Lothair was defeated 
in 841, is Fontanetum^ the ' place of 
springs,' and Fontenoy in Belgium, 
where the English were defeated by 
M arslial Saxe, is one of many names from 
the same source. Wells in Somerset is 
called FoHtanetum in Latin documents. 
From the A.S. funta we have several 
English names, such as Chalfont, Fovant, 
Havant, Fontliill, and Fontmell, which 
are explained elsewhere. (See p. 386. ) 

Forolliieini, in Bavaria, formerly Fora- 
heim, is the ' home in the firs.' A similar 
name is Voorhout, near Leyden, which 
is a corruption of Foranholt^ ' the fir- 
wood.' 

Forest Ghate, in Essex, now a suburb of 
London, takes its name from an old five- 
barred gate where the road from London 
to Roraibrd entered Wanstead Flats, an 
outlying portion of Hainault Forest. 

Forli, in the Emilia, is a corruption of 
Forum Livii, supposed to have been 
founded about 207 B.C. by the Consul 
M. Livius Salinator. Forlimpopoli, in. 
the same district, is the Roman Forum 
Popilii, doubtless named from the founder. 
Forcalquier, in France, is a corruption 
oi Forum Calcarium. FoRO Appio, on the 
Appian way, between Rome and Naples, 
represents the Appii Forum of Acts xxviiL 

FormentereL one of the Balearic Islands, 
is so called because it produces much 
'corn,' locally called forment (French 
froment, 'Latin /rumenium). The Greeks 
called it Opkiusa, ' snake island,' and the 
Romans by the translated name Coiu- 
braria, because snakes were found here 
and not in the adjacent island of IviZA, 
the ' Isle of Pines.' 

Formiouli, in the Lipari Islands, Le 
FORMICHE off the West Coast of Sicily, 
and As Formicas in the Azores are 
clusters of small rocks, resembling swarms 
of ants. 

Formosa, or Ilha Formosa, the ' beauti- 
ful island,' was the appropriate name 
given by the Portuguese to the large 
island East of China. The Chinese desig- 
nate it by the name of the chief harbour 
on the western coast, Tai-wan^ which 
means the ' terraced beach,' Angra 
Formosa, 'beautiful bay,' is the Portu- 
guese name of a bay on the Zanzibar coast 



Forth, one of the chief rivers in Scotland, 
empties itself into the estuary called the 
Firth or Frith of Forth. Forth, 
if not ultimately Celtic, would be the 
Anglian and Firth the Middle English 
form of the O.N. word fjorthr^ which 
signified an ' estuary ' or ' long inlet ' of 
the sea. In Scotland we have the Firth 
OF Tay, the Moray Firth, and the 
Dornoch Firth. In Ireland we find the 
Anglicised form ford, as in Strangford, 
Carlingford, and Wexford ; but the barony 
of Forth in Wexford and Carlow, 
anciently Fotharta, derives its name from 
Ohy Finn Fothart, to whom it belonged. 
The suffix -forth in many Yorkshire names, 
such as Ampleforth, Dishforth, 
Stainforth, Garforth, Gateforth, 
and Rufforth, is a dialectic corruption, 
which hardly appears before the Tudor 
period, of an earherford. 

Fortrenn was the old name of the district 
between the Forth and the Tay, especially 
of Menteith and Stratherne, whose inhabi- 
tants still go by the name of the * Men of 
Fortrenn.' Fortrenn possibly preserves 
the name of the tribe of the Vecturionest 
probably a cop)rist's error for Verfuriones, 
' the powerful,' who are mentioned by 
Ammianus Marcellinus as one of the 
nations of North Britain. 

FOSS, a stream which joins the Ouse at 
York, thereby adding greatly to the 
military value of the position, is believed 
by Canon Raine, the historian of York, 
to have been a natural drain for surface- 
water, which was deepened by the Romans 
to protect the city, and so called y^jj^, the 
'ditch.' Foss, near Pitlochry, is from 
the O. N. fors, sl waterfall. 

Fostat, a suburb of Cairo founded by 
Amru in 642, was so called because when 
Amr-ibn-el-Asi invaded Egypt in 638 it 
was the place where his tent was pitched 
(Arabic fostat, *a tent.') Fustian was 
first made at Fostat. (See Cairo. ) 

Fox Channel, north of Hudson Strait, 
was discovered by Luke Fox, who, drop- 
ping his name of Luke, called himself 
North West Fox, and sailed in 1631 to 
follow up Hudson's discoveries. He 
reached a point in 66" 47' N. lat. which 
he called Fox his Farthest, which still 
remains the UltimaThule in the ice-blocked 
inlet to which Parry gave the name of 
B'ox's Channel, East of which lies Fox 
Land. He gave the islands at the en- 
trance to Fox Channel the names of his 
patrons, Digges, Salisbury, Nottingham, 
Mansell, and Southampton. 



128 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



France (German Frankreich) and Fran- 
CONIA (German Franken) are names de- 
rived from the great confederation of Teu- 
tonic tribes who called themselves Franks, 
which probably means ' freemen,' or pos- 
sibly mose armed with a light javelin 
called framta, believed to be a cop)rist's 
error ior franca. Francia, the Latinised 
form from which we get the name France, 
signified originally the Terra Francorum, 
or 'land of the Franci,' while Franken, 
from which the Latinised form Franconia 
has been constructed, is the dative plural 
of the name of the Ripuarian Franks who 
settled on the Main. In 488 Hlodowig 
(Clovis),chief of theSalian Franks, founded 
in Northern Gaul the kingdom which has 
developed into France. Europeans in the 
Levant are called Franks, owing to the 
fact that the leading crusaders and the 
first King of Jerusalem were Frenchmen. 
The Isle de France, the French province 
which included Paris, originally denoted 
merely the island in the Seine on which 
Paris was built, and which is still called 
La Cit6. In early Latin documents it is 
called Insula, ' the Isle.' 

Frajiche Coznte. one of the old provinces 
of France, was called the ' Free county,' 
because its Counts claimed to be exempt 
from doing homage to the Emperor. 

Frankfurfc-am-Main is the 'ford of 

the Franks.' A legend relates that when 
Charlemagne was retreating from the 
Saxons, he and his army of Franks were 
shown the way across the river by a doe. 
According to a variant form of the legend, 
it was Hlodowig, King of the Franks, to 
whom, when marching against the 
Alamanni, the doe indicated the ford. 
Authentic history begins in the pages of 
Eginhard, who tells us that Charlemagne 
spent the winter of 793-4 in the Viila 
Franconofurt, Latinised as Francorum 
vadum, the O.H.G. francono being a 
genitive plural equivalent to Francorum. 
Frankfurt-an-der-Oder is the ford of 
the Frank merchants who settled there in 
the thirteenth century. 

Franklin Bay, between the mouths of 
the Mackenzie and the Coppermine in 
Arctic America, was discovered and named 
by Dr. Richardson, July 22nd, 1826, during 
Franklin's third Arctic expedition. The 
name of either Sir John or Lady Franklin 
is found in about twenty places on the map. 
The Franklin Isles m the St. Francis 
Group, South Australia, are a memorial 
of his early service as a midshipman in 
the Investigator under Flinders in 1802. 
Returning from this voyage, he was 



vvrecked in the Porpoise on an Australian 
reef. His first Arctic voyage was to 
Spitzbergen in 1818. In 1819-21 he de- 
scended the Coppermine to the Arctic 
Ocean. In 1825-26 he descended the 
Mackenzie, wintering at Fort Franklin 
on the Great Bear Lake. Point 
Franklin, in King William's Land, 
was the furthest point reached by James 
Ross in 1830. Lake Franklin, dis- 
covered by Back in 1834, is the last of 
the chain of lakes on the Great Fish River. 
In 1836 he was made Governor of Tas- 
mania, and in 1842 Franklin Channel 
in Bass Strait was named after him by 
Stokes. In 1845 he sailed in the Erebus 
and Terror, and, having practically dis- 
covered the North -West Passage, died 
on June nth, 1847. The ships were 
abandoned in 1848. SiR John Franklin 
Island was the northernmost point seen 
by Kane in 1853-55. [See p. 274.) 

Franz -Josef Land, a Polar tract 
divided by Austria Sound, discovered 
in 1873-4 by the TegethofF Austro-Hun- 
garian expedition under Captain Wey- 
precht anci Lieutenant Payer, was named 
after the Austrian Emperor, in whose 
honour the Franz - Josef Glacier in 
New Zealand was also named in 1865 by 
the Austrian geologist Julius Haast. 

Frascati, near Rome, was so called from 
a Roman villa overgrown with uhderwood 
{frasche). 

Frauenfeld, the chief town in Canton 
Thurgau, originally Unserer Lieben Frau- 
en Feld, ' our dear Lady's field,' arose in 
the eleventh century on land belonging to 
the Abbey of Reichenau, which was dedi- 
cated to • Our Lady.' 

Frazer River, the great artery of 
British Columbia, bears the name of 
Simon Frazer, an agent of the Hudson 
Bay Company, the first European who 
crossed the Rocky Mountains {1806-8) 
from Lake Athabasca, founding the trad- 
ing post called Fort Frazer on Frazer 
Lake. 

Frederik Hendriks Bay, and Cape 
Frederik Hendrik, on the eastern 
coast of Tasmania, are believed to bear 
the name of one of Tasman's crew, who 
here in 1642 took refuge from a storm. 

Frederiksborgr, in Seeland, wasfoimded 
by Christian iv. of Denmark, and 
named in 1609 after Frederik, the infant 
Crown Prince. Frederikshaab, 'Fred- 
erik's Hope,' in Greenland, was founded 
in 1742 by Jacob Leverin, a Danish mer- 
chant, and doubtless named after the 



GLOSSARY 



129 



CroWn Prince of Denmark^ afterwards 
King Frederik V. 

Freemantle, a town in West Australia, 
bears the name of Captain Freemantle, 
an officer sent in 1829 as a pioneer to take 
charge of the settlement on its first 
foundation. 

Freetown, the oipital of the English 
colony of Sierra Leone, was so called be- 
cause here the negroes taken from the 
slave-ships were Isuided, liberated, and 

• declared free. 

Freewill Islands, a small group north 
of New Guinea, were so called by Carteret 
in 1767 firom a native who volunteered to 
go with the ship, and hence was nick- 
named Joseph Freewill by the sailors. 

Freiburg (in French Fribourg), a city 
which gives its name to a Swiss canton, 
was a 'free town* built in 1177 on his 
own estates by Berchtold iv.. Count of 
Z^hringen, to which he granted a charter 
giving the same liberties as had been 
granted in 1120 by his uncle Berchtold iii. 
to the sister citjr of Freiburg im Breis- 
GAU. These privileges, confirmed in 1178 
by the Emperor Frederick i. (Barbarossa) 
were to be similar to those possessed by 
Cologne. Friburgo Novo, in Brazil, 
was founded in 1820 by colonists from 
Freiburg in Switzerland. Vryburg, the 
capital .of British Bechuanaland, was 
founded in 1882 by Mr. Barend Fourie, a 
Dutch Boer, who called it Vrijburg, the 
•fi-ee town,' a name now Anglicised as 
Vryburg. 

FrejUS, a town in the D^p. of the Var, with 
numerous Roman remams, was founded 
by Julius Caesar, and called Forum Julii, 
of which the modern name is a corruption. 

Fremont's Peak, in the Rocky Moun- 
tains, 13,570 feet in height, bears the 
name of Lieut. John C. Fremont, an 
officer in the United States service, hy 
whom it was ascended in 1842 during his 
exploration of this region. 

French Frigate Island, in the Sand- 
wich group, is the place where the frigate 
of La Perouse narrowly escaped ship- 
wreck in 1786. 

Freycinet Estuary and Cape 

Preyoinet, both in western Australia, 
commemorate the services of the brothers 
Louis and Henri Freycinet, who accom- 
panied the French expedition which sur- 
veyed portions of the Australian coast in 
1801-3. {See O^ographe. ) 

Friedrichsbafen (Frederick's harbour), 
on the Lake of Constance, was founded in 
1810 by Friedrich, King of Wurtemberg. 



Friendly Islands, a Pacific group, 
discovered by Tasman in 1643, ^^^^ ^ 
named by Cook, who visited them in 1774, 
on account of the friendly behaviour of 
the natives. The group is now usually 
called by the native name, Tonga 
Islands. 

Friesland. formerly Frisia, Fresia, or 
Frisonia, now called Vriesland by the 
Dutch, and Friesen by the Germans, is 
the land of the Frisians, the Frisii of 
Tacitus. The meaning of the name is 
uncertain, as the length of the vowel is 
unknown. According to Zeuss and Grimm 
the name may be derived from the Old 
Frisian vf ord /rise, which means ' frizzled,' 
'curled,' or 'matted' hair, but not, as 
formerl)r maintained, firom the Gothic/reis, 
'fi-ee,' since the s is not radical. 

Frio, Cabo, in Brazil, is the 'cold cape.' 
Serro do Frio, the 'cold range,' is a 
desolate and sterile region in Brazil. 
Puerto Frio, the 'cold harbour,' in 
Magellan's Strait (also called Bahia 
Nevada, ' snowy bay'), was so called be- 
cause at the time of Loaysa's expedition in 
1526 many of the natives perished by cold. 
In 1741 Middleton gave the name of 
Cape Frigid to the northern point of 
Southampton Land in Frozen Strait 
i^.v.). 

Frisohes Haff, ' fi-esh [water] bay,' in the 
Baltic, is so called because the Vistula 
makes the water almost fresh. 

Friuli, in Venetia, is a corruption of the 
Roman name Forum Julii. 

Frobisher*s Strait, now called Fro- 

BlSHER Bay, is an inlet, 250 miles long, 
discovered in 1576 by Martin Frobisher, 
one of the most danng of English navi- 
gators, and the first to conceive the idea 
of a North- West passage to China. On 
June 7th, 1576, he sailed from Blackwall 
with thirty-five men in two tiny boats, the 
Gabriel and the Michael, of about 20 tons 
each, and a lo-ton pinnace, in search of 
a N.-W. passage. The pinnace was lost, 
and the Michael deserted and returned 
home. Frobisher, in the Gabriel, pushed 
on undaunted, sighting a headland near 
Cape Farewell, which he called Queen 
Elizabeth's Foreland, and crossed the 
sea afterwards known as Davis Strait, 
imagining that the land on one side was 
America, and on the other the continent 
of Asia. He then sailed up) the inlet, 
which he called Frobisher Strait, as far as 
Butcher's Island, where five of his men 
were captured by the Eskimos. In a 
third expedition he penetrated up Hudron's 
Strait as far as Frobisher Bay. Foi his 



I30 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



services against the Spanish Armada h% 
was knighted in 1588, and died of a wound 
received in 1594 at the siege of Crozan, 
near Brest. 

Prome is a town in Somerset, on the river 
Frome. In a charter of 701 we read: 
monasierium fositum juxta fluvium qui 
vocatur From. The name of the river, 
called 'Fraw by Asser, may be explained 
from the Welsh ^aw, 'brisk,' or 'lively,' 
corresponding to the A-S. frum, which 
means rapid or vigorous. As the minster 
on the Axe has become Axminster, so 
Frome by analogy should have been 
Frominster. 

FrowEird, Oape, or Cape Forward, 
midway in the Straits of Magellan, was 
the appropriate name given to tlie most 
southerly point of the American continent 
by Thomas Cavendish in 1587. This 
dangerous point is difficult to double on 
account of the intricacy of the channel. 

Frozen Strait, a channel leading into 
Hudson's Bay, north of Southampton 
Island, was so called by Middleton in 
1741 because he found it blocked by ice. 
In 1 82 1 Parry found it open. 

Puoa strait, correctly Juan de Fuca 
Strait, south of Vancouver Island, and 
leading to the mouth of the Frazer river, 
was discovered by Juan de Fuca in 1592. 

Fuegia. 'fire-land,' is a recent English 
formation from the Spanish name Tierra 
DEL FuEGO, the 'land of the fire.' In 
November 1520, Magellan, passing 
through the straits which bear his name, 
gave this name to the land on his left, 
from a fire kindled by the natives which at 
night was seen burning on the shores. 
The Bay of Fires in the N. E. comer 
of Tasmania, was so called by Furneaux 
in 1773 because of the uninterrupted row 
of fires which he observed as he sailed 
past. Cape Blaze, in North Australia, 
was so called because a large fire was burn- 
ing on it when it was discovered by 
Captain King in 1819. A volcano in 
Guatemala, 12,500 feet high, is called 
Volcan de Fuego, the 'Volcano of 
Fire,' in contradistinction to the loftier 
neighbouring Volcan de Agua, which 
emits water and mud. FoGO, one of the 
volcanic group of the Cape Verd Islands, 
was in continuous eruption from 1680 to 
1713. The Spaniards called it Fuego, 
answering to the Portuguese name Fogo, 
which means ' fire' {IjaXm focus, ' hearth'). 

Fuenterrabla, on the Spanish frontier 
near Biarritz, exhibits a curious instance of 
popular etymology. It was conjecturally 
explained as the 'foimtain of the Arabs,' 



giving rise to the legend of Charlemagne's 
defeat by the Moors, referred to by Mil- 
ton in the lines, * Where Charlemagne and 
all his peerage fell. By Fontarabia.' The 
name is a corruption of the Basque Ondar- 
rabia, 'two sandbanks,' which was cor- 
rupted first to Unda rafnda, then io/ons 
rapidus, and finally to Fontarabia. 

FufiTlO, ' bird island,' is the name given 
to several Scandinavian islets. Fitful 
Head, in the mainland of Shetland, is a 
curious EngUsh adaptation of the Scandi- 
navian name Fitfugla fiofdhi, the 'sea- 
fowl cape' (O.N: fitfugf, a. *webfooted 
bird'). 

Fuji-Yama or Fusi-Yama, the 

beautiful volcano whose cone appears so 
often in Japanese drawings, is the ' great 
mountain,' just as the snowclad peak 
called Siro- Yam A is the ' white mountain.' 
In Japanese poetry Fuji-Yama is often 
called Fuji-San, the 'lady Fuji,' san 
being the usual honorific appellation of a 
woman. 

Fukien, or Fokien, one of the wealthi- 
est provinces in China, is the 'fortunate 
settlement.' 

Fulah, or FuLA, is the Mandingo name 
of a dominant race spread across the 
Soudan from Darfur to the Senegal, and 
called Fula, 'red,' or perhaps 'yellow,' 
from the light brown colour of their skins. 
FuLBE {de, 'people') means the 'red 
men.' 

Fulda, a city in Hesse-Nassau, rose round 
a monastery founded by S. Boniface on 
the river Fulda, which was called in the 
eighth century Fulda Aa, probably mean- 
ing, according to Grimm and F5rstemann, 
'land river.' 

Funohal is the chief town in Madeira. 

In Portuguese /a»^A^? means ' fennel,' and 

funchal a 'bed of fennel,' which still 

grows abundantly on the hills round 

Funchal. 

Funcheon, in County Cork, is the * ash 
tree' river, from the \n^ fuinmean, an 
ash. At Unshog, Armagh, the initial 
consonant of this word has fallen out. It 
may be noted that names from the ash are 
much less common in Ireland than in 
England, Germany, or France, where 
fraxinetum, an ash-grove, has jrielded 
numerous village names like Fraissenet, 
Fresney, and Freney. {See p. 334.) 

Furoa is a pass between Cantons Uri and 
Valais. For such passes the usual Swiss 
form is Furyge, which signifies a 'fork,' 
used to denote a notch forming a pass 
over a mountain chain* 



GLOSSARY 



131 



Furneauz Group, in Bass Strait, and 
FuRNEAUX Island, in the Low Archi- 
pelago, commemorate the services of Cap- 
tain Tobias Furneaux, who commanded 
the Adventure^ one of the two ships which 
took part in Cook's second expedition 
(1772-74). 

FUrth, a town in Bavaria, is at the ' ford ' 
over the river Regnitz. There are 
several places in Germany called FUrth, 
FURT, FURTH, and the like, which were 
anciently Furti or Furden, * the ford,' or 
•at the ford.' 

Fury and Heola Strait, discovered 

by Parry in 1822 on his second voyage, 
bears the names of his two ships the Fury 
and the Hecla. On his third voyage the 
Fury was forced ashore by the ice in 
Prince Regent's Inlet, and abandoned in 
August 1825 at a place which bears the 
name of Fury Beach. Fury Cove, in 
Patagonia, sheltered King and Fitzroy, in 
1830, from the fury of a storm. 
FUsiBen, & town in Bavaria, is a corruption 
of the name of ad Fauces, given to a 
Benedictine monastery, built in 746, at 
the gorge of the Lech. 

Qaeta, an Italian fortress on a cape of the 
same name, with numerous caves for- 
merly inhabited by troglodytes, bears a 
name of Greek origin, meaning ' the place 
of caves.* 

Gainsborougrh, Lincolnshire, is often 
said to have been the burh of the Gainas, 
but G^Mtsburh and Genesburuh, the 
forms in the Chronicle, point to a per- 
sonal name. Gainsthorpe, also in Lin- 
colnshire, is a Danish name; it is the 
thorpe of Gamel, • the old,' as is shown by 
Gamelstorp, the Domesday spelling. 

Galdpagros Islands, in Spanish Islas 
de los Galdpagos, ' the turtle islands,' are a 
Pacific group belonging to Ecuador. The 
word galdpago (whence calipash and cali- 
pee) denotes in Spanish a ^ant-tortoise or 
turtle, of which five species inhabit the 
group. Dampier notes that nowhere else 
did he find turtles so abunciUuit In the 
Gulf of California there is also a small 
island called Isla de los Galapagos. 

Galashiels, in Selkirkshire, signifies the 
huts or shielmgs (O.N. skali) on the Gala 
river. 

Galatia, in Asia Minor, was settled by a 
tribe of Galli or Gauls from Gallia, a 
name now believed to have nothing to 
do with Gael or Gaidhel, being derived 
from gal, ' passion, violence,' and hence 
* valour,' the Galli meaning the ' warriors' 
or * valiant men.' 



OtSlenBtf a town in the centre of the lead- 
mining district of Illinois, was so named 
from an ore of lead called galena. 

Galera Point, Trinidad, is the English 
form of the Spanish name Punta de la 
Galera, given to.it by Columbus on his 
third voyage (1498), from the resemblance 
of the cape to a galley in full sail 

Galicia, the North-West province of 
Spain, is the Roman Calacia, the land of 
the Gallaici or Calaici, the tribe near 
Oporto, anciently /'tfr/wj Cale, whence the 
name pf Portugal was derived (^.v.). 

Galicia, an Austrian crownland, is the 
Latinised form of the German name 
Galixien, which again b a Teutonised 
form, given when the district passed 
under Austrian rule, to the Slavonic 
Halicz, the place 'of salt,' the name of a 
town and district in the s£dt-producing 
region of the Carpathians. 

Galilee, or Galilee of the Gentiles, means 
the • circuit ' or district of the Gentiles, so 
called by the Hebrews because largely in- 
habited by Sidonians. In the Old Testa- 
ment there are several Gelilolhs, a word 
usually translated 'borders' or 'coasts' 
in the English Bible, llie name Galilee 
has been given to an island in Leike 
Michigan. 

GtaJla is the name of a numerous people to 
the south of Abyssinia who speak an 
Hamitic language. They call themselves 
Orma or Oromo. the 'men.' According 
to Bruce, Galla means ' herdsmen ' ; accord 
to D'Abbadie, it is a term used to denote 
the young warriors when ready for the 
fight 

GaJle, or, with a needless French addition, 
Point de Galle, is the name of a rocky 
cape in Ceylon, derived from the Singalese 
galla, a 'rock,' seen in Tang-gale and 
other names in Ceylon. The Portuguese 
erroneously connected the name with their 
own word gallo, a cock, as is shown by 
their having given the town a cock for a 
crest or armorial bearing. 

Gallipoli. a town on the Dardanelles, is 
called Gelibolu by the Turks. The name 
Gallipoli, which also occurs in Southern 
Italy, is an Italian corruption ot the Greek 
Kallipolis, ' beautiful city.' 

Galloway is a territorial term used to 
designate the counties of Kirkcudbright 
and Wigtown. Galloway is an Anglicised 
form of the Latin Galwethia or Galwetka, 
which was derived from Galwyddel, the 
name used by the Welsh of Strathclyde as 
the equivalent of the older Gaelic name of 
Gallghaidhel, given to the Gaelic allies of 



132 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



the Norwegian vikings. Gallghaidhel is a 
compound formed iromgall, 'a foreigner,' 
and gaidhel, the national name of the 
Gaels. Hence Galloway denotes the land 
of a Gaelic race who were under the rule 
of the Galls, or Norwegian foreigners. 

Ghaltres Forest, a large and formerly 
turbulent district north of York, which was 
ruled with great severity, may owe its 
name to the frequent executions of male- 
factors (A-S. galg-tredw, a 'gallows- 
tree' or 'gibbet'). 

Galveston, a town in Texas, is a name 
believed to refer to the Conde de Galves, 
Viceroy of New Spain. 

Qambia, properly Gambra, a river in 
Senegambia, is the Portuguese corruption 
of Gambre, the native name. (See Sene- 
gambia.) 

Gambler's Isles, at the entrance to 
Spencer Gulf, South Australia, were so 
named by Flinders in 1802 in compliment 
to Admiral Lord Gambier, whose name 
is also borne by the Gambier Group of 
coral islets in the Dangerous Archipelago, 
discovered in 1797 by the missionajy ship 
Duf. 

Ghanffes was the Greek transformation 
of me name of the great Indian river. 
Handed on to the Romans and then to 
the Portuguese, it has been generally 
adopted throughout Europe as the equiva- 
lent of the Indian name Ganga, which 
signifies a ' stream ' or ' flowing water * 
(Sanskrit gam, to go). The word is found 
in other Indian river names — for instance, 
in the Ramganga and the Kaliganga. 

GhaDJdin, the northernmost district in the 
Madras province, takes its name from 
the port of GanjXm {Ganj-i-dm), which 
means the ' granary of the world.' 

Q-annet Island, on the western coast 
of New Zealand, so called by Cook 
because frequented by great numbers of 
gannets. 

Q-ap, a French town near Grenoble, is the 
Vapincum or Civitas Vapincensium of 
the Antonine Itinerary and the Notitia, 
V, as in other cases, becoming g. The 
Gapen<;:ais, or district round Gap, was 
the Pagus Vapincensis, 

Gkirabed, the ' Forerunner,' is the Ar- 
menian name of places with convents or 
churches dedicated to St. John the Baptist. 
Such places are also called Surf Gara- 
BED, Surp meaning saint, as in Surp 
Elias for St. Elijah. 

Ghard, a French department, is traversed 
by the river Gard or Gardon, the 
Roman Vardo» The so-called Pont de 



Gard is not a bridge, but an aqueduct^ 
built by the Romans to supply Nlmes with 
water. 
Garda, LagO di, one of the Italian lakes, 
takes its name from the castle of Garda. 

GkLThw^dL the ' district of the forts,' in 
the N.-W! Provinces of India, was ruled 
five centuries ago by fifty-two petty chicfs» 
each possessing his fort [garh), 

G^aronne, the Roman Garumna or Ga- 
runna, is supposed to be a Celtic name 
meaning the 'rough' or perhaps the 
'grassy' river. From Garunda, the fifth- 
century form of the name, we obtain the 
name of the Gironde, at the mouth of 
the Garonne. 

Garry, a river in Perthshire, which flows 
from Loch Garry through Glengarry, is 
believed to be the rough river {garw or 
^arb, 'rough'). Lake Garry, on the 
Great Fish River in Arctic America, was 
so named by Back in 1834 after Nicholas 
Garry, Deputy Chairman of the Hudson 
Bay Company, whose name was also given 
in 1825 by Parry to Cape Garry in Prince 
Regent's Inlet, by Franklin in 1825 to 
Garry Island in the delta of the Mac- 
kenzie River, and by James Ross to 
Garry River in Boothia Felix. 

OrBBCOXLYj the French Gascoigne, and 
the Low-Latin Vasconia, is the land of 
the Vasks or Basques. (See Biscay. ) 

Q^teshead, Durham, (A.S. Gdtesheved, 
as appears from the forms in Baeda and 
the Boldon Book) is a doubtful name, pro- 
bably referring to a ' goat's head,* set on 
a pole as a tribal emblem. 

Gawler, a town in South Australia, as 
well as the Gawler Ranges and Port 
Gawler, were named after Colonel Gaw- 
ler, a Governor of the colony. 

G-eelvink Ohannel, West Australia, 
was first traversed in 1697 by the Dutch- 
man Vlaming, in the ship Geelvink, In 
1705 the same ship discovered Geelvink 
Bay, on the north coast of New Guinea. 

GeithoU, in Iceland, is 'goat hill,' as 
Geita, also in Iceland, is the ' goat river.' 
Gowrie, in Scotland, a name familiar 
from the song called the ' Lass o' Gowrie,' 
signifies, like Gorey and Gowree in 
Ireland, the 'place of goats.' 

Geneva (French Genhje, German Genf), 
the Genava of Caesar, is explained by 
GlUck and De Jubainville as an equivalent 
of the Latin Ostia, The Celtic genava^ 
Welsh genau, 'mouth,' is a derivative 
from genus, Welsh ^(?«, a ' jaw,' like ostia 
from OS. At Geneva the Island of Rous- 
seau makes, as it were, two openings or 



GLOSSARY 



»33 



* mouths * through which the lake vomits 
tlie Rhone. There is probably only a 
dialectic difference between the name of 
Geneva and of Genoa, which is the Eng- 
lish form of the Italian Genova, The 
Germans prefer the Roman form Genua, 
The harbour of Genoa is remarkably jaw- 
like in its form. 

G-^ographe Bay and Gi^ographe 

Channel, in Western Australia, are Eng- 
lish forms of the names Bate du Giographe 
and Dittoitdu Giographe, given by Baudin 
in 1801 from the corvette Giographe, one 
of his two'ships. From his other ship, the 
Naturaliste, and from his enterprising 
officers, Henri and Louis Freycinet, he 
named Cape Naturaliste, the N.-E. 
corner of Tasmania, and the Freycinet 
Peninsula in Tasmania, which is divided 
from Schouten Island by Giographe 
Channel. Freycinet Harbour and 
Naturaliste Channel are also records 
of Baudin's explorations in 1801 and 1802. 

Georgre Town, the port of entry for 
Washington and the district of Columbia, 
lies on the Potomac, two and a half miles 
from Washington. It was founded by 
the colonial Government of Maryland in 
1751, and named in honour of George 11. 
Georgetown, in British Guiana, the 
modem name of the Dutch settlement 
Stabrocjk, was adopted in 1814 when 
Guiana was annexed during the reign of 
George ill. There is also a George- 
town in Ascension Island, in Prince 
Edward's Island, in the province of 
Ontario, and several in the U.S.A. Cape 
George in Kerguelen's Land and Cape 
George in South Georgia were so named 
by Cook in 1775 and 1776 in honour of 
George ill. Lake George, in the State 
of New York, was discovered by William 
Johnson in 1755, and named after George 
II. King George's Islands, a group 
in the Low Archipelago, discovered by 
Bjrron in 1765, and King George's 
Plains in Tasmania, discovered by Hayes 
in 1793, were named after George iii. 
Port George the Fourth, in West 
Australia, was so named by King in 1821, 
and King George the Third's Sound, 
in Nuytsland, N.-W. America, by Van- 
couver in 1791. Georgina, a river in 
Queensland, was so named in compliment 
to Sir George Bowen, the Governor. 
George's River, Botany Bay, was dis- 
covered by George Bass and Flinders in 
the Tom Thumb, a boat eight feet long. 

G^eorgfia, one of the United States, was a 
colony separated from Carolina in 17; 
by George ii., whose name it bears. 



^ 



was bestowed on General James Ogle- 
thorpe, M. P., to be 'a colony for the poor 
and helpless.' and ' an asylum for insolvent 
debtors and persons fleeing from religious 
persecution.* South Georgia, in the 
South Atlantic, is believed to have been 
discovered by Vespucci on April 7th, 1502, 
in his wonderful third voyage, and was 
rediscovered in 1775 by Cook, who named 
it after George iii. Georgia, a Russian 
province in the Caucasus, is probably a 
Western accommodation of the Persian 
name Giirdschistan, the 'land of the 
Gtirdschi,' or ' dwellers on the River Kur.' 

Q-ermany is the English form of the 
Latin Germania, the land of the Germani, 
a name by which the Gauls designated 
their Eastern neighboiu's. The word has 
been supposed to mean either ' the neigh- 
boiu's,' or the 'shouters' from their fierce 
war cries. But according to the investi- 
gations of Zeuss, the Germani who gave 
tlieir name to Germany were not Germans 
at all, the name Germani, meaning ' hill- 
men • or ' mountaineers,' having originally 
been given by the Belgae, who were Celts, 
to the Celtic people of die Ardennes. It 
may be noted that the Celtiberians called 
the Oretani, a hill people, by the same 
name Germani, as we learn from Pliny, 
Oretani qui et Germani cognominan/ur. 
We have also the notice of a place quis 
dicitur Germana, vel ad montem, where 
ad montem seems to be intended as a trans- 
lation of Germana. The Aryan stem gara 
or ^ari means a ' mountain ' (Sanskrit 
gin, Zend gari. Old Slavonic gora, a 
'hill.' In Lithuanian gira means wood 
or forest). German and Germany are 
terms specially of English use, the Germans 
calling themselves Deutsche, ' the people,' 
and their country Deutschland. The 
German tribes nearest to Gaul called them- 
selves the 'all-men,' a term Latinised as 
Allemanni. Hence the name Allemagne 
and AUemands for Germany and Germans 
in French, Alemania and Alemanes in 
Spanish, Allemanha and Allemanos in 
Portuguese, and in Italian Allemagna and 
Alemanni, or more commonly Tedescbi, 
corrupted from Theodiscans, an earlier 
form of Deutsche. Our English usage is 
comparatively recent, the term Germans 
beginning to supplant the older names 
Almains and Dutchmen in the reign of 
Henry viii. , though as early as 1337 the 
term Germenie is used by Robert of 
Bnmne. 

Q-erona, a town in Catalonia, preserves 
the old name Gerunda. 

GhhautS^ in the new spelling Gh^ts, is 



«34 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



the name given to the coast range of 
Western India. The word gkdt means 
a 'pass through a mountain/ also the 

* landing-stairs ' from a river. 

G-hent is the English name of the Belgian 
city which in Flemish is called Gend, in 
German Gent, in French Gand, and in 
medieval records Ganda, Gandavum, 
and Gantum. The et)rmology is doubt- 
ful, possibly from the obscure local word 
gant, 2l 'stone,' or 'rock,' or 'bank.' 

GhllUZZell is the modem form of Gaza, a 
'fortress' of the Philistines. The fabric 
called gauze (O.F. gaze) was so called 
because brought from Gaza. 

Qibraltar is a corruption of Gibel-al- 
Tarik, the Arabic name which com- 
memorates its capture in 771, and the 
subsequent erection of a fort by the one- 
eyed Berber chief Tarik-ibn-Zayad. 

Qiessen, in Hesse, at the confluence of 
the Lahn and the Wieseth, is called in 
1197 burc ze din giezzen, ' the town at the 
streams.' So the Giesbach, in Canton 
Bern, is a 'beck' which 'pours' or 
streams down a mountain side into the 
Lake of Brienz. 

Gigrantes, Campo de. in Bogotii, 

abounds in skeletons of the mastodon, 
which being supposed to be huge human 
bones, the place came to be called the 

* plain of the giants.' 

Gilbert's Point, Massachusetts, was 
named by Gosnold after his second officer, 
Bartholomew Gilbert (1602), Gilbert 
Isle, Fuegia, and Gilbert's Isles, New 
Zealand, were discovered by Cook, 1773- 
74, and named after Joseph Gilbert, the 
master of one of his vessels, the Resolu- 
tion. The Gilbert I sl ands, in the North 
Pacific, and the Marshall Islands, an 
adjoining group, were discovered in 1788 
by Gilbert and Marshall, the commanders 
01 two merchant vessels, the Charlotte and 
the Scarborough, on a voyage from Port 
Jackson to Canton. Gilbert's Sound, in 
Greenland, the site of Godhaab {q.v.) was 
named after an Elizabethan worthy. Sir 
Humphry Gilbert, half-brother of Raleigh, 
who in 1576 published a book on the pos- 
sibility of the discovery of a north-west 
passage to China, and after taking pos- 
session of Newfoundland and Virginia in 
the name of Queen Elizabeth, perished in 
a storm off Cape Breton in his little barque 
the Squirrel (1583), 

Gillis Land or Giles Land, N.E. of 
Spitzbergen, in 8i* N. Lat, was dis- 
covered in 1707 by Cornelius Gillis, and 
rediscovered m 1864 by the Swedes. 



GilolO, correctly Jilolo, is the name 
given on European maps to the largest 
of the Moluccas. The native name is 
Halmahira, which means the ' mainland.' 
Gilolo was merely the name of a certain 
bay on the western coast, where European 
ships were accustomed to anchor in order 
to procure the bags in which the cargoes 
of cloves were to be packed for exporta- 
tion. Hence the name of the place first 
visited, the objective of the voyage, came 
to be extended to the whole island. 

Gippsland, a district in the Australian 
colony of Victoria, and Gipps Island, 
New Britain, were named after Sir George 
Gipps, Governor of New South Wales 
from 1838 to 1846. 

Girgenti, a city on the Sicilian coast, is 
the Italian form of Agrigentum, the 
Roman corruption of the Greek name 
Acragas, which originally denoted the 
stream which flows in a deep ravine out- 
side the walls of the Greek colony. 

Glajnorgail is a corruption of Gwlad- 
Morgan, the country {gwlad) ruled in the 
tenth century by the Welsh prince Mortjan, 
a personal name from the Old British 
morcant, 'sea-bright' (Welsh jw^a-, 'sea,' 
and cant, cognate with the Latin can- 
didiis. ) 

GlarilS, the capital of a Swiss Canton of 
the same name, is usually said to be a 
corruption of Hilarius. In the fifth cen- 
tury Fridolin, an Irish monk, built a 
chiu-ch on the site of the present town, 
which he dedicated to St. Hilarius of 
Poitiers, his patron saint, who is locally 
called St. Claris. The valley of the Linth 
which constitutes the present Canton be- 
longed to the Abbey of Seckingen on the 
Rhine, also founded by Fridolin and dedi- 
cated to St. Hilary. The name Glarus first 
occurs in 1343, the earlier forms being 
Glarona and Clarona, probably from the 
Romansch glarauns, ' gravelly (Latin 
glarea, 'gravel.') Glarona would desig- 
nate a place on a bed of gravel. {See 
Clarens.) The older name has pro- 
bably been assimilated by reason of the 
dedication of the church. 

Glasgrow, the second city in the British 
Isles, was called Glas-gu in 1301. Numer- 
ous et3miologies have been proposed, such 
Bsclais-dhu, the 'black ravine,' ^/aw-<f/4w, 
' the black brook,' or glas-coed, the ' grey 
wood,' but the most probable is that given 
by Professor Rhys, who holds that the 
name is from one of the Gaelic pet-names 
of St Kentigem, or St ' Mungo,' around 
whose cell the place grew up. The British 
name Kentigem would be pronounced 



GLOSSARY 



135 



Cunotigemos, in the first letters of which 
the Gaels discovered their own word for a 
hound. Hence they affectionately called 
him either Munchu, the ' dear dog,' which 
became Mungo, or Deschu, the ' southern 
hound,' or from his white hair, Glaschu, 
the ' grey hound,' by which last name his 
cell came to be known. Linlithgow 
{g.v.) is a name of similar origin. Glas- 
gow Island is in the Bay of Islands, New 
Zealand, and under its lea the brig Glasgow 
rode out a severe storm. 

Glastonbury, an early seat of British 
Christianity, occupies a former site of 
Druidical worship. It stands on the 
Isle of Avalon (in Latin Avallonia, 
Welsh avails 'an apple-tree'), which is 
translated Insula Pomorum. The A.S. 
name Glastina-burh (in Latin Glasfonia) 
is believed by Professor Rhys to be a cor- 
ruption of the British word glasien, an 
• oak' {Comxsh. glastenen), the Druids cul- 
tivating both the oak and the apple as 
foster parents of their sacred plant the 
mistletoe. Glastena-burh was assimilated 
by the Saxons to their gentile form Glest- 
inga-burh or Glaesting-burh, which being 
supposed by a false etymology to mean 
the 'shining' or 'glassy town was mis- 
translated by the Welsh at no very early 
date as Ynys-Widrin, the ' island of glass.' 

Q-latZ, in Silesia, is a corruption of the 
Czech name JCladsko, which occiu*s in 
loio, and denotes a place built or palisaded 
with ' trunks of trees. ' 

Qlenelgr, in Inverness-shire, a name of 
doubtful meaning, gave a title to Lord 
Glenelg, Secretary for the Colonies ( 1836- 
37), after whom Glenelg, a town in 
SSouth Australia, and two Australian rivers 
were named. 

Gloucester was the Roman GUvum, 
called Glebon by the Ravena Geographer, 
a name representing a British Glevon, 
whence the A.S. name GUdTvan-ceaster, 
and the later forms Gledw-ceaster, Gl6we- 
ceaster, and Gliu-cesier. It is called Cair 
Gloui by Nennius. The British Glevon 
would be the neuter of glevos, whence the 
modem Welsh gloew, 'bright, clear,' a 
name descriptive either of the British town, 
or of the river on which it stood. To the 
royal dukedom of Gloucester many names 
are due, such as Cape Gloucester and 
Gloucester Island in Queensland, and 
Cape Gloucester in Fuegia, which were 
named by Cook in 1770 and 1774, and 
Gloucester Island in the Low Archi- 
pelago, discovered by Wallis in 1767. 
Cape Gloucester, in New Britain, was 
discovered by Dampier in 1680. 



Gmilnden, in Lower Austria, is the place 
* at the mouth ' of the Traun. GmOnd, 
in Wttrtemberg, is also at the junction of 
two streams. 

GOCL, properly GowA, in Marathi Goven, 
the capital of Uie Portuguese possessions 
in India, is supposed to be a corruption of 
an older name Goe or Got moat, meaning 
the 'fruitful land.' 

Goatfell, the highest summit in the Isle 
of Arran, is a hybrid name, the Gaelic 
Gaoth-Beinn, 'mountain of the winds,' 
having exchanged its Celtic suffix for the 
Scandinavian /<r//, a ' mountain.' 

Gobi is a Mongolian word meaning a 
'desert.' Hence the name Gobi Desert 
which appears on many English maps is 
a pleonasm. The Chinese call the Gobi 
either Han-hai, the ' dry sea,' or Sha-mo, 
the ' sea of sand. ' The name Gobi Sh amo, 
found on some maps, is a combination of 
the Mongolian and Chinese names, attri- 
butable to ignorance of the meaning of the 
words. 

Godalming', Surrey, is a patronymic or 
clan name. The A.S. form Godelmingum 
is a dative plural, meaning ' at the Godel- 
mings,' or settlement of the descendants 
of Godhelm. 

Godesber^, a town on the Rhine, near 
Bonn, appears in 947 as Wodanesberg, 
'Woden's hill.' 

Godhaab, on the inlet called Gilbert 
Sound by Davis, the earliest Danish settle- 
ment in Greenland, was so named by 
Hans Egede, the first missionary to the 
Eskimos, to express the ' good hope * he 
entertained of civilising and converting 
them. (5^tf Egede.) 

Godmanchester. in Hunts, called 

Godmundcestre in Domesday, is a Chester 
which became the dwelling-place of an 
Englishman called Godniund. It was 
probably the Roman Durolipons. 

God's Providence, Harbour of, 

in Hudson's Bay, is an inlet where, in 1631, 
Captain James took refuge from the ice 
which threatened to destroy his ship. 
Hudson, in 1610, sought shelter from a 
storm behind the Isles of God's Mercy 
in Hudson's Strait. The Cape of God's 
Mercy in Davis Strait and the Harbour 
OF God's Mercy in Magellan Strait were 
se named by John Davis in 1585 and 1593. 

Gold Coast, a part of the Guinea coast, 
was so called because of the gold obtained 
from alluvial washings. In order to work 
the suspected gold mines the Portuguese 
in 1482 built &e castle of S, Jorge de la 
Mina now called Elmina, * the mine.' 



136 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Golden Horn. Constantinople, is a 
translation of Ckryso-Keras, a laudatory 
Greek name denoting the excellence of 
the harbour. A similar name is that of 
the Golden Gate given in 1578 by Sir 
Francis Drake to the entrance into the 
Bay of San Francisco. 

G-Olden Valley, in the counties of 
Brecon and Monmouth, is traversed by 
the River Dore, a Celtic name meaning 
the * water.' The name of Golden Valley 
is probably due to some monk acquainted 
with the French word dori, * golden,' who 
perverted the old name Vallis DorcB, the 
' valley of the Dore,' into vallis deaurafa, 
afterwards Englished as the golden valley. 

G-oletta, the ' throat' or 'gorge,' the port 
of Tunis, is the Italian translation 01 the 
descriptive Arabic name. 

Goodmanham, Yorkshire, the site of 
the heathen temple destroyed by Coifi, is 
in A.S. Godmundingaham, the ' home of 
the Godmundings or descendants of God- 
mund,' Godmundinga being a genitive 
pluraL 

Goole, in Yorkshire, stands at a marshy 
place believed to have been the former 
confluence of the Don and the Ouse. In 
this district the M.L. gulla (O.F. goule, 
'throat') is used in documents to denote 
a 'drain' or gulley. GouL, Gowel, 
GowL, Addergoul, and Edargoule in 
Ireland, places which all stand on the 
forks of nvers, are from the Irish gahhal, 
a 'fork.' Loch Goil in Scotland forks 
off from Loch Long. From the cognate 
German word gabel we have such German 
names as Gabelbach and Gabelhof. 

(5<?<?GOULBURN.) 

GooBe Island, in Christmas Sound, 
Fuegia, is the place where, in 1774, Cook's 
crews procured seventy-six geese for their 
Christmas dinner. 

Gbrlitz, the second city in Silesia, was 
formerly called Drebenau. It was burnt 
in 113 1, and when rebuilt received the 
name of the 'burnt town,' in Slavonic 
Zgorzelice, of which Gorlitz is a corruption. 

Gbschenen, in Canton Uri, is probably 
from the dialect word geschi, a small 
house,' T^lxiizX gesckini. 

Gotha, a town which gives its name to 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was called Goth-aha 
in 770. 

Gothland, the name of a province in the 
South of Sweden, is the Swedish GSta- 
LAND, meaning the 'land of the Gotar,' 
(O.N. Gautar, A.S. GiatasV gdta being 
an old genitive plural. Gotland or 
GuTLAND, an island in the Baltic, is 



on the other hand the 'land of the 
Goths.' Gothenburg, in Sweden, the 
German form of the Swedish name Gt^TA- 
BORG, stands on the GbTA Elf, the 
* river of the Gotar.* 

G^ttingen, a German University town, 
appears in the ninth century as Guddin- 
gun, the dative plural of a patronjnoiic. 

Goulbum Islands, on the north 
coast of Australia, were so named by King 
in 1818 after Henry Goulbum, the Under 
Colonial Secretary, afterwards Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, from whom were also 
named the town of Goulburn in New 
South Wales, Goulburn River, a tribu- 
tary of the Murray, and the Arctic Goul- 
burn Islands. Goulbum is a territorial 
surname from Goulburn in Cheshire. 
(SeeGoGLE.) 

G-OVat'S Leap is the name of a deep 
gorge in the mountains of New Soudi 
Wales, named, but not leapt by Govat, a 
land surveyor. 

Governor's Straits is a translation of 
the Portuguese name Estreito do Gober- 
nador, applied to the Straits of Singapore 
because, in 1615, the galleon of the Gover- 
nor, Dom Joao da Silva, grounded on the 
reef at the point of the Strait. 

Gower is a jjeninsula in South Wales. 
In the Arthurian legend ' Goire, whence 
nobody returns,' is the land of the dead. 
The name Goire or Gwyr probably signified 
the land of the sunset, and the mythical 
land of Goire seems to have been localised 
in the peninsula which to the people of 
Glamorgan would be the sunset land. 

Goyaz, a province in Brazil, was the ter- 
ritonr of the Goya, a native tribe. The 
chief town, Goyaz, properly Cidade de 
Goyaz, founded in 1739, takes its name 
from the province. 

GOZO, one of the Maltese Islands, is a cor- 
ruption of the old name Gaulos, after- 
wards Gaudos. 

Gra»aft-Reynett, a town in the Cape 
Colony, which gives its name to a district, 
was founded in 1786 by the Dutch Gover- 
nor, Van der Graiaft, whose wife's maiden 
name was Reynett. 

Gracias-a-Dlos, 'thanks be to God,* 
was the name given by Columbus to the 
Eastern Cape of Honduras, which he 
reached on September 12th, 1502, after 
battling for forty days with contrary winds 
and currents. 

Graciosa, the name given by the Portu- 
guese to one of the Azores, and by the 
Spaniards to one of the Canaries, means 
the ' gracious ' or ' pleasant ' island. 



GLOSSARY 



»37 



Q-ratfenort, 'the count's place,' in Canton 
Unterwalden, was granted in 1210 by 
Count Rudolf von Habsburg to the monks 
of Engelberg. 

G-rafton (A.S. Grdfiun), 2l common 
English village name, is from the A.S. 
gr^, a 'grove.' Cape Grafton, in 
Queensland, was so named by Cook in 
honour of the Prime Minister, the third 
Duke of Grafton. The Duke of Graf- 
ton's Isle was so named by Dampier in 
1687 after the first Duke of Grafton. 
Gravesend, in Kent, called Graves- 
ham in Domesday, is probably from the 
A.S. greBf{geii. grafes), a. ' ditdi.' 

G-raJiam's Land, an antarctic region 
discovered ( 1830-32) by the whaling captain 
Biscoe, was namai in honour of Sir James 
Graham, first Lord of the Admiralty. 
Graham's Town in the Cape Colony was 
founded in 1812, and named after General 
Graham, Lord Lynedoch, one of Welling- 
ton's Peninsular officers, who died in 1814. 

Q-rain Coast, on the Gulf of Guinea, 
was so called because of the export of car- 
damons or grains of Paradise, and not of 
cereals as is sometimes asserted. On the 
other hand the Ilha DOS Granos, ' grain 
island,' near Gilolo in the Moluccas, was 
so named by the Portuguese Menezes in 
1527 on accoimt of the stores of corn he 
procured from the natives. 

GhrampianS. the modem name of Drum- 
alban, the backbone of Scotland, which 
extends from Ben Nevis to Ben Lomond, 
is one of the ghost names of geography. 
It arose from a mistaken reading of a 
passage in Tacitus (Agricola, c. 29), in 
which he describes the victory of Agricola 
over Galgacus and the Caledonians, who 
were posted on a small hill whose name 
reads in all the best MSS. as Mons Grauptus. 
In one bad MS., Grauptus is corruptly 
written Grampius. Hector Boece was 
the first to apply the misread name to 
the central ndge of Scotland, and the 
audacious forgery which goes by the 
name of Richard of Cirencester brought 
the name Grampius into fashion. 

Q-raiupound, a small Cornish borough 
disfranchised in 1824, takes its name from 
a bridge over the Fal, the grand pont 
represented on the corporation seaL 

Gkrandda, the last of the Moorish king- 
doms in Spain, bears the name of its 
capital which the Arab historians tell us 
was called Garnaiha, the ' pomegranate,' 
because the city is built on four hills which 
are divided somewhat like the divisions of 
a pomegranate. The Iberian name Jlli- 
beriSt the ' new town,' is preserved by the 



Sierra de Elvira, the range of moun- 
tains above Grandda. New GranAda, 
a South American republic, was <^ed by 
tlie Spaniards Nuevo Reyno de Grandda, 
from the resemblance of tfie scenery in the 
Cordillera to that of the Sierra Nevada in 
the old Kingdom of Grandda. The city 
of NUEVA GranXda was founded in 
1522 by Francisco Fernandez de Cordova. 
Granada, one of the Antilles, was dis- 
covered by Columbus in 1498, and doubt- 
less named after the Spanish city which had 
then been newly captured from the Moors. 
Ghrandson, a town in Canton Vaud, on 
the Lake of Neufchdtel, where in 1476 
the Swiss defeated Charles the Bold of 
Burgundy with great slaughter, is called 
in Latin documents Grangia Isonis, the 
bam or * grange of Iso.' La Grange is 
a common name in France and Switzer- 
land. From the Spanish form of the 
word we have La Granja, near Segovia, 
a palace built by Philip v. which has been 
called the Spanish Versailles. 

Q-rantcliester (A.S. Granta-ceaster)^ a 
village near Cambridge, is the Chester on 
the River Granta, erroneously called the 
Cam [q.v.). 

Q-ratz, GrXtz, or Graz, the capital of 
Styria, is called in Servian Gradats or 
Gratsa, the 'fortress.' 

GhraubUnden is the German name of a 
Swiss Canton, called in Romansch Gris- 
CHUN, and in French Les Grisons. It 
was formed from the union of three leagues, 
of which the earliest was the Gotteshaus- 
bund, formed under the protection of the 
Bishop of Chur. The Zehngerichtenbund, 
or League of the Ten Jurisdictions, was 
organised at Davos in 1436. The Ober- 
bund, formed at Trons in 1424, was nick- 
named the Grauebxmd (in Romansch 
Ligia Grigia), either from the grey coats 
of the delegates, or more prol»bly from 
the grey banner which indicated their 
neutrality between the white and black 
banners of two powerful lords, Count 
Hugo and Count HeinrichofWerdenberg. 
In 1471 the representatives of the three 
leagues united imder the name of the 
Ligia Grigia, or 'grey league,* and are 
henceforth known as ' i Signori Grigioni * 
or ' les Grisons.' 

Q-rave Creek, a tributary of the Ohio, is 
so called from a great prehistoric grave- 
mound. 

Qravelines. in French Flanders, is the 
French form of the Flemish name Grave- 
linghe, formerly Graveninghe (for Grave- 
ninghen), the 'home of Sie Counts* of 
Flanders. 



138 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Great Bear La.ke is properly Great- 
bear Lake, being a translation of Lac du 
Grand Ours, a. name doubtless due to some 
unusually large bear having been killed 
by the French Canadian hunters. 

Greece, Latin Graeaa, was the land of 
the Graeci, the Epirot tribe who first be- 
came known to the Romans, who ex- 
tended the name to the whole peninsula. 
The people of the land which had thus 
accidentally acquired the name of Greece 
did not call themselves Greeks but Hel- 
lenes, signifying originally the people of 
Hellas, a small town in Thessaly which 
gave its name to the surroimding district. 

Greenl&nd was the name given by Eric 
the Red in 983 to the sheltered nook 
where he founded his colony from Iceland, 
thinking that 'much people will go 
thither if the land has a pleasant name.' 
The name was not altogether imsuitable, 
as the place chosen by Eric for the settle- 
ment which he named Greenland is the 
pleasantest spot in the country, a smooth 
grassy plain at the head of Igaliko fiord, 
near the modem Julianshaab, where tlie 
ruins of seventeen houses may still be seen. 
The name was afterwards inappropriately 
extended to the whole ice-clad country. 

Greenwich, Kent, is the A.S. Grenewic, 
signifying either the 'green village' or 
more probably the ' green bay ' or ' reach ' 
on the Thames. Green Bay, an arm of 
Lake Michigan, is so called from the 
colour of the water, and Green River is 
a common name in the U.S.A. In Irish 
and Scotch names the prefix green- is 
commonly derived from the Gaelic ^r/a«, 
the ' sim,' or from grianan (pronounced 
greenan), 'a sunny place.' In Ireland 
forty-five places are called Greenan and 
the like, among them the fort of cyclopean 
masonry called Greenan Ely, which was 
the palace of the O'Neill kings. Ely 
here means a stone fort or house. 
Greenoge is the diminutive of Greenan. 
In Scotland, from the same source, we 
have Greenock on the Clyde and several 
places called Greenan, which may have 
merely denoted a ' sunny place ' for dry- 
ing peats, or perhaps clothes. 

Gregory, Cape, in Oregon, was dis- 
covered by Cook on St. Gregory's Day, 
March 12th, 1778. Lake Gregory in 
South Australia bears the name of the 
Australian explorers, the brothers Gregory. 

Grenoble, in Dauphin^, now the capital 
of the Is6re, is a corruption of Gratian- 
opolis, the city of the Emperor Gratian, 
by whom it was rebuilt and fortified. 

Greta, a river near Keswick, is a Scandi- 



navian name, meaning the rock (grit| 
river. The Rotha is the 'red river, 
the Brathay, the 'swift river,' and the 
Caldew, the 'cold river.' 

GreytO"WTl, in Central America, was 
named after Sir Charles Grey, Governor 
of Jamaica. Greytown and the Grey 
Glacier, in New Zealand, bear the 
name of Sir George Grey, Governor of 
New Zealand. Cape Grey, in the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, was so named by Flinders, 
in 1803, after General Grey, commander 
of the forces at the Cape of Good Hope. 
The De Grey River, in West Australia, 
was so named by Frank Gregory in 1861, 
after Earl De Grey, now Marquis of Ripon. 

Gries, a pass over the main chain of the 
Alps, derives its name from its glacial 
gravel. (O.H.G. grioz, N.H.G. gries, 
'gravel, grit.') There is a Grischbach 
or ' gravel beck ' near Saanen in Canton 
Bern. 

Grijalva, Rio de, in Mexico, was dis- 
covered by Juan de Grijalva on June 7th, 
1518. 

Grim, Cape, a black precipitous fore- 
land, at tlie north-west corner of Tas- 
mania, was named by Flinders in 1798, 
'from its appearance.' 

Grimsel, a pass in Canton Uri, takes its 
name from a gloomy lake near the Hos- 
pice, formerly called the Grimisol, the 
'enclosed tarn.' ^M.H.G. krimtnen, 'to 
cramp or confine, and sol, a 'tarn or 
small lake.') 

Grindelwald, Canton Bern, is the wald 
or 'forest,' divided from the HasUthal 
by 2i grin del or ' rail-fence.' 

Grinnell Land and Grinnell Island, 
in Arctic America, were discovered by Dr. 
Kane in 1850 and 1853, in the course of 
the two Franklin search expeditions equip- 
ped by the munificence of Mr. Grinnell of 
New York. 

Griqualand, in the Cape Colony, was 
inhabited by the Griquas, a race of half 
breeds between Boers and Hottentots, who 
were so named from one of their leaders. 
Griquatown was a missionary station 
among the Griquas, founded in 180 1. 

Groningen, a town in Friesland, which 
gives a name to the Dutch province of 
which it is the capital, is a patronymic or 
gentile name. 

Gross-^lockner, 'the great bell,' a 
mountain in the Tyrol, is so called from 
its shape. The German glocke, a 'bell,' 
is the same word as our clack, properly a 
timepiece which strikes the hours on a 
bell. 



Gt.OSSARY 



«39 



Q-rooto Eylandt is the 'great island' 
in the Gulf of Carpentaria. The name 
which first appears on the Dutch maps 
in the seventeenth century was probably 
given by Tasman. 

Ghrlitli, a meadow famous from its associa- 
tion with the Tell legend, overlooks the 
Bay of Uri. It is the Swiss form of 
GriitUin, a diminutive of griit or ge-ruti, 
denoting a place where a forest has been 

• grubbed ' or rooted out 

G-uachoS or Gauchos dwell on the 
banks of the Rio de la Plata, whose native 
name is Parana-gua^u, the ' great water.' 

Q-uadalquiver, the great River of 
Andalusia, .bears a pure Arabic name, 
Wad-al-Kebir^ *the great river.' The 
Arabic wadi meant primarily a ravine, 
hence a river course. The Anas of the 
Romans is now the Guadiana, which 
thus preserves, with an Arabic prefix, the 
prehistoric name bestowed by the Iberian 
race. The Guadalaviar, the chief 
river in Valencia, is Wad-al-abiadh, ' the 
white river.' Guadalajara, a Spanish 
province, takes its name from its capital, 
so called from the River Guadalajara, a 
corruption of the Arabic Wad-al-hajarah^ 

* the river of stones.' Guadalajara, in 
Mexico, was founded in 1531 by NuFXez de 
Guzman, who named it after his Spanish 
birthplace. The Guadalimar is IVad- 
al-hatnra, the 'red river,' and similarly 
the Guadalertin is the ' muddy river,' 
the- Guadarama the ' sandy river,' the 
GUADALETE the ' small river,' the GUA- 
dalcazar the 'river of the palace,' the 
Guadalbanar is the ' river of the battle- 
field,' and the Gu ad air A the 'river of the 
mills.' 

G-uadalupe, one of the French Antilles, 
was discovered by Columbus on November 
4th, 1493, in the course of his second 
voyage. He called it Santa Maria de 
Guadalupe after the famous sanctuary of 
Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe in Estre- 
madura, because he had promised the 
monks to name one of his discoveries after 
their convent, which takes its name from 
the River Guadalupe on whidi it stands. 

G-uardafiii or Gardafui, Cape, the 
name of tlie Eastern horn of Africa, is 
usually said to be a corruption from the 
Portuguese Caho de Guarda /u, which 
may be rendered 'Cape Gardez vous,' 
originating in the belief that navigation 
was dangerous, because the compass was 
deflected by a neighbouring magnetic 
mountain. This, however, is a mere folk- 
etymology, whidi has transformed the 
spdUng of the name, really a corruption 



of the Arabic /ard-Na/itH, in Egyptian 
Arabic Gard-Hafiin. The word gard 
or jard denotes a wide tract of land 
without herbage, and HafUn was the 
name of the adjacent district ; hence we 
have the Cabo de Gardafun or Cabo dOrfui 
of the old maps, now corrupted into Cape 
Guardafui. 
Q-uatemalay one of the Central American 
republics, takes its name from its old 
capital, Guatemala r Antigua, a Spanish 
formation from the native name Quauhte- 
mallan, which, according to Gomara, 
signified 'the rotten tree.' Other ety- 
mologies have been proposed. 

Q-uayaquil, correctly Santiago de 
Guayaquil, the chief seaport of the re- 

Jiublic of Ecuador, was founded on St 
ames' Day, July 25th, 1531, at the mouth 
of the Guayaquil River. Guaycuru, 'the 
fast runners, is the native name of a 
Brazilian tribe. 

Q-udbrandsdal, in Norway, now much 
frequented by tourists, bears the name 
of Gudbrand, a chief who lived in the 
time of Halfdan the Black, the father of 
Harold Fairhair. 

Q-uiana, more correctly Guayana, is a 
district in South America, now divided 
between the French, Dutch, and British. 
The term was formerly of more extensive 
application, extending from the River 
Amazons to the Orinoco. The name may 
have been derived from the Guainia River, 
a little south of the Orinoco, or from a 
tribe north of the Orinoco, who called 
themselves Guaya, ' the esteemed people ' 
or Guaya-na, ' we, the esteemed.' The 
sufl5x -gua in South America, Cuba, and 
Honduras, is a Carib or Guarani word 
meaning a ' bay,' as in Parana-GUA. 

Q'Uienne was one of the old French 
Provinces. The Roman name Aquitania, 
which is found as late as the tenth century, 
became Aquitaine, and then L'Aguienne, 
and finally La Guyenne, from which arose 
the English form Guienne. In the name 
of the Aquitani, the inhabitants of Aqui- 
tania, we have the Basque plural locative 
suffix 'itan or -eian, signif)nng ' those that 
are in,' found in Iberian tribe-names, such 
as the Oretani, Lusitani, Mauretani, and 
many more. 

G'Uildford, the county town of Surrey, in 
A.S. Gildford, Gyldeford, or Guldeford, 
is called in Domesday Gilda ad vadum. 
The word gild in A.S. means a ' frater- 
nity' or ' guild,' and also a ' pa)maent' or 
•tribute.' The ford at Guildford may 
have belonged to some firatemity, but 
more probably, as in the case of Camel- 



t40 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



FORD {^.v.), was a ford at whidi a pay- 
ment of some kind was made. The old 
form of the name does not support the 
et)rmology ' dry ford' (A.S. gelde, 'siccus'). 

Q-uinea, the name of an immense district 
in Western Africa extending from Sene- 
gambia to the south of the River Congo, is 
the EngUsh spelling of the Portuguese name 
Guin^, a fifteenth century corruption of 
the Negro name Ginnie, Genua, or Juinie, 
a town on the Niger, and the capital of a 
Negro kingdom, which in 148 1 was called 
Ghenea or Ginea. Our guineas were 
coined from alluvial gold brought by the 
African company in 1663 from that part 
of Guinea called the Gold Coast. The 

» guinea fowl came from the same region. 
New Guinea was so named from the 
resemblance of the Papuan Negritoes to 
the Negroes of Guinea. 

Q-ujardt, GujrXt, or GuzerXt, a penin- 
sula in Western India, was the raj or king- 
dom of the great Hindu clan called Gdjar, 
spread over the whole of Northern India, 
who have left their name not only in 
Guiardt but also in GujRAT and Gi5jran- 
walX in the Punjab. 

G-uIf Stream is the name of the great 
current which issues from the Gulf of 
Mexico convejring its heated waters into 
the North Atlantic. 

Ghumesh Tepe. a town on the Caspian, 
means 'silver hill.' Gumesh Khani, the 
•silver town,' near Trebizond, was so 
called from the neighbouring silver mines. 

Qun Island, one of Houtman's Abrolhos, 
was so named by Stokes, in 1840, because 
he found on it a bronze four-poimder, a 
relic of the Dutch ship Zeewyk, wrecked 
in 1727. 

GhunnbjcSm's Rooks, between Iceland 
and Greenland, were discovered by the 
Norseman Gunbjom in 876. 

Gwalior (GwXLfAR), the famous rock 
fortress of Sindhia, is so called from a 
shrine dedicated to the hermit Gwdli or 
Gwdli-pa, whence it received the name of 
Gwdli-awdr, contracted to Gwdlfdr. 

Gh"Weedore, in Donegal, anciently Gaeth- 
Ddir, 'D6ir inlet,' is an historic name 
commemorating the spot where, in 619, 
D6ir, son of Hugh Allan, king of Ireland, 
was slain* 

HabetS Oe, * the Island of Hope,* on the 
Greenland coast, is the appropriate name 
given by Hans Egede, the first missionary 
to the Eskimos, to the place where he 
began his forlorn enterprise. 

HaSTue, properly The Hague, in Dutch 



den Haagt formerly 's Gravenkage^ 'the 
count's enclosure,' was originally a hunting 
seat of the Counts of Holland. The place 
is first mentioned in a document of Count 
Floris II., dated in 1097, and in the time 
of William 11. (1234-1256) it became the 
residence of the Counts. The palace was 
built about 1250. Hage, near Norden, 
was a hunting seat of the Counts of East 
Friesland. The word denotes a place 
surroimded with a fence for inclosing 
game, and answers to La Have in France 
and Belgium, and to warren or park in 
England. Hanau, in Hesse, anciently 
Hagenowa, is ' the inclosed meadow.' 

Hai-nan, ' south of the sea,' is the Chinese 
name of the large island south of the Sea 
of China. Tong-hai is the ' eastern sea,' 
Nan-hai, the ' south sea,' and Ta-hai is 
the 'great sea* or lake. Shang-Hai is 
the town near or ' above the sea.' 

Hainault or Hainaut is the French 
name of the Belgian province which is 
called Henegouw in Flemish, and Henne- 
gau in German, names signifying Xhtgau 
or district on the River Haisne, Haine, or 
Henne, called Hagna in the tenth century. 
The oldest forms of the name Hainault 
are Hagnauvum territorium and Hainan 
faguSf both dating from the seventh cen- 
tury. 

Haiti or Hayti, is one of the native names 
of the great island discovered by Colum- 
bus in 1492, on his first voyage. From 
the resemblance of the northern coast to 
the mountainous region of Castile he 
named it Isla Espanola, Latinised as His- 
PANIOLA, which means not the island 
of 'little Spain' as is usually supposed, 
but the ' Spanish island.' Espaffola is the 
feminine of Espanol, 'Spanish,' hence 
Espafiola stands for EspaHola isla or 
Herra, Haiti (properly Haiti) means 
'roughe, sharpe, or craggie.' Other na- 
tive names were Quizquica, the 'great 
land ' and Cibao, the ' stony ' land, which 
has been retained for the central range of 
mountains, still called Sierra de Cibao. 
HiSPANiOLA is the name of the whole 
island, now divided into the two negro 
republics of Haiti and Dominica. Since 
1790 the name of Haiti has been revived 
for the Western or French portion of the 
island, while the Eastern or Spanish part 
is called San Domingo or Dominica 
from the capital San Domingo (q.v.), 
founded, in 1490, by the brother of Col- 
umbus. 

Hakluyt Headland, the north-west 

cape of Spitzbergen, discovered by Bafi&n 
in 1614, was pr(K)ably sighted by Hudson 



GLOSSARY 



141 



in 1607. Hakluyt Island, in Whale 
Sound, at the head of Baffin Bay, the 
northernmost point reached by Baffin in 
1616, also commemorates the services of 
Richard Hakluyt, the Elizabethan geo- 
grapher (1553-1616). 

Salifax, in Yorkshire, is not mentioned 
in Domesday, the name being first found 
in a twelfth century deed, by which the 
Church was given by William de Warren 
to the Priory at Lewes. According to a 
local legend reported by Camden, the 
name refers to a tress of ' holy hair,' be- 
longing to a virgin, who having been 
murdered by a wicked clerk, was found 
suspended from a tree. The conjecture that 
the name refers to a picture of the head of 
St. John the Baptist, and means 'holy face' 
is untenable. Halifax, the capital of 
Nova Scotia, was founded in 1749 under 
the patronage of George Montagu, third 
Earl of Halifax, the President of the Board 
of Foreign Plantations. One of the best 
harbours in Queensland is Halifax Bay, 
so named by Cook in 1770, perhaps from 
its resemblance to Halifax Bay in Nova 
Scotia, which he had surveyed in his 
early life. On the other hand the fact 
that Cook named the next bay after Lord 
Rockingham may suggest that Halifax 
Bay was named after Lord Halifax. 

Halikeld is a wapentake in the N. Rid- 
ing. The moot, as the name implies, 
was held at a ' Holy Spring,' of great re- 
puted sanctity. 

Halle, in Prussian Saxony, called Halla in 
806, was formerly believed to be a Celtic 
name derived from the deposits of salt 
(Celtic hat)y which have been worked from 
very early times. It stands on Uie Saale, 
or 'salt' river. The names of Hall- 
STADT, Hallein (formerly Salina), and 
Reichenhall, were also adduced to 
prove that their salt-works dated from the 
Celtic period. This, however, is now 
doubted, and it is thought that halla, 
meaning a ' salt-house,' may be explained 
from Teutonic sources. 

HamadaH, in North-West Persia, is the 
Ecbatana of Greek writers, and the Hag- 
maiana or ' treasure-house ' of the cunei- 
form inscriptions. There were other 
places of the same name, which may have 
been used to designate royal cities. 

Hamat or Hama, on the Orontes, pre- 
serves the ancient name of Hamaih (Heb- 
rew khamafh^, the 'hot bath.' 

SLajnburg', anciently called Hammaburg 
and Hammanburch, the ' forest fortress,' 
took its name from a blockhouse built by 
Charlemagne in 808 or 811 on the Slavonic 



march, in a woodland which long went by 
the name of the Hamme, between the 
Bill, the Elbe, and the Alster. The Old 
Saxons gave the name of hamme to any 
extensive woodland. In Friesland, accord- 
ing to Koolmann, hamme is a common 
designation for meadows, pasturages, or 
chases. The word originally denoted a 
pasture inclosed or 'hemmed' in by a 
ditch or hedge. We have also Hamme in 
Belgium, and Hamar, a province in Nor- 
way, is the district of the ' hams.' Ham- 
burger Hafen, in Spitzbergen, was so 
called because frequented in the seven- 
teenth century by Hamburg whaling ships. 
Hamburgh, a town on the Savannah 
River, South Carolina, opposite Augusta, 
was founded by a German merchant and 
named after the German city. 

Hameln, a town in Hannover, stands on 
the River Hamel. 

Hajnmerfest, in Norway, is the most 
northern town in Europe. The yford.fesi 
means a ' haven,' or place where ships are 
made fast, and the O.N. hamarr, Swedish 
hammare, means a steep crag. The 
Shetland dialect word hamar denotes land 
covered with boulders, which describes the 

E laces in the Shetlands which go locally 
y the name of Hammars. 

Hajnpshlre^ a contraction of Hampton- 
shire, takes Its name from the county 
town of Hampton, now called Southamp- 
ton (q*v,) to distinguish it from Northamp- 
ton* 

Hampton is the name of twenty-two 
places in England, and forms the suffix in 
many more. The usual explanation of 
Hampton as the ' home tun ' is not sup- 
ported by the forms in the older charters. 
Hampton Maisy in Gloucestershire, 
Hampton Guy in Oxon, and Hampton 
in Warwickshire, and perhaps Southamp- 
ton, appear in early charters as Hedn- 
tUne or cBt Hedntiine, which must be ex- 
plained from hedn, the dative singular 
masculine of hedh, high. The subse- 
quent change of » to m and the intru- 
sion of the euphonic / present no diffi- 
culty, tentation having become temptation, 
while Compton appears in Domesday as 
Cumtuna. Hampton in Worcestershire 
is from another source, being called in a 
charter of 757 Huntenattin, the ' tun of 
the hunters,' huntena being the genitive 
plural of hunta, a. hunter. Where -hamp- 
ton is a suffix it may be a conuption of 
hedntHne, as in the case of Wolverhamp- 
ton, called Wuljrune Hantune in a 
charter of 996, but it is usually an assimi- 
lated form from some other source. Thus 



142 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Walkhampton in Devon is a corruption 
of Wallcombton, from the River Wall- 
comb on which it stands, while Cull amp- 
ton or CoLLOMPTON, and Oakhampton, 
also in Devon, are on the rivers Colomb 
and Oakment. In an A.S. charter 
BiSHAMPTON in Worcestershire is Bis- 
copesdun, the 'bishop's hill' Bedhamp- 
TON, Hants, in A.S. Beaddingtun, and 
Bricklehampton, Worcestershire, in 
A.S. Brihtulfingtun, are both plainly cor- 
ruptions from personal names. Carhamp- 
TON, Somerset, is in A-S. Carentdn, In 
Domesday Alhampton, Somerset, ap- 
pears as AUntona, Stubhampton, Dor- 
set, as Stibemetune^ and Leckhampton, 
Gloucestershire, as Lechantun. Brock- 
HAMPTON in Dorset may serve as the type 
of anoUier class of names. The AS. 
name was Buchamatilu, which seems to 
have denoted a tun or farmyard belong- 
ing to the people of Buchara. In the 
same way we may explain the names of 
POLHAMPTON, Hants, A.S. Polh&matun, 
and of DiTCHAMPTON, Wilts, A.S. Dichk- 
matiin. WiCH-HAMPTON, Dorset, is called 
Wichemetune in Domesday. {^See p. 172. ) 

HaJlglip, Cape, False Bay, near Cape- 
town, is a Dutch name derived from an 
almost overhanging precipice called the 
Hanglip, or ' Hanging lip. 

Hanover, the English form of the Ger- 
man name Hannover (called Hanovere 
in the eleventh century) means the ' high 
shore,' the town having been originally 
confined to the cliff, some- twenty feet 
high, on the right bank of the River Leine. 
The name was afterwards extended to the 
whole town, then to the Electorate, and 
lastly to the Kingdom. New Hanover, 
an island west of New Ireland, ^2& dis- 
covered and named by Carteret, in 1767, 
in compliment to the House of Hanover. 

Haparanda, a town on the Gulf of 

Bothnia, is from Haaparanta, the ' aspen 
shore.' 

Happy Island, one of the Smith or 
Cornvvallis group in Micronesia, was 
discovered and named in 1807 by Captain 
Johnstone of the ship Cornwallis. 

Hapsburgr or Habsburg, in Canton 
Aargau, the stamm-schloss of the Austrian 
dynasty, appears in an eleventh century 
document as Habechisburc, ' hawk's castle. ' 
According to the well - known legend, 
Radbot, an ancestor of Rudolf of Haps- 
burg, while hunting in the Aargau lost his 
favourite hawk, and found it sitting on 
the ridge of the Wulpelsberg. He was so 
delighted with the view from the spot that 



he chose the site for the erection of a 
castle, which he called Habichtsbiu-g. 

Harfleur, formerly Herosflot, Harofiuet, 
and Hareflet, contains, like Barfleur, 
Honfleur, and other names in Nor- 
mandy, the Norse suffix -Jljoi (English 
Ji^et), a • navigable channel ' or river 
mouth. 

Harlem or Haarlem in Holland, called 
HaraUm in a ninth century document, is a 
name of doubtful meaning. In Old Saxon 
we have lemo, * clay ' or ' mud,' and Aara 
' an estuary,' and the dialect-word Aar or 
Aaar denotes a rising ground or small 
eminence. Harlem, now a suburb of 
New York, stands on the Harlem River, 
a tidal channel. With Brooklyn and 
Hoboken it is one of the few names sur- 
viving from the time of the Dutch occu- 
pancy. 

Harlingrer Land, in East Friesland, 

takes its name from the small River Harle. 

Harmony, near Pittsburg, and New 
Harmony, in Indiana, were settlements 
foimded by the Communist disciples of 
Georg Rapp. 

Harris, in the Outer Hebrides, is the hilly 
part of Lewis. It was formerly called 
J/ar ige, a descriptive Norse name identical 
with that of Harray, one of the Orkneys, 
meaning 'high island.' 

Harrisburg', the State capital of Penn- 
sylvania, bears the name of John Harris,' 
a quaker, who settled on the site in 1726. 
In 1753 ^is son established a ferry over 
the Susquehanna, the town being founded 
and named in 1785. In like manner 
James Harrod settled in 1774 at a place 
in Kentucky which is now called Har- 

RODSBURGH. 

Harrogate, a noted watering-place in 
Yorkshire, formerly called Heywraygaie, 
is not mentioned in any early records, 
probably owing to its insi^^nificance. Be- 
fore the sixteenth century it consisted only 
of a few scattered dwellings near the 
' gate ' in Knaresborough Forest on the 
road from Knaresborough to Heywray, 
now Haverah Park* 

Harrcw on the Hill is called Hearge, 
Hearges, Hargas, Hergas, and Hcereghes 
in A.S. charters, and in Domesday HefgAes. 
These are oblique cases of the A.S. AearA 
or Aearg{gen. Aearges; dat Aearge\ nora. 
plural Aeargas) which denotes a heathen 
idol, a temple, or sacred grove. The 
word HearA would normally give Harrow 
in modem English, just as mearA gives 
marrow. From the same source we have 
Harrowden in Bedfordshire (in Domes- 



GLOSSARY 



143 



day Herghetone and Hcrghtone\ as well 
as Arras, Arram, Erghum, and other 
names, as (s proved by the old forms. 
Harrowby, in Lincolnshire, is, however, 
from a personal name, the Domesday 
form Herigerebi showing that it was the 
-by of Heregar. Harrowby Bay in 
Arctic America was so named in 1826 by 
Richardson in compliment to the Earl of 
Harrowby. 

Hartford, the State capital of Connecticut, 
was settled in 1635 by emigrants from 
Massachusetts and called Newtown. In 
1637 it was renamed Hartford after Hart- 
ford (? Hertford) in England. 

Haxtlepool, a town in Durham of recent 
and rapid growth, was the pool or haven 
of the mother parish of Hart, distant 
about four miles, and once a place of some 
importance, which is supposed to be 
named from the neighbounng Hart-forest 
(deer forest). In a charter of 1201 Hartle- 
pool is called Harterpol, and in Bishop 
Hatfield's survey this becomes Hertpol 
and Hertilpoht where Roger de Fultorp 
holds of the Bishop a tenement called le 
Herynghows. In an Inquisition of 1279, 
Peter de Brus holds of the Bishop of Dur- 
ham the fee of Herternes, now Hartness, 
a district which includes Hart and Hartie- 
pooL 

HaJTSrarcL Mount, one of the highest 
peaks 01 the Rocky Mountains, was 
measured and named in 1869 by Prof. 
Whitney and a party of students from 
Harvard University, which was founded in 
1636 by the General Coiut of Massachu- 
setts. In 1638 the Rev. John Harvard 
bequeathed his library and half his estate 
to the college, which was thenceforth 
called by his name. 

Harwicll, in Essex, is usually explained 
as the 'army place,' from the A.S. here 
an 'army,' an etymology supported by 
the A.S. name Herewic. But as Harwich 
stands on tlie Orwell, whose old name was 
the Arwe, Harwich, it has been thought, 
may be a corruption of Arwe-wic, the 
'place on the Orwell.' ARROW, a parish 
in Warwickshire, on the River Arrow, 
probably localises the people called the 
Arosetna. 

Harz or Hartz Mountains, in German 
Harzgebirge, were called in the eighth 
century Hart (Old Saxon hard, O.H.G. 
hart, ' wood ' or ' forest '). The present 
spelling, Harz, is supposed to be due to a 
folk etymology which has made the name 
into Harzwald, the ' forest of resin ' {harz). 
The H ARDT, a vooded range of hills near 
Carlsruhe, is the ' wood,* 



Ha49tin^S, in Sussex, called Hastinga- 
ceaster in King Alfred's Laws, and HcBst- 
ingas or Hestingas in the Saxon Chronicle, 
is plainly a clan name. The oldest form 
of the name discredits the legend that the 
name was derived from the Viking Hast- 
ings who ravaged Sussex in 893. There 
is also a Hastings in Northants, and a 
Hasting and a Hastingleigh in Kent. 

Hatteras, Cape, in North Carolina, 
formerly called dape Haterask, is be- 
lieved to be from a native tribe name. 

Hauenstein, a well-known pass over a 
precipitous line of cliff in the Jura, is so 
called from a road made in 1160 between 
Basel and Lucerne, and named Gehawen- 
stein, the 'hewn rock.' 

Haur&a^ a volcanic district east of the 
Jordan, is the land of ' caves.' 

Havre, the ' haven ' at the mouth of the 
Seine, was before 15 16 merely a fishing 
village, with a chapel dedicated to Notre 
Dame de Grdce, whence the official name 
Le Havre de GrAce. The French havre, 
an harbour, is descended from the O.F. 
havle, originally hable, which is derived 
from the Low-Latin habulum, a word of 
Teutonic origin related to the English 
haven. 

Ha'waii, formerly called Owhyhee, 
where Cook was killed, is the largest of 
the Hawaiian group, named by Cook the 
Sandwich Islands (q.v.) in honour of 
Lord Sandwich. 

Hawickin Roxburghshire and H aughton 
in Northumberland are so called from 
standing on a haugh, which signifies a flat 
piece of ground surroimded wholly or in 
part by a river, as is the case with HuMS- 
HAUGH on the T3me, or Brainshaugh 
and Pepperhaugh, both on the Coquet. 
The word haugh must not be confounded 
with heugh, which denotes an inland bluff, 
as Keyheugh on the Coquet, or Rat- 
CHEUGH near Alnwick. Both haugh and 
heugh are characteristic Northumbrian 
forms. The Northumbrian haugh is the 
A.S. healh, which has become halgh in 
Lancashire, and elsewhere -hale, -hall, or 
-all, while heugh is A.S. hdgh or hdh, 
now usually Hoo or Hu. (See Hutton. ) 

Ha'Wke'S Bay, a province of New 
Zealand, surrounds a large bay, discovered 
by Cook in 1769, and named after Sir 
Edward Hawke, then First Lord of the 
Admiralty, from whom Cape Hawke in 
New South Wales was also named by 
Cook in 1770. Cape Hawks, in the 
North Polar Sea, was named by Kane 
after Francis Hawks, an American writer. 



144 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Hay, Oape, at the mouth of the Great 
Fish River, was so named by Geor^ 
Back in compliment to an under Colonial 
Secretary whose name is also borne by 
Point Hay in Melville Sound, discovered 
by Franklin in 182 1, and by Cape Hay 
in Melville Island, discovered by Parry in 
1819. Cape Hayes, in Grinnell Land, 
was discovered by Dr. Hayes in 1854. 

Headfort, in Meath, which gives a title 
to an Irish Marquess, is the translation of 
the Irish name Kells {^.v.), a corruption 
of JCen-lis, which means head or chief fort. 

Heard Island, in the Antarctic Ocean, 
was discovered in 1853 by an American 
Captain whose name it bears. 

Heame Point, Melville Island, and 
Cape Hearne, near the mouth of the 
Coppermine River, bear the name of 
Samuel Heame, an agent of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, who, descending the 
Coppermine in 1769-72, was the first 
European to reach the Arctic Ocean. In 
1821 Franklin commemorated this memor- 
able exploit by giving the name of Cape 
i Heame to the most conspicuous of the 
headlands at the mouth of the Copper- 
mine. 

Hebrid^l, the modem name of the 
Western Islands of Scotland, is doubtless 
a mistake for Hebudes, the form Hebrides 
arising from the letter u being wrongly 
read as ri in one of the MSS. of Pliny 
{H.N. iv. 16, § 103) where the correct 
reading should be Haebudes and not Hae- 
brides. This reading is confirmed by the 
notice in Solinus, Hebudes insulce quinque 
numero, and by the fact that they are 
called EbudcB by Ptolemy. If Bute was 
the ancient Ebuda, the Ebudes may have 
derived their name from it. The New 
Hebrides, a Melanesian group, were so 
named by Cook in 1774 from the resem- 
blance of their torn and rocky summits 
to those of the Scotch islands. Torres, 
who visited the largest island of the group 
at Whitsuntide, 1606, believed it to be a 
part of the great Antarctic continent, and 
named it, from the date, Tierra Austral 
de Espiritu Santo. 

Hebron, one of the most certain sites in 
Palestine, where Abraham the Hebrew 
purchased a tomb, and hence wrongly 
supposed to contain the name of Heber, 
the eponymus of the Hebrews, probably 
denotes a 'confederacy* of Hittites and 
Amorites who jointly occupied it. 

Hecla, more correctly Hekla, is a con- 
spicuous volcano in Iceland, whose white 
frock of snow, surmounted by a hood of 



darker smoke, caused it to be called Heklu- 
fiall (Hekla-fell) by the Norsemen, the 
O.N. word hekla denoting a hooded frock 
of knitted wool of divers colours. 

Hecla and Griper Bay, in Winter 

Harbour, Melville Island, was so named 
by Parry in his first voyage with the Hecla 
and Griper (1819-20). In his second voy- 
age with the Fury and Hecla (1821-23), 
he discovered and named the Fury and 
Hecla Strait [q.v.). In his third voy- 
age with the Fury and Hecla (1824-25) 
the Fury was lost ©n Fury Beach. 
Hecla Cove, in Spitzbergen, where 
Parry anchored in 1827, commemorates 
. his attempt on his fourth voyage to reach 
the North Pole in the Hecla. 

Heemskerk, Moimt, and Mount 
Zeehaan, were the first points of land 
in Tasmania sighted by any European. 
Discovered by Tasman on November 24th, 
1642, they were appropriately named by 
Flinders m 1798 after Tasman's two ships, 
the Humskerk and the Zeehaan. 

Heidelberg, in Baden, is a name of un- 
certain etymology. It has been con- 
jectured to mean ' bilberry hill ' (German 
heidelbeere 'bilberries'). 

Heilbronn, in Wurtemberg, was called 
in the ninth century Heiligbrunno, * holy 
weir or 'holy spring.' According to the 
local legend, Charlemagne, wearied with 
the chase, drank from this spring, to 
which he gave the name. Till 1857 the 
spring of holy water was to be seen issuing 
from under the high altar of the Church 
of St. Kilian, founded in 1019. 

Heiligrenblut, in Carinthia, is so called 
from the possession of a bottle brought 
from Palestine, and reputed to contain 
a few drops of the 'holy blood.' The 
Cistercian Abbey at Heiligenkreuz in 
Baden possessed a reputed fragment of 
the Cross, brought in 1182 from the Holy 
Land. {See Waltham Holy Cross. ) 

Heima-ey, 'home island,' the largest of 
the Westmanna Islands, Iceland, is so 
called because it is the only inhabited 
island in the group. Another is called 
Hellirey, ' cave island,' from two caverns 
in which the sheep and cattle take shelter 
at night. 

Helder or The Helder, is the north 
cape of Holland, opposite the island of 
Texel. The word helder or heller, liter- 
ally the ' holder,' or ' that which holds on,' 
is used in Holland to denote the land, 
usually overflowed at spring-tides, which 
lies outside the dikes which protect the 
polder^ or land inside the dikes, polder 



GLOSSARY 



US 



and Aelder being the technical terms for 
protected and unprotected lands. 

Helensburgrll* Dumbartonshire, a water- 
ing-place on the Gareloch, feued in 1776, 
and made a burgh of barony in 1802, 
was named from Helen, wife of Sir James 
Colquhoun, the superior of the soil. 

Heligroland (German Helgoland), an 
island in the North Sea, may have been 
so called from the personal name Helgo, 
but as in the elevenUi century the name is 
written Halagland, it is more probably 
the 'holy land '^(O.H.G. heilag, 'holy'). 
Here St. Willibrord preached, a id here 
were the temples of the god Fosete, whence 
the ninth century name Fosetis land. The 
green grass, the red sandstone cliffs, and 
the white sand at their foot explain the 
saw of the islanders, expressed in a Platt- 
Deutsch dialect approaching English — 
' Gr5n is dat land, 

Rood is de kant, 

Witt is de sand, 

Dat is de flogg vun't Hillige land.' 

Hellvillei a town on Nossi-b^, a French 
island near Madagascar, bears the name 
of a M. Hell, formerly Governor of 
Reunion. 

Helsin^ffors, in Finland, near a water- 
fall {fors) on the River Wanda, is the 
chief city of the district of Helsinge, which 
was colonised in the sixteenth century 
by Swedes from Helsingland. From the 
tribal name of the Helsings, we have 
Helsingland and Helsingborg in 
Sweden, and Helsingor {or, a. ' sandspit ') 
in Denmark. 

HelvellSTD^a conspicuous summit between 
Thirlmere and Ulleswater, is the ' yellow 
mountain,' doubdess so called from its 
l^orse-covered slopes. The first syllable 
IS supposed to be the British word for a 
'rock, which we have in the old name 
of Dumbarton, Al-cluid ^e ' Clyde-rock.' 
We have the suffix -vehn, 'yellow,' in 
Rivelyn by Ennerdale Lake, and in 
Rhiwvelen in Wales, which mean the 
'yellow slope.' 

Hen and Chiokens, so named by 

Cook in 1769, are a swarm of rocks off 
Bream Head, New Zealand. A group of 
small islands in Lake Erie bears me same 
name. 
Henrietta Maria» a cape at the en- 
trance of James Bay, at the southern end 
of Hudson's Bay, was so called by Thomas 
James in 1631 m honour of the Queen of 
Charles i. who had named his ship of 70 
tons the Maria, 

Henry's Foreland, in Hudson's Strait, 
was so named by Hudson in 1610, in com- 



pliment to Henry, Prince of Wales. The 
colonists sent out by the Virginia Com- 
pany in 1607 called the two capes at the 
entrance to Chesapeake Bay Cape Henry 
and Cape Charles, after the two sons 
of James I. 

Henzada, in Burmese Hansa-ta, is a large 
city in Pegu. The name means literally 
'the lamentation of the Goose' (Aa»sa, 
a * goose,' and /a, * lamentation '). An 
epon3rmic legend explains the name by a 
story about the deam of a goose, a bird 
represented on the standard of Pegu. 

Hepburn Island, in Coronation Gulf, 
commemorates the heroism of John Hep- 
bum, an English sailor who greatly dis- 
tinguished himself in Franklin's disastrous 
land expedition in 1819-21, and to whose 
pluck, skill, and hardihood, the preserva- 
tion of the lives of the party was largely 
due. 

HeraJd Island and Herald Shoal, 
north-west of Bering Strait, were dis- 
covered in 1849 ^y Captain Kellett in the 
Herald, one of the vessels employed in the 
search for Franklin. 

Herat stands on the Heri Rud, Rud 
meaning ' river ' in Persian, as in Sefid 
Rud, the 'white river' or Shah Rud, 
the 'king's river.' In the great inscrip- 
tion of Darius we have Hariiva, and in the 
Vendidad^flr^w, words doubtless cognate 
with the Sanskrit 5arayi#, a 'fiver.' Herat 
was the capital of Ariana, but the re- 
semblance of the names is probably 
fortuitous. 

Hdrault, a French department, is so called 
from the River Herault, the Araris of 
Pliny and the Rauraris of Strabo. 

Herbert Bay in Admiralty Inlet, 
South Shetlands, was named by James 
Ross, in 1843, after Sidney Herbert, tlien 
Secretary to flie Admiralty. 

Herberton, Queensland, was named 
after Sir Robert Herbert, the Colonial 
Secretary. 

Hereford, the county town of Hereford- 
shire, is in A.S. Herefordtun and Here^ 
ford, which would mean the 'ford of 
the army' (A.S. here, an 'army'). The 
Welsh name was Henfford, the ' old road.' 
One of these names must be a corruption 
or assimilation of the other. A similar 
name is Herford, near Minden, an- 
ciently Herifurd, Heristal, near the 
Lippe, marics the place which Charlemagne 
in 78a made the winter quarters of his 
array, caXMngit //erisfallum, 'army place,' 
possibly also with a sort of punning refer- 
ence to the ancestral home of his race, 



K 



146 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



the founder of the Carling house being 
Pippin of HeristaL 

Hermanas, correctly Las Dos Her- 
man as, ' the two sisters,* are two islands 
in the North Pacific, which were dis- 
covered and named by the Spaniard 
Villalobos in 1543. 

Hermite IslancL south of Tierra del 
Fuego, properly L'Heremite Eylandt, 
bears the name of Admiral Jacques L'Here- 
mite who, in 1624, with a Dutch fleet 
anchored here for a time. 

Hermon, the 'lofty' hill, a conspicuous 
mountain in Palestine, was an ancient 
site of hill worship. On the slope and 
summit are the remains of numerous 
temples. 

Hermhut in Saxony, the first settlement 
of the Moravian brethren, hence called 
Hcrmhuter, was founded under the 
'Lord's protection.' To their missions 
we owe numerous biblical names scattered 
over the map, such as Nain and Hebron 
in Labrador, and in the West Indies 
Nazareth and Bethany in Jamaica, Mount 
Tabor in Barbadoes, Bethel in St. Kitts, 
Lebanon in Antigua, Emmaus and Bethany 
in St. Jan. 

Herschel Island, discovered by Frank- 
lin in 1826 ; Cape Herschel, discovered 
by Parry in 1819, and Mount Herschel 
in South Victoria, discovered by James 
Ross in 1841, bear the name of Sir William 
Herschel, the astronomer. 

Hersfeld, in Hesse-Nassau, is from a 
personal name, as appears from the 
ancient form Heriulfis-felt. 

Hertford, the county town of Hertford- 
shire, appears in a charter of 673 a.d. as 
Heorut-jord, and afterwards as Hcorot- 
ford, Heortford^ Hartford, and Hertford, 
a name which, like those of other places 
in England called Hartford or Hartforth 
would mean the 'hart's ford* (A.S. heorot 
or keort, a 'stag or hart'). There is no 
sufficient reason for connecting it with the 
Welsh iPAyrf, a 'ford.' 

Hervey Group, also called Cook's 
Islands, in the South Pacific, were dis- 
covered by Cook in 1773, and named 
after Captain Augustus John Hervey, a 
Lord of the Admiralty, who afterwards 
became Eiarl of Bristol, and whose wife 
was the famous or infamous Duchess of 
Kingston. Captain Hervey's name was 
also given to Hervey Bay, Queensland, 
discovered by Cook in 1770. 

Herzeg'ovina, properly The Herze- 
govina, is a Bosnian district erected into 
a duchy in 1440 by Frederick iv. The 



Slavonic subjects of Stephen Cosaccia, the 
first duke, borrowed his German title 
Herzog, and styled him Herzega, whence 
the S&vo- Teutonic name Herzegovina, 
the ' duchy.' 's Hertogenbosch, a town 
in Brabant, usually called by the French 
name Bois-le-Duc {g.v.), was founded in 
1 184 by Gottfried, Duke of Brabant. 

Hesse, an old German Landgravate on the 
Main and Rhine, afterwards divided into 
several principalities, was ori^nally a 
tribal name. According to Gnmm and 
Zeuss the Chatti, Catti, or Hatti were, so 
called from their headcovering or 'hat.' 
The form Chatti was used till the third 
century. In 720 it becomes Hessi and 
Hessii, followed by Hassia, Hessia and 
Hessen for the coimtry, 

Hestmand^, 'horseman island,' l3ring 
off Norway in the Arctic circle, is a lofty 
rock, 1000 feet in height, which resembles 
a horseman clad in a cloak. 

Hexliani, a great monastery in North- 
lunberland, once the See of a bishop, is 
called Hagustaldensis Ecclesia by Bseda, 
and in the Saxon Chronicle Hagustaldes 
ed and Hagustaldes ham. The Hagus- 
taldes ed on which the monastery stood 
is now the Hextold Burn. In A.S. 
hcegsteald or hcegosteald means a celibate 
or unmarried person. Hence the form 
Hagustaldesham, of which Hexham is a 
corruption, if not from a proper name, 
would denote the home of a celibate. As 
in other cases the monastery may have 
arisen around the earUer cell of an 
anchorite. 

Hex VaJley, near Capetown, is tra- 
versed by the Hex or 'witch' river, so 
called by the Boers, because it flows 
through a hidden clefu 

Hibbs, Point, in Tasmania, was named 
by Flinders in 1798 after the master of his 
ship. 

Hibemia Shoal and Ashmore Shoal, 
between Australia and the Sunda Islands, 
were discovered by the Hibernia, com- 
manded by Samuel Ashmore. 

Hicks, Point, was the first land in 
Australia discovered by Cook, April i8th, 
1769. It was named after Lieutenant 
Hicks, by whom it was sighted, and who 
died of consumption just before reaching 
England. His name was also given to 
Hicks Bay, New Zealand, discovered in 
1770. 

Hildesheim, in Hanover, near the battle- 
field where Arminius defeated Varus 
(a.d. 9), is usu^y explained firom the 
O.H.G. hilti, 'battle,' but the ninth cen- 



GLOSSARY 



147 



tury form Hildinisheim shows that it is 
from a personal name belonging to the 
same stem. 

Himalaya, the 'abode of snow,* is from 
the Sanskrit hima, 'snow,' a word cog- 
nate with the Latin hiems, and dlaya, 
' abode, dwelling.' The Himaprastha is 
the ' snowy head,' and the classical names 
Imaus and Haemus are cognate words. 

Hindmarsh, a river, town, and county 
in South Australia; a lake in Victoria; 
and a town in New South Wales, were 
all named after Captain Hindmarsh, the 
first Governor at Adelaide. 

Hindu-Klisll is the Persian name of the 
western continuation of the Himalaya, 
known to the ancients as the Caucams 
Indicus. Humboldt thinks that Hindu- 
kush is a corruption of Hindu -kuh 
'Indian mountain.' Ibn Batuta records 
the legend that one of the higher passes 
in the chain was called Hindu-Kush, * the 
slayer of Hindus,' because Indian slaves 
carried across to Balkh often perished of 
cold. 

Hindustan is a Persian term signifying 
the country or place of the Hindus or 
Indians, Hindu being the Persian form 
of the Sanskrit Sindhu, a dweller on the 
Indus, which means the river. The names 
Hindustan, Sindh, and India are parallel 
forms, respectively Persian, Sansknt, and 
Greek. (5^^ India.) 

Hispaniola is the Latin form of Isla 
Espatiola, the 'Spanish isle,' the name 
given by Columbus to the island now 
divided into the republics of Haiti and 
St. Domingo. (5^^ Haiti.) 

Hissarlik, the mound in the Troad 
excavated by Schliemann, is from the 
Turco- Arabic word Hissar, a ' castle.' 

Hiva, ' island,' is a word frequently found 
in the Marquesas, as Nuka-Hiva, Fatu- 
Hiva, and Hiva-ca. 

Hoangf-Ho, in China, is the 'yellow 
river,' which borders Ho-Nan, the pro- 
vince 'south of the river,' and flows mto 
the Hoang-Hai, or 'yellow sea,' so 
called because discoloured by the yellow 
mud brought down by the Hoang-Ho. 

Hobart, or Hobart Town, the capital 
of Tasmania, founded in 1804, was named 
after Lord Hobart, then Secretary of State 
for the Colonies. 

Hoboken, in New Jersey, opposite New 
York, is often said to be a native name 
meaning 'the smoked pipe,' marking the 
spot where the first colonists smoked the 
pipe of peace with the Indian chiefs. It 
IS, however, a reminiscence of the Dutch 



village of Hoboken, three miles from 
Antwerp. 

HobSOn, Mount, the highest point in 
Great Barrier Islana, New Zealand, bears 
the name of Captain Hobson, the first 
Governor of New Zealand. 

Hohenlinden, a battle-field in Bavaria, 
is a corruption of Hol-lenden, 'at the 
hollow lime-tree.' Hohenstaufen, the 
stamm-schloss of the Hohenstaufen dyn- 
asty, is the 'high rock' (O.H.G. stauf, 
•a rock'). 

HoldemeSS is a division of the East 
Riding between the Wolds and the sea. 
The chalk wolds are treeless, but the 
coast district, which is covered with 
glacial drift, was a forest called Deira- 
wudu, Dyra-wudu, or Dera-wudu, the 
' forest of Deira,' which denoted the land 
between the Humber and the Tees. Baeda 
calls Beverley Minster the ' monasterium 
quod vacatur in Derwuda^ id est in silva 
Derorum,' and in the Saxon Chronicle, 
A.D. 685, it is called the *mynstre on 
Derawudu.' The ness or promontory of 
Holdemess is an obscure name ; the sug- 
gested etymologies from hoi, ' hollow ' or 
'flat,' and from Aolt, 'wood* or 'forest,' 
not being supported by the Domesday 
form Heldrenesse (see Helder), or by 
the O.N. Hellornes, 

Holland is usually supposed to be the 
low or hollow land, nearly equivalent to 
the modem name Netherlands. But the 
earliest form of the name, which occurs in 
866, is Holtland, the ' woodland,' denoting 
the forest region round Dordrecht which 
belonged to the Counts of Friesland. The 
name was afterwards extended to the 
neighbouring lands, and then corrupted 
into Holland, a form which occurs in icai, 
1083, and 1097. New Holland, the 
name by which Australia was long known, 
was given by Abel Tasman in 1644, in 
commemoration of the part taken in its 
discovery from 1606 to 1644 by himself 
and other Dutch seamen. 

Holland, or Parts of Holland, is the 
name of the southern division of Lincoln- 
shire. The old name, Hoiland, is an in- 
dication that the etymology is not, as 
usually asserted, from the A.S. hoi, 
'hollow,' but from hdh, 'heel,* a word 
which denotes a piece of land which juts 
out, in this case denoting that part of the 
coimty which runs out as a peninsula at 
HoLBEACH. Holland, in Orkney, is 
the sloping and (O.N. hallr, 'sloping'). 

HoUenthal, the 'valley of hell,' a 
gloomy gorge in the Black Forest, leads 



143 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



to a smiling plain which goes by the name 
HiMMELREiCH, 'heaven.' 

Holstein is a name that has undergone 
curious assimilation through folk-ety- 
mology. In the tenth century the people 
were called HoU-sati, the ' settlers m the 
forest,* a name of the same class as our 
own Somerset and Dorset. ' Holstein is a 
corruption of the dative plural Holtsatin, 
whence the successive forms Holsien, Hol- 
steen, and Holstein. HoLSTENBORG, a 
Danish colony in Greenland, was named 
after a Graf von Holstein, who was 
president of the Danish Missionary 
Society. 

Holyhead, Anglesea, is the rough Eng- 
lish equivalent of the Welsh name Pen- 
Caer-Gybi, 'the hill of the fort of St. 
Cybi.' HoLYWOOD, in Dumfriesshire, is 
* the 'holy wood of St. Congal,' a sort of 
translation of the Celtic name Darcon- 
gall, 'Congall's oakgrove.' Holyrood, 
the royal palace at Edinburgh, includes 
the Abbey of the ' Holy rood ' or cross, 
whence the name of the palace was 
derived. Holy Island is a name given 
to Lindisfame, an island off the coast of 
Northumberland, because of the monas- 
tery founded in 635 by Oswald King of 
Northumbria, which became the see of 
St Cuthbert, afterwards removed to 
Durham. Holywell, in Flintshire, re- 
nowned for miraculous cures, is so called 
from the 'holy well' of St. Winifred, which, 
according to the legend, gushed up at the 
spot where her head fell when she was 
decapitated. 

Hombur^, a corruption of Hohenburg, 
the 'high castle,' is the name of several 
towns in Germany, corresponding to the 
English Hanbury. There are also several 
places called Homberg, a corruption of 
Hohenberg, 'high hill.' HoCHHEiM, on 
the Main, anciently Hohheim, from which 
we obtain the designation of Hock for the 
Rhine wines, means ' high home.* 

Home's Islands and Cape Home in 
Arctic America, and Home's Group in 
Queensland bear the name of Sir Everard 
Home. 

Honden Bylandt, 'dogs' island,' in 

the Low Archipelago, was discovered 
in 16 1 6 by the Dutch mariners, Le Maire 
and Schouten, and so named because 
they found it inhabited by three half- 
starved Spanish dogs. 

Honduras, a British possession in Cen- 
tral America, takes its name from the Rio 
Hondo, which forms the boundary be- 
tween Yucatan and British Honduras. 
In the Argentine prwince of Santiago 



there is another Rio Hondo, which 
means ' deep river ' in Spanish. 

Hongr Kon^, an island in British posses- 
sion near Canton, is an English corruption 
of the Chinese name Heang Ktang, 
'sweet water,' or * fingrant - waterway,* 
which originally denoted not the island, 
but the channel separating it from the 
mainland, whose water is sweetened by 
the fresh water brought down by the 
Canton river. The change from Heang 
Kiang to Hong Kong is probably due to 
assonance with the name of the Kong- 
hong, or company of Chinese merchants 
through whom the East India Company 
conducted their trade. 

Hood's Island, in the Marquesas, was 
named by Cook, in 1774, after the mid- 
shipman who first descried it. Hood's 
Islands, a group in the Low Archipelago, 
and Point Hood, in West Australia, 
were named after Lord Hood. H(X>d's 
River, which flows into Coronation Gulf, 
bears the name of the unfortunate officer, 
Robert Hood, who, on Franklin's re- 
tiun from the descent of the Coppermine 
River in 1821 was murdered by Michel, 
the Iroquois hunter. 

Hooper's Inlet, in Fury and Hecla 
Strait, bears the name of the purser of the 
Fury. 

Hoom, a town on a ' horn ' or spit of land 
in the Zuyder Zee, was the birthplace of 
Schouten, the discoverer of Cape Hoorn, 
usually called Cape Horn {q.v.). 

Hope, Oape. in Rowe's Welcome, north 
of Hudson's Bay, was so called by Middle* 
ton in 1741-42 because of the hope that 
beyond it lay the north-west passage. 
Finding the supposed strait was merely 
an inlet, he called it Repulse Bay. In 
Australia we find Hope Islands, dis- 
covered by Cook; Hope Inlet, Hope 
Reach, and Hopeless Reach, dis- 
covered by Stokes; Mount Hopeless 
discovered by Mitchell, and Hope Spring 
discovered by Stuart ; in Vancouver 
Island we have Hope Bay, discovered 
by Cook ; and in Patagonia Hope Pro- 
montory and Mount Hope, discovered 
by P^itzroy; and in Spitzbergen Hope 
Island, discovered by a whaler in 1613, 
all of which express the hopes, mostly vain. 
of various explorers. Cape Hope, and 
Hope's Bay, in the Arctic Archipelago, 
were named after Sir W. J, Hope ; and 
Hope's Islands. Australia, after Sir G. 
Hope. Hope Island, Micronesia, was 
discovered by the ship H<^e in 1807. (See 
Cape of Good Hope.) 

Hopedale, in Labrador, is the English 



GLOSSARY 



149 



translation of Hoffenthal, a mission- 
ary station established by the Moravian 
brothers. 

Hoppner*s Strait, Hoppner's Inlet, 
Cape Hoppner, and Hoppner's River, 
all in Arctic America, bear the name 
of one of Parry's officers, Lieut. H. P. 
Hoppner. 

Horn, Cape, correctly Cape Hoorn, or 
Kaap van Hoorn, is the most southern 
point in America. It was first rounded 
on January 29th, 1616, by the Dutch sea- 
men Jacob Lie Maire and Willem Schou- 
ten, who after passing through the Strait 
OF Le Maire named the cape in honour 
of Schouten's birthplace, the town of 
Hoorn in Holland {^.v.), where his ship 
had been fitted out, and which was the 
home of most of his sailors. False 
Cape Hoorn is the southern extremity 
of Tierra del Fuego, whereas the true 
Cape Hoorn is on Hoorn Island, a little 
further south. Passing round Cape Hoorn 
into the Pacific, they gave the name 
Hoornische Eilanden to two islands 
north-east of the Fijis, which are now 
erroneously marked on most English maps 
as the Home and not the Hoorn Islands. 

Horncastle, a town in Lincolnshire, 
derives its name from a castle built on 
a horn or spit of land, at the junction of 
the rivers Bane and Waring. Before the 
erection of the castle the place was called 
Hornariy *at the horn.' Horn Point, 
north of Bass Strait, was named from its 
two hornlike spits of land. The Hornli, 
a range of hills near Zurich, is named from 
a pea]k called the Hornli, a diminutive of 
Horn, a name given to several of the 
higher Swiss pesQcs, as the Schreckhorn, 
or the Wetterhorn. Horn Sound in 
Greenland was so called by Baffin in 1616, 
on account of his having obtained by 
barter from the Eskimos some horns of 
the narwhal, which he believed to be 
veritable horns of the unicorn. 

Horsburgrll, Cape, at the entrance to 
Lancaster Sound, was named by Ross in 
1818 in compliment to the hydrographer 
of the East India Company. 

Horsham, Sussex, is shown by the A.S. 
form Horsham to be simply the * horse- 
enclosure.' If, as asserted, it had been 
the home of Horsa, the leader of the 
Jutes, the A.S. form would have been 
Horsanham. Horsley, a common name, 
is the ' horse pasture,' and Rossbach in 
Germany, anciently Hrosbach, is from the 
O.H.G. hros^ a 'horse.' 

Horton River, discovered in 1826, 
enters the Arctic Ocean between the Cop- j 



permine and the Mackenzie Rivers. It 
bears the name of Wilmot HortOn, Under 
Secretary for the Colonies. 

Hospenthal, in Canton Uri, is the 
'valley of the Hospice,' erected in the 
thirteenth century to shelter travellers 
about to cross the St. Golthard Pass. 

Hotham Inlet, discovered by Beachey 
in 1826, and Cape Hotham discovered 
by Parry in 18 19, both in the Arctic Ocean, 
bear the name of Sir Henry Hotham, a 
Lord of the Admiralty. 

Hottentot is a derisive name given by 
the Boers to a South African race who 
call themselves either KAoi-fChoim, ' men 
of men,' Ama-Khoim, 'real men,* or 
Gui-Kkoim, ' first of men.' Hot-en-tot is 
said by Dupper and Hahn to be a Dutch 
slang term meaning a 'stutterer,' pro- 
bably given to the Hottentots because 
of the ' clicks ' which characterise their 
speech. 

HounslO'W, Middlesex, was called in 
A.S. UuTides-hldw, the 'hounds-barrow.' 
It may have been the burial-place of a 
favourite dog. 

Houston, at one time the capital of Texas, 
bears the name of General Samuel Houston, 
who defeated the Mexicans in the battle 
of San Jacinto, and who was afterwards 
President, and then Governor of Texas. 
He doubtless took his territorial surname 
from Houston, ' Hugh's town,' in Ren- 
frewshire, which was granted to Hugo de 
Padvinan in the reign of Malcolm iv. 

Houtman's Abrolhos, a rocky 

group off the West Australian coast, were 
discovered in 1619 by the Dutch seaman 
Jans van Edel, and named after his com- 
rade Frederik Houtman. Frederik Hout- 
man and his brother Cornelius, a drunken 
rascal afterwards murdered by the Malays 
at Acheen, had in 1598 sailed with John 
Davis in the twin ships the Leeuw (lion), 
and the Leeuwin (lioness). 

Ho^we'S Foreland, Kerguelen Land, 
discovered by Cook in 1776 ; Cape Howe, 
at the south-east corner of Australia, dis- 
covered by Cook in 1770 ; Lord Howe 
Island, between Australia and New Zea- 
land, discovered by Lieut Ball in 1788 ; 
Lord Hovte's group, north of the Salo- 
mons, discovered by the Dutch in 1616, 
rediscovered and named by Hunter in 
T791 ; Howe's Island, m the Low 
Archipelago, discovered by Carteret in 
1767; and Howe's Isle, one of the 
Society Islands, discovered by Wallis in 
1767, are names showing the repute of 
the naval exploits of Admiral Lord Howe 

(i7a5-i799)' 



ISO 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Hoy, a lofty island in the Orkneys, is the 
O.N. Hd-ey, 'the high island.' 

Hudson's Bay, the American Mediter- 
ranean, is both me tomb and the monu- 
ment of the daring seaman who discovered 
it. In 1607 Henry Hudson, with ten men 
and a boy, sailed in the Hopewell, a ship 
of 80 tons, for Spitzbergen, sighting and 
naming Hakluyt Head, and reaching 
a higher latitude than was subsequently 
attained for 166 years. In 1609, in the 
service of the Dutch East India Company, 
he discovered the Hudson River, and 
ascended it for 150 miles as far as the 
site of Albany, and landed on Manhattan 
Island, afterwards the site of New York. 
On April loth, 1610, he set sail in the Dis- 
caverie, a ship of 55 tons, fitted out by Sir 
Thomas Smith, and penetrating through 
Hudson Strait, the entrance to which 
had been reached by Sebastian Cabot in 
1517, he discovered the great inland sea 
which bears his name, and wintered at the 
southern extremity. In Jime i6ii, his 
crew mutinied, fearing the provisions 
would run short, and on midsummer day, 
he, his son, and seven of the crew, were 
put into the shallop with one fowling 
piece, some powder and shot, and a little 
meal, and were cast adrift in the middle 
of the bay. A month later, on July 25th, 
the five chief mutineers met the fate they 
so well deserved, being killed in a skirmish 
by the Eskimos. The Hudson River, 
which now so worthily bears his name, 
was at first called the Mauritius River by 
the Dutch colonists, in honour of Prince 
Maurice of Orange. 

Huesca, a city in Aragon, which gives 
its name to a province, is the Osca of 
Caesar. 

Hiigli, or in the old spelling the Hoogly 
River, an arm of the Ganges on which 
Calcutta stands, derives its name from 
the town of HuGLi on its right bank, so 
named; it is believed, from the gigantic 
jungle reed, Typha elephanta, called hugla 
in Bengdli. 

Hulan. Hurun, or Kulun Noor, the 
' holy lake,' is a large lake in Mongolia, 
which is also called Dalai, the 'sea.' 

Hull, correctly Kingston-upon-Hull, is 
the third port in England. The name 
Hull denotes properly a small stream 
which flows into the Humber. In 1280 
'the port of the river of Hull' is men- 
tioned, and there was a hamlet at its 
mouth called Wyke- upon -Hull. By a 
charter of Edward i. , the rising port ob- 
tained certain privileges as a free borough, 
and the name Wyke - upon - Hull was 



changed to Kyngeston-super-Hull (Kings- 
ton-upon-Hull) which has been gradually 
shortened into Hull, a name which de- 
notes strictly the river and not the town. 

Humber, the sea-like estuary which re- 
ceives so many streams, is called Abus hy 
Ptolemy. Hence the name Humber is 
most likely not Celtic but Teutonic. The 
A.S. forms are Humbre and H umbra, the 
root being probably the O.N. hiiin, 'the 
sea,' so called from its dusky colour. 
From hUm comes the name of the sea 
giant Hymer, of Norse Mjrthologic 
poetry, who owned an ocean cauldron a 
mile in depth (Corpus poet. Boreale, i. 
220), and became the King Humber of 
later eponymic legend. The estuary may 
well have been supposed to be Hymir's 
cauldron. The tidal bore, locally called 
the Eager, that rushes up tJie Humber to 
the Trent, is supposed to be the O.N. 
mjrthologic giant iEgir (A.S. Eagor, the 
'sea'), whence the name of the Eider, 
formerly ^Egis-dyrr, ' Oceani ostia.' 

Humboldt GHaoier, in Greenland, the 
chief source of the larger icebergs which 
reach the Atlantic, was discovered by 
Kane, in 1853, and named after Baron 
Alexander von Humboldt, in whose 
honour sundry lakes, rivers, capes, bays, 
and mountains have also been named. 

Hume's Creek, a tributary of the Dar- 
ling River, was so called by Mitchell 
because he found cut on the bark of a tree 
the name of Hamilton Hume, an earlier 
explorer. 

Hungary (German Ungarn) is the Eng- 
lish form of the Latinised name Hungaria 
for Hungavaria, 'the land inhabited by 
the Huns,' who first occupied it about 380 
A.D. In 453 the territory fell into the 
hands of the Ostrogoths and the Gepidae, 
who were followed by the Longobards, 
526-548, by the Avars in 568, and finally 
in 889 by the Magyars, a Finnic race. 

Hunter's Isles, north-west of Tas- 
mania, discoverea by Flinders in 1798 ; 
Hunter's Islands, north of the Salo- 
mons, discovered by Mortlock in 1796; 
Port Hunter, sometimes called Coal 
River, New South Wales, discovered by 
Shortland in 1797 ; and Point Hunter, 
in New Zealand, all bear the name of 
Admiral Hunter, the second governor of 
New South Wales. Hunter Island, 
New Caledonia, sometimes called Fearn 
Island ((f.v.), was discovered in 1793 by 
the ship Hunter. Hunters' Lake, 
between the Coppermine and Yellow 
Knife Rivers, was so named by Franklin 
in 1820 because the native hunters brought 



GLOSSARY 



151 



in a seasonable supply of reindeer meat. 
Hunter's River, De Witt's Land, was 
so named by King in 1820, after his 
comrade James Hunter. 
Huntinffdon, the county town of Him- 
tin|^donshire, contains a genitive kuntan^ 
which has been assimilated to the common 
gentile or patronymic form, as appears 
from the A.S. name HuntandUn^ after- 
wards HunUndun, and in Domesday 
Huntedune. Huntandim may be from 
the personal name Hunta, or it may be 
the 'hunter's hill' (A.S. hunta, a 'hun- 
ter'). From huniena, gen. pi. of hunta, 
a 'himter,' we have Huntington in 
Salop, called Hantenetune in Domesday. 
Huntingdon, in Pennsylvania, was so 
named in 1777 in honour of Selina, 
Countess of Huntingdon, 

Huon River, flowing into Entrecast- 
EAUX Channel, in Tasmania, bears the 
name of Captain Huon Kermadec, who 
commanded the Espirance in the expedi- 
tion of Admiral d'Entrecasteaux. 

Hurd Island, Hurd Channel, Cape 
HuRD, in Arctic America ; Port Hurd 
and Mount Hurd, in Australia; and 
Hurd Isle, in the Gilbert Group, bear 
the name of Captain Thomas Hurd, 
hydrographer to the Admiralty. 

Huron, one of the great North American 
Lakes, takes its name from a tribe now 
located in Kansas, who in the seventeenth 
century occupied the peninsula between 
Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Huron 
was a nickname, of French origin, given 
to the tribe called by the English Wyan- 
dot, a corruption of Wendat, ' people of 
one speech, from wenda, 'speech,' and 
at, the root of skat, ' one.' In the French 
patois of the colonists, the Wendats were 
called Hurons, or 'shockheads,* from the 
lines of bristly hair resembling the crest 
of a wild boar, which adorned their half- 
shaven crowns. According to Littrd the 
French hure means tHc hirissie et en 
ddsordre. The French nickname of the 
tribe was applied to the great fresh-water 
sea round which they dwelt, and has super- 
seded the proper name of the tribe and of 
the lake. 

Hutton, a common 'Northern village 
name, is from the A.S. hdk, hdgh, or h6, 
a Hoo, or point of land shaped like a 
'heel' or 'hough' stretching out into a 
plain or into the sea« 

Huzarai^ the name of certain wild hill 
tribes in Afghanistan, is from the Persian 
hazdr, a 'thousand.' The Mongolian 
regiments of Jingiz Khan and his suc- 
cessors were called ffaz4f(i^, •'^nd the 



Huzaras of Afghanistan, whose facial type 
is strikingly Mongolian, are believed to be 
descendants of some of these predatory 
bands which settled there. 

Hvita, in Iceland, means the * white river.' 

'H.ytYlBf in Kent, is called in the Saxon 
Chronicle Hyth, which means a haven, 
port, wharf, or any place where ships or 
boats can land. There is another Hythe 
on Southampton water, but hythe appears 
more usually in composition, as in Green- 
HiTHE, Kent, or Clayhithe near Cam- 
bridge, and often in an abraded form as 
in ^th, Lambeth, Maidenhead, Redriff, 
or Stepney, 

Ibargroltia, one of the Caroline Islands, 
bears the name of a Spanish Captain who 
visited it in 1799. 

rbera or Ivira, the 'clear water,' is a 
large lagoon in the Argentine province of 
Corrientes (Guarani ivi, 'water,* and ira, 
'clear'). 

Iceland was called Snaland, the ' land of 
snow,' bjr the Viking Naddodd who dis- 
covered It in 868. On account of the ice- 
floes which then beset the northern coast, 
Fi6ki, who followed him, called it Island, 
of which Iceland is the English transla- 
tion. IjSKOEK, ' ice cape,' was the name 
given by Barents in 1594 to the north cape 
of Novaya Zemlya, which he foimd sur- 
rounded with ice. Ijsh a ven , ' ice haven , * 
in Barents Land, was reached by Barents 
in 1596, and so called because on August 
26th the ship became hopelessly frozen in, 
and on June 14th, 1597, was abandoned by 
the crew in their two boats. ICY Cape, 
Alaska, in the Arctic Ocean, was the 
furthest point reached by Cook on his 
third voyage. On August i8th, 1778, he 
was compelled to return, finding that the 
sea was closed by ice. 

Idaho, one of the United States which 
possesses immense mineral wealth, bears 
the appropriate native name E-dah-hoe, 
the 'jewel mountains,' or 'gem of the 
motm tains.' 

Ikurangfl, ' reaching to heaven ' (Maori, 
rangi, * heaven '), is a lofty volcano in New 
2^aland. 

Hanz or Glion, in Canton GraubUnden, 
is built at the junction with the Rhine of 
a small stream of the same name, which 
is from the Romansch ils ogns or Us ons, 
' the alders.* 

Ilohester, in Somerset, formerly Ivel- 
chester, the Chester on the River Ivel, was 
the Ischalis of the Romans. {See Yeovil. ^ 



iS« 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



lOXnbe. Devon, formerly Alfreds- 
f, Ilfriacombe, or lifarcombe, is the 



Ilfra^ombe. 

combe, 

combe or valley of some person named 

Elfrec or Aifred. 

Ilheos or Os Ilheos. 'the islands,' 
more correctly PORTO DOS Ilheos, the 
'port of the islands,' is a Brazilian coast 
town, so called from four islands which 
protect the harbour. Here in 1540 a town 
was buil t under the protection of St George, 
and called San Jorge dos Ilheos. 

Hi, a Mongolian word meaning * bright ' or 
'glistening,' is the name of a river which 
enters Lake Balkash. 

Ilkley, near Leeds, is believed to occupy 
the site of the Roman station of Olicana, 
of which there may be an assimilated 
reminiscence in the modem name, which 
appears in Domesday as Ileclive and 
Illedive, the 'bad cliff,' the Danish form 
il being the equivalent of the A.S. evil. 
In Iceland there is a place called Illa- 
KLIF, a • nasty bit of chff.' 

niimani, in Peru, is the * snow mountain ' 
(Quichua illi, ' snow '). 

Illinois^ one of the United States, ad- 
mitted in 1 8 18, is traversed by the Illinois 
River, on whose banks dwelt a tribe known 
ever since Marquet and Joliet reached 
their territory in 1673 as Illinois, a French 
corruption of the native name Illini, or 
Iliniwok, * the men. ' 

Illjrria, an Austrian crownland on the 
Adriatic, continues the classical name 
Illyris or Illyncum regnum. The mean- 
ing is unknown, the old Illyrian language 
having perished, 

Ilocos, the name of several districts in the 
Philippines, is from the Tagala word iloc^ 
a ' river.' 

Imperial, Oiudad, a city in Chili, was 
founded between 1550 and 1558 by Pedro 
de Valdivia, and named in honour of the 
Emperor Charles v. , king of Spain. 

Imperieuse Shoal, on the north-west 

coast of Australia, was discovered by 
H.M.S Imperieuse in 1800. 

Inchcolm. in Fife, takes its name from 
a monastery called in a charter by the 
translated name Insula Sancii ColutnbcB. 
In Scotch names inch is the usual modern 
form of the Gaelic innis, an 'island,' as 
Inchkeith in the Firth of Forth, Inch- 
INNAN, the 'isle of St. Adamnan,' or 
Inch addon, the 'isle of St. Aidan.' 
In Ireland inn is often appears as ennis or 
inish, as in Enniskeen and Inishkeen, 
the 'beautiful island.' In Wales the form 
ynys is usually retained, as Ynysddu or 
Ynysowen, 



IndeflEtti^rable Strait^ a passage 
through the Great Barrier Reef of Aus- 
tralia, was discovered in 181 5 by the 
Indefatigable^ an English ship. 

India is a Greek form derived from Hindu, 
the Persian equivalent of the Sanskrit 
Sindku^ a 'river,' or 'sea,' used specially 
to denote the Indus, the chief river of the 
land in which the Aryan invaders of 
India first established themselves. The 
name Indus shows in like manner that 
our knowledge of the river came through 
the Greeks from the Persians. The name 
SciNDH for the lower valley of the Indus, 
comes to us directly from India, while the 
names Hindu and Hindustan \q.v) 
came from the Persians without Greek 
intervention. The name of the West 
Indies reminds us that Columbus 
imagined that the lands he had discovered 
were a part of India, while Indian Isle, 
New Zealand, and Indian Bay in 
Australia, are a curious proof that Cook 
regarded as Indians the dark-skinned 
natives of New Zealand and Australia. 

Indiana, one of the United States, ad- 
mitted in 18 16, is a name which marks 
the progress of European settlement in the 
lands of the ' Red Indians,' the territory 
called Indiana having been purchased by 
the Union in 1795 from the native chiefs. 
It is one of the curiosities of nomenclature 
that the name of one of the United States 
should have to be explained by the Greek 
corruption of the Persian form of a San- 
skrit word m aning a river. That this 
should be the case is ultimately due to 
the curious misconception of Columbus, 
who believed that the lands he had dis- 
covered were the Indies. In his letters he 
calls the natives Indians, and in this he 
was followed by all Spanish writers. The 
name Indian only gradually spread to the 
natives of North America. Early English 
writers call them the ' savages,' and it was 
not till the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, when it was recognise \ that the 
English and Spanish colonies formed parts 
of the same continent, that the term 
Indian begins to be used for the natives 
of North America, who were also called 
Americans, as in the well-known line of 
Wesley's hymn, 'The dark Americans 
convert. ' Indianapolis, the state capital 
of Indiana, is a barbarous hybrid com- 
pound of Sanskrit and Greek, manufac- 
tured in 1 82 1 by the State legislature of 
Indiana. 

Indispensable Strait, in the Salomon 
Islands, was first traversed in 1794 by the 
ship Indispensable, which also discovered 



GLOSSARY 



153 



the Indispensable Reef in the Coral- 
line Sea, a perplexing name if its origin 
were not known. 

In^ermanland, a district near St 
Petersburg, was inhabited by the Finnic 
people called Ingerern. It is said to have 
formed the morning gift of Ingirgerd, a 
Swedish princess married in 1049 to King 
Jaroslaw. 

Ingrleborough, in the West Riding, 
was doubtless a border fortress of the 
Angles, overlooking on the west the un- 
conquered kingdom of the Strath-Clyde 
Welsh. Inglefield or Englefield, in 
Berkshire, called in the Chronicle Engla- 
feld, the ' plain of the Angles,' is a token 
of Anglian conquest in the Saxon domain 
of Wessex. 

Inman Kiver and Inman Harbour, 
in Arctic America, and Cape Inman, in 
Fuegia, bear the name of Professor 
Inman, of the Royal Naval College at 
Portsmouth. 

Innspruok. or Innsbruck, the capital 
of the Tyrol, is at the ' bridge over the 
Inn,' anciently called theAenus or Oenus, 
a form preserved in Oen, the modem 
Romansch name of the river. (See Enga- 
DINE.) According to Gliick, the name 
was *Ainos, from the Aryan root i or fl/, 
* to go,' seen in the Latin i-re. 

Inscription, Point, in the Gulf of 

Carpentaria, was so called by Stokes in 
1841 because he found inscribed on a tree 
the name of Flinders' ship, the Investiga- 
tor, which must have been carved forty 
years before. In the same way, the Cap 
DE L'Inscription, on Dirk Hartog's 
Island, West Australia, was so called 
because in 1801 Captain Hamelin of Le 
Naturaliste found a tin plate, bearing 
records of the visit of Dirk Hartog's ship, 
the Eendraght [q.v.), in 1616, and of the 
Gelvinck {g.v.}, in 1697. 

Institut, lies de L', a group of Aus- 
tralian islands, so named by Baudin in 
I So I, in recognition of the share taken by 
the French Institute in procuring the des- 
patch of his expedition. The individual 
islands were named after the members of 
the Institute, a few of which, Voltaire, 
Cassini, and Lac^pede still retain their 
places on the map. 

Interoourse Islands, on ihe north- 
west coast of Australia, were so named by 
King in 1818, because the natives held 
friendly intercourse with his crew. 

Interlaken, in Canton Bern, is a corrup- 
tion of Infer Lacus, the Low- Latin name 
of a convent founded in 1130 between the 



lakes of Thun and Brienz. It is a sort of 
translation of Unterseen, the name still 
borne by a neighbouring village. 

Inverness, a Scotch county, takes its 
name from the county town of Inverness, 
• at the mouth of the Ness.* (See Ness.) 
Inveraray, the county town of Argyle, 
is at the ' mouth of the Aray ' which drains 
Loch Awe. Inverurie, a town in Aber- 
deenshire, is at the confluence of the Ury 
with the Don, and Invernethy is at the 
confluence of the Nethy with the Earn. 
The Scotch and Irish prefix Inver- is 
derived from the Gaelic iniAir, which 
denotes the mouth of a river. Inver 
sometimes becomes Inner in Scotland, 
and Ennerxn Ireland, as Innerpeffray, 
Innerleithen, or Ennereilly. Inver 
does not occur in Wales, where it is 
replaced by Aber (q.v.), which also pre- 
vails in the Brythonic parts of Scotland. 
Invercargill, in New Zealand, is an 
absurd compound constructed out of the 
name of a Captain Cargill. (See DuN- 

EDIN. ) 

Investigrator Q-roup, South Australia, 
was discovered in 1802 by Flinders, in the 
sloop Investigator. INVESTIGATOR RoAD, 
in tiie Gulf of Carpentaria, bears the 
name of the same vessel. Investigator 
Sound, in Arctic America, was so called 
after M'Clure's ship, the Investigator. 

lona is an island in the Hebrides where 
St. Columba established his first monas- 
tery. It is supposed that lona is a 
ghost-name arising out of the misreading 
c*" lona for loua (lova), an adjectival form 
used by Adamnan. The island was also 
called //»", la, and / (probably variants 
of lou), which, though not found in mo 'ern 
Gaelic, is supposed to mean ' island,' lona 
being also called ICOLMKIL (I-cholum- 
cille), usually translated the 'island of 
Columba's cell.* 

Ionian Islands, off the western coast of 
Greece, were so called because situated 
in the Mare Ionium. lonians, the oldest 
name of the Greeks, is the same word 
which appears as Javan, the son of 
Japheth, m the ethnographic table in 
Genesis, and as Yavdna in the Indian in- 
scriptions of Asoka. Dodanim, the name 
of the Dorian tribes in Genesis, is an error 
for Rodanim, the men of Rhodes, due to 
the close resemblance of the letters r and 
d in the Hebrew alphabets. 

lOTVa, one of the United States, admitted 
in 1845, was so named from the Iowa 
River which traverses it. The Iowa 
River took its name from Iowa town, an 
Indian settlement on its banks, able to 



154 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



furnish 300 warriors of the tribe of the 
lowcLs or Otos, called Ayauways by Lewis 
and Clarke. Iowa is a Dakota nickname 
said to mean the 'drowsy' or 'sleepy ' ones. 
Kiowa (or Iowa), literally, ' this is the 
place,' is a term used for a camping spot. 
Th& French plural formation was Ayavois. 

Iphigrenia Books, in the Moluccas, 
were discovered in 1788 by Captain 
Douglas, in the ship Iphigenia. 

Ipswich, Suffolk, A.S. Gypeswic, is at the 
junction of the River Gipping with the 
Orwell. Ipswich, in Massachusetts, the 
oldest settiement of the E^t Anglian 
Puritans, and the early rival of Boston, 
and Ipswich, the second town in Queens- 
land, repeat the name of the Suffollt 
town. 

Ira'WB.ddy (IrawXdi), the great Bur- 
mese River, is a corruption of Airawati, 
* the water container,' or ' water possessor,' 
a name also given in the Indian mythology 
to Indra's elephant. 

Irel€ind (A.S. fraland, Yraiandy or 
Irland) was the Roman Hibernia, the 
Greek lerne^ and the Celtic Erin^ which 
is from an oblique case of a nominative 
Eriu (gen. erenn, ace. erinn), Ireland 
being from eire^ a later form of the nomi- 
native eriu. Professor Rhys supposes 
diat Eriu may represent an older nomi- 
native *Iveiyo, the genitive of which would 
give the luvema of Juvenal, whence the 
Roman Hibernia and Ivernii, while 
the Greek lerne has lost the v. The 
usual explanation of the name is from 
the Celtic iar, 'back,' 'behind,' and 
hence 'to the west,' while Professor 
Windisch thinks an initial p has disap- 
peared, and that the name is cognate 
with the Greek pidn, the name referring 
to the fat, rich soil. More probably the 
name is pre-Celtic, perhaps Iberic. It 
has been conjectured that a pre-Aryan 
race, called Iverni, lemi, or Emi, may 
have given their name to Ireland, as well 
as to Loch Erne in Ulster and to the 
River Earn {q.v.) formerly the -fitV^ww, 
in Scotland. 

Ireland's Eye, an island near Howth, 
is a translation of the old name Innis 
Erenn^ ' the isle of Erin.' New IRE- 
LAND, in the South Pacific, so named by 
Cook, is separated from New Britain 
by a strait to which he gave the name of 
St. George's Channel. 

Irliarliar, a valley in the Algerian Sahara, 
is a Berber name meaning ' the River.' 

Irkutsk, the capital of Eastern Siberia, 
Wfts founded in ?66j on the River Irkut. 



Iroquois, a County in Illinois, takes its 
name from the Iroquois River, which per- 
petuates the name of the great Iroquois 
nation. Most writers have adopted the 
explanation of Charlevoix, who considers 
the name to be a French adaptation from 
hiro^ ' I have spoken,' the phrase with 
which the Iroquois close their speeches. 
But this is impossible, since the name 
Iroquois was known to Champlain before 
the French had come in contact with the 
Iroquois. Hewitt believes the word is 
Algonkin, from the Mohegan irinako, 
with the French suffix -ois, meaning ' those 
who are true snakes.' The word irin or 
i/in is common to most Algonkin tongues, 
and is found in the name of the Linapi 
or Lenape tribe (Delawares), the 'real 
men,' from api^ 'men.' Hale, on the 
other hand, suggests, with greater pro- 
bability, that Iroquois is from the verbal 
form ierokua, ' they who smoke,' rokwa 
being the theme of the noun garokwa or 
karokwa, a ' pipe.' 

Isabela was a town founded by Colum- 
bus in 1493 on the northern coast of 
Haiti, but subsequently abandoned on 
account of its unhealthy site, the name 
being however retained by Cape Isabel a, 
the northernmost point of the island. 
In honour of the Spanish Queen, Colum- 
bus, in 1492, had given the name Isabela 
to the fourth island he discovered, be- 
lieved to be Crooked Island, one of the 
Bahamas. 

Isohl, in the Austrian Salzkammergut, 
stands on a river of the same name. 

Iseo, La^O d*, one of the North Italian 
lakes, takes its name from Iseo, a small 
town on its eastern shore. 

Isis, a name given to the Upper Thames, 
seems, like that of the Cam, to be merely 
a ghost-name evolved by conjectural in- 
genuity. The Thame being a tributary 
of the Thames, it was supposed that the 
Ladn form Tham-isis must signify the 
united stream of the Thame and of an 
imaginary river Isis, which, however, is as 
old as the fourteenth century, since Higden 
speaks of Dorchester as inter collapsus 
ThanuB et Ysce sitam. 

Islands, Bay of, in New Zealand, was 
so named by Cook in 1769, from the 
numerous islands which shelter it. In 
1778, Cook gave the same name to a bay 
in Alaska, which had been discovered by 
the Spaniards in 1775, and named by 
them Bakia de los Retnedios, * Reparation 
Bay.* In 1775, Cook called a bay in 
South Georgia the Bay of Isles. Island 
Bay, in New Zealand, contains a rocky 



GLOSSARY 



155 



island, as does Island Lake on the 
Saskatchewan. 

Ismailia., the half-way station on the 
Suez Canal, was so named by de Lesseps 
in honour of the Khedive Ismail Pacha. 

Isnl^ near Brusa in Asia Minor, is the 
Turkish corruption of Niccsa, the capital 
of Bithynia, and the seat of the council 
which framed the Nicene Creed. The 
city was built by Lysimachus, and named 
after his wife Nicaea, a daughter of Anti- 
pater. 

Ispalldn, or IsfahXn, in Persia, is a cor- 
ruption of the old name, the Aspadana of 
Ptolemy, which was either afpadhane, the 
'horse enclosure,' or derived from the 
family name of the race of Feridun, the 
Athviyan of romance, who in Pehlevi were 
called Aspiy^, ' horse lovers.' The local 
etymology explains the name of IsfahAn 
as Nisf-Jahan, the ' half of the world.' 

Isqua^wistequaannak - Kaastaki, 

' where the women's skulls lie,' is the Cree 
name of an affluent of the Qu'appelle 
River, so called because the skulls of two 
squaws, killed by the Mandans, lay there 
a long time unburied. 

Istria*! an Austrian crownland, preserves 
the old name which may have suggested 
the curious belief of the Greek geographers 
that a branch of the Ister (Danube) here 
flowed into the sea. 

Italy originally denoted the extreme 
southern portion of Calabria, merely the 
heel of the boot. In the fifth century B. C. 
the name was extended as far as Meta- 
pontum ; in the fourth it included Magna 
Graecia; in the first century B.C. the 
Rubicon was ih^ Jinis Itali(By and the 
name was finally extended as far as the 
Alps. The oldest numismatic form is 
Viteliu, and the Sabine denarii (b.c. 90) 
have Vitelu for Italia. The name is be- 
lieved to mean the ' land of catde ' (Latin 
vitulus, a 'calf). 

ItamararCa, ' the sounding stone,' is the 
native name of an island near Pemam- 
buco, probably derived fnom a bell, belong- 
ing either to a chapel or a wreck. Ita, 
a 'stone,' is a common component of 
Brazilian names. Thus Itahaem means 
the * speaking stone,' from the echo from 
a cliff, Itacoatiara is the * coloured 
stone,' Itamirintiba is the river of the 
'round pebbles,' while Itacolumi, the 
'stone wiUi a son,' is a common name for 
the higher of two peaks of unequal size. 

ItfaAOai, or Thiaki, one of the Ionian 
Islands, was probably a trading station 
of the Phcenicians ; the oldest form Jtyca 



being apparently to be identified with 
the Phoenician name Utica. 

Ivi9a, or IviZA, more correctly Ibiza, is 
one of the Balearic islands. On Phoeni- 
cian coins the group is called Ibusim 
or Ibrusim, which means the ' Islands of 
Pines,' while Pityusa, Uie Greek trans- 
lation of the Phoenician name, was used for 
the whole group, the older Phoenician 
name still adhering to Ibiza. 

Ivory Ooast, Guinea, is a name recalling 
the traffic in ivory which was commenced 
by the Portuguese in 1447. 

Ivrea, in Piedmont, stands on the site of 
the Celto-Roman Eporedia, the * horse 
course,' or place for training horses 
(Welsh rhed, a ' course '). 

IztacoiliuatL or Ixtaccihuatl, the 
• woman in white ' (Aztec ittac, ' white,' 
and dhuatlt * a woman '), is a snow-clad 
mountain in Mexico, near Popocateptl, 
15,705 feet in height The base of the 
mountain being invisible at a distance or 
in the dusk, the snow-clad ridge which 
forms the summit looks like the ghost of 
a white-robed woman lying on her back 
and floating in the air. 

Jaokson, the State capital of Mississippi, 
and nriore than 250 cities, counties, and 
townships, in the U.S.A. are named after 
General Andrew Jackson, the seventh 
president of the United States. Port 
Jackson, New South Wales, on whose 
shores the city of Sydney stands, was dis- 
covered by Cook on May 6th, 1770, and 
named after one of the secretaries to the 
Admiralty. Jackson's Bay, New Zea- 
land, was named after an early settler, 
who owned a whaling establishment. 
Jackson's Inlet, in Arctic America, was 
named by Parry in 1819 after Captain 
Samuel Jackson, R.N. 

Jaen, a Spanish city, takes its name from 
the River Jaen on which it stands. 

Jaffa or Yafa, in Palestine, was the 
ancient /ofipa (Hebrew YapAo), a name 
which Gesenius thinks meant ' the beauti- 
ful, ' while Movers explains it as ' the hill ' 
or 'rising ground* (Hebrew nophe). 

Jahaz-grarll, a fort east of Delhi, was 
built by George Thomas, an English 
sailor, who established himself in 1798 as 
Raja of Hansi, and built a fort, which 
from his own name he called George-garh. 
This became Jahaz-garh, 'ship fort,' the 
name George being perverted in popular 
parlance into j^Aa*. 'the ship,' in recol- 
lection of the Raja's origin. 

JaisaUner^ capital of the Rajput Stat^ of 



156 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



the same name, was founded by R&wal 
Jaisal in 1156. 

Jala pa or Xalapa in Mexico, whence 
the drug called jalap, is the Aztec xala- 
pan, the 'sand beside the water,' from 
xalli, 'sand,' atl, 'water,' and pan, ' upon.' 

Jam. a frontier district of Persia, perpetuates 
the name of a local poet. From his tomb 
comt;s the name of its chiet town Jam, an 
abbreviation of Tarhat-i- Sheikh- J ami, 
' the tomb of the Sheikh Jami.' 

Jamaica was called by Columbus in 1494 
Santiago, from St. James, tlie patron 
saint of Spain. As in other cases this 
has been replaced by the native name, 
Xatnayca, Xaimaca, or Yamaca, which 
mea-is 'abounding in springs,' from the 
numerous streams descendmg from the 
mountaii^s. 

Jaraes and Mary is the name of a 

well-known sandbank in the Hugli River 
below Calcutta, wnich has been fatal to 
many ships. The name was formerly 
explained by ingenious etymologists as 
an English corruption of the Hindi jal- 
tnari, ' dead water,* but recent research 
has discovered that a vessel called the 
' Royal James and Mary' (/.*. James 11. 
and Mary of Modena) was wrecked on 
this b «nk on September 24th, 1694. 

JamestO'Wn, Virginia, was founded on 
May 13th, 1607, on the banks of the James 
River, under a charter granted to the 
Virginia Company by James i., whose 
name is also borne by Jamestown, Bar- 

• bado-s, founded in 1625, In James' 
Bay, the great southern gulf of Hudson's 
Bay, Captain Thomas James in the Maria 
of Bristol, a seventy ton ship, was driven 
ashore, and wintered in 1631-1632. 

Janeiro, Rio de, in Brazil, now usually 
called Kio {q.v.), was discovered by 
Amerigo Vespucci on the ist January 1501. 

Janina or Yanina, in Albania, is the 
' town of St. John,' It is called loannina 
by Anna Comnena. 

Jan Mayen Island, a stupendous and 

inaccessible volcanic cone, midway be- 
tween Iceland and Spitzbergen, was dis- 
covered by Henry Hudson in 1607 on his 
return from the attempt to reach China 
by way of the North Pole, and called by 
him Hudson's Tutches. It now beais 
the name of Jan Mayen, a Dutch sailor, 
who rediscovered it in 161 1, and called it 
by the name of his ship the Esk. 

Japan is the English form of the Portu- 
guese Japdo, which is a corruption of the 
Chinese Zhi-pan-kwe {Jih-pan-kwe or 
Je-puen kwe), the 'kingdom of the sun- 
rise,' literally the 'sun origin kingdom.' 



In Marco Polo's travels the Chinese name 
is more correctly represented by Zipan-gu, 
Cipango, Chipan-gu, and Jifan-ku. I'he 
name Nippon or Niphon \q.v.), used by 
the Japanese for the largest island^ is be- 
lieved to be a variation of the same name. 

Jardinillos are a group of cays on the 
soutn coast of Cuba in the Baia de los 
Jardines. These names have been 
transferred from the group now called 
Cayos de las Dock Leguas, 150 miles 
further east, which Columbus discovered 
on his third voyage, and named Jardines 
de la Reyna, ' the Gardens of the Queen.' 

Jaroslav, a town on the Volga, bears the 
n ime of its founder. 

JarroW-on-Tyne, the site of Baeda's 
monastery, is called by Simeon of Dur- 
ham aet Gyrvum, 'at the fens.' Yarm, 
on the Tees, is a dialectical form of the 
same word, the oldest form (temp. Ed- 
ward I.) being Jarom, and then Yarom, 
Peterborough, we are told by Baeda, was 
in the I^egio Gyrwiorum, and in the ninth 
century the men of the fens were called 
the North Gyrwa a^d South Gyrwa. 

Jassy, the capital of Moldavia, is believed 
to bear the name of a Dacian people who 
are called Jassi in a Roman inscription. 

Jativa, or Xativa, in the Spanish pro- 
vince of Valencia, is the Satabis of Phny. 

Java is a name which exhibits the old y 
sound of the English/, and hence, with our 
modem pronunciation, ought to be written 
Yava. In the Ramdyana it is called Yava 
dvipa, the ' island oiyava, a. word winch 
means 'grain,' probably rice or millet. 
In an inscription of 762 A. D. the island 
is said to be 'excessively rich in grain 
and other seeds.' The name appears in 
Ptolemy as labadiou nesos (Java-diu), 
which he explains as meaning the ' isle 
of barley.' The Javanese call the island 
Siti- Yawa, ' the land of Yawa.' 

Jazzl, Oima dl, is one of the peaks of 
Monte Rosa. The Italian cima is believed 
to be an old Ligurian word meaning 
* mountain ' {see Cimiez), and jax is a 
local dialect word denoting a small Alpine 
meadow. 

Jedburgh, the county town of Roxburgh 
shire, is an assimilated name, being a 
corruption of Jedworth or Gedworth, the 
wortfi or estate on the River Jed, a tribu- 
tary of the Tweed. 

Jefferson City, the State capital of 
Missouri (and 203 counties, townships, 
and rivers, chiefly in Arkansas, Indiana, 
Iowa, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania), 
are named after Thomas Jefferson, third 
President of the United States* 1801-1809. 



GLOSSARY 



157 



Jelum (JhiLAm), the most westerly of the 
five rivers of the Punjab, is so called from 
the cit}r of Jhilam on its banks. Its real 
name is the Behut (Behat), a corruption 
of the old Sanskrit name Vitosid, the 
source of the Greek name Bidaspes or 
Hydaspfs, as well as of Behat. 

Jenai, a German University, near which, 
in 1806, was fought the battle in which 
Prussia was brought under the heel of 
France, is believed to be a Slavonic name, 
meaning a ' clearing' in the forest. 

Jensen's Nunatak is a peak in the 
interior of Greenland, ascended in 1878 
by Captain Jensen, a Dane. Nunatak is 
the Eskimo name for peaks standing out 
from the inland ice-sheet. 

Jersey, one of the Channel Islands, is 
usually explained as a corruption of 
CcBsarea, a very doubtful etymology. 
Jersey City, opposite New York, is so 
called from being within the limits of the 
State of New Jersey, so named in 1665 
by Sir George Carteret, who had been 
Governor of the Isle of Jersey, 

Jerusalem is the 'city of peace.' The 
earliest mention of the name is on one of 
the cuneiform tablets from Tel-el-Amarna, 
written in the reign of Khuenaten, on 
which it is called U-ru-sa-lim, the ' city 
of Salim,' the god of peace. The word 
uru, • city,' is the Assyrian dlu, Accadian 
eri. On this tablet it is called the city of 
the god Marruv, 'the lord,' whence the 
name of Mount Moriah. Marruv or 
Salim is identified with the Babylonian 
god Uras, whose name became Ares 
among the Greeks. On one of these 
tablets, Ebed-tob, the priest-king of Jeru- 
salem, a successor of Melchizedek, says 
that he had been appointed to his office 
by the oracle of the god Salim, whose 
temple stood on Mount Moriah. 

Joao da Nova was an early Portuguese 
navigator, who gave his name to the 
Ilha de Joao da Nova, in the Mozam- 
bique Channel. 

Johannes, Illia de, the great island in 

the delta of the Amazon River (known 

also by its native name Mara/6), was 

nnrxjed In honour of John iv., king of 

tugal. 

< B% a town in Illinois, commemorates 
- French explorer who in 1673 was the 
St to penetrate into this region. 

, " ~ id, at the head of Baffin's 

covered by Baffin in 1616, 

fter Alderman Sir Francis 

Lhe four London merchants 

the Discovery for Baffin's 



fifth and most important voyage. {See 
Baffin. ) 

Jordan River, the chief affluent of the 
Great Salt Lake in Utah, was so named 
by the Mormons after the great affluent of 
the Dead Sea, the Great Salt Lake of the 
Eastern Land of Promise. Jordan means 
the ' rusher ' or 'descender,' an appropriate 
name, as it descends 610 feet in its short 
course from the Sea of Galilee. It is now 
called by the Arabs either SAer/at-el-Jiredir, 
the river of 'the great ford,' or 'great 
watering place,' or simply £sh Skeriah, 
the river of 'the ford.' In 1606 the 
Spaniards gave the name Jordan to a 
river near Vera Cruz, and it has also been 
given to a river in Nova Scotia. Jordan, 
Hebron, and Nain are among the Bibli- 
cal names given by the Moravian brethren 
to their missionary stations in Labrador. 

Jorge Q-reffO, a Brazilian island near 
San Paulo, bears the name of an early 
Portuguese settler. 

Jotun-fjeldene, apparently a pseudo- 
antique name invented for the loftiest range 
in Norway, would mean 'giant moun- 
tains.' 

Juan de FucSi, the strait which separates 
Vancouver Island from the territory of the 
United States, was discovered in 1592 by 
a Spaniard, whose name it bears. 

Juan Fernandez, an island in the 
South Pacific, off the coast of Chili, bears 
the name of its discoverer, a Spanish pilot, 
who, in 1563, fell in with it on a voyage 
from Lima to Chili, and stocked it with 
goats and pigs. It is also called Mas-A- 
Tierra, ' more to land,' in contradis- 
tinction to another island, twenty miles 
further west, which is called Mas-Afuer A, 
' more out. ' The island of Juan Fernandez 
was for four years and four months the 
residence of Alexander Selkirk ('I am 
monarch of all I survey'), son of a Fife- 
shire shoemaker, who, having been sum- 
moned before the kirk-session for dis- 
orderly behaviour in church, ran away to 
sea. In October 1704 he had a dispute 
with Captain Stradling of the ship Cinque 
Ports, and at his ow^n request was put 
ashore on the uninhabited island, from 
which he was taken off in 1709. His 
adventures are supposed to have suggested 
to De Foe the tale of Robinson Crusoe. 

Jouaxe in the Seine et Marne, and 
Alajou in the H6rault, are believed to be 
corruptions of Ara Jovis. 

JufiTi * large tributary of the Dwina, is the 
Fmnic Jogi or joki, ' river,* of which we 
have a fragmient in the name of the Pinega 
and other Russian rivers. (See Ladoga.) 



158 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Ju^gremaut (JagganXtha or JaggX- 
nXthpur) is a popular name given to 
Puri, the ' city,' on the Orissa coast, which 
contains a temple of Jaggandtha, the * Lord 
of the world' (Jagat, 'the world,' and 
ndtha, ' lord '), a title of Vishnu. 

Julicb. (French Juliers), in Rhenish 
Prussia, is called Juliacus by Ammianus 
Marcellinus (fourth century). There is no 
reason for believing, as usually aflfirmed, 
that it was founded by Julius Caesar. 
More probably it was the estate ox fundus 
of some obscure Julius, who had assumed 
the name of the Julian gens. There are 
in France twenty -seven village names 
which may be thus explained, such as 

JUILLAC, JUILL^, JUILLEY, JULLl6, and 
JULLY. 

Jumiiai, the Jomanes of Pliny, an Indian 
river which joins the Ganges at Allahabad, 
is Uie English form of the Indian Jamuna 
or Yamuna. In the Hindu mythology 
Yamuna was the daughter of Surya, ' the 
sun,' and the sister of Yama. 

Junagarh, or Jhunagarh, the capital 
of KAthidwdr in Gujardt, means, accord- 
ing to the popular etymology, the ' old 
fort,' but is believed to be an interesting 
memorial of the Greek dominion in 
India, the old name Yavana-garh mean- 
ing the fortress {garh) of the Greeks; 
yavana being the Indian corruption of 
Ionian, the name by which the Greeks 
were known in India. 

JiTn g frfl.n, the * virgin,' is a peak in the 
Bernese Alps, cladjn a robe of spotless 
snow. 

Junquerai a Spanish city near Gerona, 
was the Roman Campus Juncarius, the 
• plain of rushes.* From the Low -Latin 
JuncaricB we have some fourteen French 
village names, such as JONQUifeRES (Vau- 
cluse), Jonchaire, and Jonchery. 

Jura, a limestone range in Western 
Switzerland, the Mons Jura of Caesar, is 
believed to be a name of Celtic origin, 
meaning 'forest.' In Western Switzer- 
land medieval records constantly employ 
the vfordjoria, jura, or dzoura to denote 
woodlands, and this has become Joux in 
modern French, as in Pr6 de Joux, 
while in the local patois of Western 
Switzerland the words jour, jeur, jure, 
?j\d.joux signify 'forest.' It is possibly 
the same word as the Gaelic doire, 
an 'oak wood,' from which we have 
Derry and many other names. JURA, 
one of the Hebrides, is called Doirad 
Eilinn in the Annals of Ulster. The 
Gaels seem to have taken it to mean the 



'island of oaks,' and the Norsemen as 
* deer-island.' 
Jutland, the name of the Cimbric Cher- 
sonese, is • the land of the Jutes ' [I6tas or 
liitas), the Juti of Latin writers. 

Kabul, or Cabul, the capital of Afghan- 
istan, is, according to Spiegel, a Persian 
name, meaning a 'warehouse,' or place 
for the deposit of merchandise. 

KabyliSi, in Algeria, is the district in- 
habited by the Kabyles, an Arabic name 
meaning the ' tribes ' or ' confederates.* 

Kladem means a 'foot' in Arabic. 
According to the Moslem legend the 
village of Al-Kadem, south of Damascus, 
was so called because here Mohammed 
halted without entering the city. 

Klades, a mound on the Orontes, pre- 
serves the name of the Hittite capital of 
Kadesh, 'the sanctuary.' The battle of 
Kadesh is repeatedly depicted on the 
monuments of Rameses ll. , and is the 
subject of the poem of Pentaur, the 
great Egyptian Epic. Other sacred places, 
such as kadesh Naphtali, the holy place 
of that great tribe, t)ear the same name. 
'AiN Qadis, the one large and fertile oasis 
in the desert of the Wandering, with 
a plentiful perennial spring, represents 
Kadesh Barnea, where the Israelites halted 
for thirty-eight years of their wanderings 
in the wilderness. The modern Arabic 
name of Jerusalem is El Kuds, ' the holy.' 

Kafirist^i in Central Asia, the ' land of 
the Infidels,' is a Perso- Arabic name given 
by the Iranian Moslems to the district in- 
habited by the pagan tribes of the Hindu 
Kush, who are also called Siah-posh or 
' black-robed ' Kafirs. The word Caffre 
is the Arabic Kdfir (plural kofra), ' infidel ' 
or * unbeliever ' in Islam, a name which 
skirts the zone of Moslem conquest, much 
as the word Welsh or ' foreigners ' en- 
circles the region of Teutonic occupancy. 
The name Kafir was applied to the 
Papuas of New Guinea, who were sold for 
slaves in the Philippine Islands. Caf- 
FRARIA or Kaffraria in the Cape 
Colony, is the 'land of the Kafirs* or 
unbelievers, a name given by the Swaheli 
Moslems to the neighbouring Bantu races. . 

Kaisariyeh, between Acre and Jaffa, 
preserves the name of the Roman capital 
of Palestine, built by Herod the Great, 
who called it CcBsarea in honour of 
Augustus Caesar. Another KaisarIyeh, 
in Asia Minor, represents Casarea, the 
name given to the capital of Cappadocia 
by Tiberius Caesar when he made it 
a Roman province. From the German 



GLOSSARY 



»S9 



Kaiser (Caesar) we have many names, 
such as Kaiserswerth, the ' Kaiser's 
Island,' formerly Warida, the 'island'; 
Kaiserberg, in Elsass, the 'emperor's 
hill'; or Kaiserslautern, in Bavaria, 
so called from an imperial palace on the 
River Lauter. 
'K.&lgB,!!, the frontier emporium between 
China and Asiatic Russia, is a Tartar 
word meaning the * gate. ' 

]&ali-hari, a great South African desert, 
is believed to bear a name identical in 
meaning with that of the Karri-Karri 
desert further to the south-east, signifying 
•painful' or 'tormenting.' The Great 
Karroo, an arid plateau, baked hard in 
the dry season, is from the Hottentot 
word karroo, ' hard.' 

Kalmuck Steppe, north of the Cau- 
casus, is the plain inhabited by the Kal- 
maks, a tribe of Mongolian nomads, who, 
according to their tradition, 'remained 
behind' when Jingiz Khan marched 
westward (Tatar kkdlmak, 'to stay 
behind '). 

Klalopotamo. a stream near Trebizond, 
preserves its old Greek appellation of the 
•beautiful river.' Kaloscopi, the 'fair 
view,' is the modern Greek name of the 
hill on which Elis stood. 

Kaltbad, the * cold bath * on the Rigi, 
obtains its name from a spring whose 
temperature is 41° Fahrenheit. 

Kama*, a great affluent of the Volga, and 
Kemi. a large river in Finland, are Finnic 
names meaning the * river ' (Wotiak, kam ; 
Koibal, kem ; Suomi, kemi), whence also 
the name of the KuMA, which drains the 
Northern flank of the Caucasus. The 
Nogai Tartars call it the Kuman, pro- 
nounced Kubin by the Abassians, whence 
the corrupt Russian form, Kuban. 

Kamtohatka was originally the name 
not of the whole peninsula, now so called, 
but only of the central valley, and of the 
river which flows through it. The Kamt- 
chadals call themselves Italme, which 
means the ' inhabitants. ' The names 
Kamtcha-tka scoA-JCamtcha-dal are sup- 
posed to heiTomkamsMtt^tL'Tnoxi* {homo). 
According to a tradition Kamtchat-ka 
and Kamtchad-al are names of Cossack 
origin, derived from the name of Kont- 
shat, a native chief. 

Kanakas, 'the men,' is a name given 
to natives of the Sandwich Islands. . 

Kandahar, or Candahar, the largest 

city in Afghanistan, is supposed to have 
been one of the military colonies called 
Alexandria, which were fotmded by Alex- 



ander the Great, the Eastern form of 
whose name is Scandar or Iskandar. 
Colonel Yule, however, thinks it was most 

firobably a name transferred from the 
ndian people who were called Gandhara, 

Kandy (KAndi), formerly spelt Candy. 
became the capital of Ceylon in 1592. 
The name is believed to be a Portuguese 
corruption of a native word meaning the 

• hill • or the ' hills.' The inhabitants call 
it Mahd-nuvera, the 'great city,' or 
simply Nura, the ' town.' 

Kane's Sea, north of Smith's Sound* 
was discovered by Dr. Kane, an American 
explorer. 

Kangaroo Island, off the coast of 

South Australia, was so named by Flinders 
in 1802 on account of a seasonable supply 
of Kangaroo meat obtained by his crew, 

* after four months' deprivation from 
almost any fresh provisions.' The Wal- 
laby Islands, were so named by Stokes 
from a small species of Kangaroo, called 
Wallaby by the natives, which he found 
there in great numbers. 

Trn.nfiM.a^ one of the United States, ad- 
mitted in 1858, is watered by the Kansas 
or Kaws River, which like the Arkansas 
River {q.v.) bears the name of the Akan- 
sea, Ka(n)se, or Kaws tribe, a branch of 
the Sioux. Kansas City stands at the 
junction of the Kansas River and the 
Missouri. 

Karapiti, a crater in New Zealand, 
means ' round shaped ' in Maori. 

Kara Sea, south of Novaya Zemlya, is so 
called from the small river Kara, which 
here divides Europe from Asia (Samo- 
yedic kar, the ' east '). 

Karl XII. Island, north-east of Spitz- 
bergen, was discovered in 1861 by Nor- 
denskiold's Swedish expedition, and 
named after ' the madman of the north.' 

Kasan, the old Tartar capital on the 
Volga, is a Tartar name signifying a 
•hollow,' literally a 'kettle.' 

Kasimoff, a Russian town on the Oka, 
bears the name of Kasim, a Tartar 
prince to whom it was given about 1452 
by Basil the Dark. 

Kater Isle and Cape Kater, in Baffin's 
Bay, are among the names given in recog 
nition of Captain Henry Kater's improve- 
ments in scientific instruments, especially 
the pendulum and the compass. 

KfCthi^'W^, a district in Gujardt, is the 
•country of the Kdthi,' the people of 
Kach (Cutch) by whom it was overrun in 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 



i6o 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



The RuNN OF CuTCH is the designation 
of the sandflats and salt wastes, often 
covered by high tides, which extend be- 
tween the peninsula of Cutch and the 
mainland. Runn (Ran) is a corruption 
of the Sanskrit irina^ a 'salt swamp ' or 
* desert. ' 

Kdthmandli {Kdshthamandapa), the 
capital of Nepal, takes its name, which 
signifies a ' wooden edifice,' from a build- 
ing near the palace erected in 1598 to 
accommodate religious mendicants. 

^Kattegat, between Sweden and Den- 
mark, mistranslated Trou de Chat in 
French, is the 'ship-passage' {kati, a 
'boat 'or 'ship,' and ^(tz/a, a 'gate' or 
•passage'). 

Katungra, formerly the capital of Yoruba 
in Western Africa, signifies the ' wall ' or 
•building.' 

Klaumayet, ' the shining,' is the Eskimo 
name of a mountain range in Labrador. 

Klavah-Upas, the 'poisonous crater,' 
a volcano in Java, is so called from its 
sulphurous fumes. 

Kdveri or Cauvery (Tamil Kdvira), 
a large river in Southei n India, is possibly 
from the Dravidian kavi, 'red ochre,' 
and erif a 'river' or 'sheet of water,' 
the river in flood assuming a reddish hue. 
It is more probably the Tamil ka-viri, 
'grove developer' [ka, a 'grove'), the 
river being fringed by forest. 

Kaye'S Island, off the north-west coast 
of America, was named by Cook in 1778 
in compliment to Dr. Kaye, afterwards 
Bishop of Lincoln. 

£^zbeo, one of the loftiest peaks in the 
Caucasus, 16,532 feet in height, takes its 
name from a village of the same name 
at its foot. It is called Mquinwari, the 
•ice mountain,' by the Georgians, and 
Urssc/ioekf the ' white mountain,' by the 
Ossetes. 

Keats, Port, in Western Australia, and 
Point Keats, in Arctic America, were 
named after Admiral Sir R. G. Keats. 

EL'edela, the ' wall,* is the Georgian name 
of a precipitous snow mountain in the 
Caucasus. 

Keelingr Islands, a group in the Indian 
Ocean, 600 miles south of Sumatra, were 
discovered in 1609 by William Keeling on 
his way home from the Moluccas. 

Keldt, Khelat, or Kalat, the capital 
of Beliichistan, which gives a name to the 
state of Keldt, is an Arabic word mean- 
ing a • castle ' or ' fort.* The terminal / is 
only pronounced when the word is the 



first part of a compound name, as in 
Calat-Ayud (q.v.). Kel4t must there- 
fore mean ' Castle of Nasir Khan,' the last 
part of the name having been drooped. 
KelAt-I-Nadiri, the 'fort of Nadir 
Shah,' is a natural fortress in the North of 
Persia, 60 miles in circuit, and defended 
by a parapet of naked vertical rock, 700 
to 1000 feet in height, where Nadir Shall 
deposited the spoils of India and the 
treasures of the Great Moghul. We have 
the same word in many Spanish and 
Sicilian names, such as Alcala and 
Caltanisetta, and also in Galata, a 
suburb of Constantinople, and in Kale- 
DAGH, 'castle hill,' and Kalederessi, 
•castle valley,' in Asia Minor. GelAa, 
in Kabylia, is a natural fortress surrounded 
by ravines and scarped precipices. 

Klelephina, the ' murderous,' is the 
modern Greek name of a river near Spai ta, 
by whose sudden floods cattle are often 
drowned. 

£^ells, in Meath, is a corruption of Kenlis^ 
of which Headfort, the English translation, 
gives a title to an Irish marquisate. 

Kelso. Roxburghshire, was called in the 
twelfth century Calkou, the ' chalk hill,' a 
calcareous hill near the town being still 
called the Chalk Heugh. 

iKempland, south of Kerguelen Land, 
bears the name of the captain of a whaling 
vessel who discovered it in 1833. Cape 
Kempe in Fuegia was named afier one of 
Fitzroy's officers. 

Kempten, in Bavaria, is the Reman 
Campodunum. Another Kempten, near 
Bingen, was called in the eighth century 
Chamunder Marca, plainly a tribal name. 

Kendal, properly Kirkby in Kendal, 
stands in the dale of the River Kent or 
Ken, but Kendal in Yorkshire is Cheldal 
in Domesday, meaning the dale with a 
spring or well [kelda), 

Kendall Islands and Cape Kendall 
in Arctic America, bear the name of an 
officer in Franklin's second expedition. 

Kendengr, a common name in Java, 
signifies a 'mountain range.' Karang, 
a mountain in Java, means 'rock' in 
Malay. 

Kenilworth, in Warwickshire, is called 
in a charter Cinildewyrth, which would 
mean the 'estate of Cynehild,' a female 
name. It is said to have been a manor 
of Cenwulf, king of the Mercians, but this 
seems to be merely an etymological guess. 

Kennedy CQiannel, the northern 

continuation of Smith's Sound, was dis- 
covered by Kane in 1853, and named after 



GLOSSARY 



i6i 



J. P. Kennedy, one of his predecessors in 
Arctic exploration. Kennedy Island, 
LrAKE Kennedy, Kennedy Range, and 
Kennedy River, bear the name of E. 
B. Kennedy, an Australian explorer. 
Kennedy River, Lake Kennedy, 
and Kennedy Range in Vancouver's 
Island, bear the name of a Governor of 
the colony. 

Kenn's Beef, between New Guinea and 
Australia, was discovered in 1827 by 
Alexander Kenn, in the merchant ship 
William Shand, 

Klenoblll, a convent in the Lebanon in 
which the Maronite patriarch resides, is a 
corruption of the Greek Coenobion. 

Kensinsrton, Middlesex, (Domesday. 
Chenesitun) is probably from the proper 
name Cynesige, 

Kent is a name the meaning of which has 
been much discussed, but without any 
very definite result The Roman name 
was CanHuMt and the British name, as 
we are told by the Welsh writers, was 
Ghent or CeinL According to Owen 
Pughe caint was a Welsh word meaning 
a plain, field, or open country, which 
would well describe the woodless wolds of 
the chalk downs, as distinguished from 
the great forest of Anderida, now known 
as the Weald of Kent. The Romans 
may easily have made Caint into Cantium. 
On the other hand, Ptolemy apparently 
employs the name Kantion for the North 
Foreland ; hence it has been supposed 
that the Cymric name was a misunder- 
stood form of a Gaelic Ceann-tir, the 
• head of the land.' Professor Rhys, with 
more reason, explains Cant-ium from 
the Welsh cant, a* rim* or 'margin.' 
According to another theory Cantium 
became known to the Romans through 
the Teutonic tribes at the mouth of the 
Scheldt, in whose Frisian speech Kant 
meant a 'cliff' {See Heligoland), and 
Mr. Wedgewood compares the name 
with the Danish Kant, which means the 
'sea-coast.' Mr. Stokes suggests an ex- 
planation fi-om the British cant, ' bright,' 
a word cognate with the Latin candidus, 
and in like manner Esser explains the 
name as referring to the 'white' chalk 
cliffs of the South Foreland. North 
Kent, Duke op Kent's Bay, Duchess 
OF Kent's Range, and Prince Ed- 
ward's Cape, all in Arctic America, 
were named in honour of the parents of 
Queen Victoria. Kent's Group in Bass 
Strait, was named by Flinders in 1798 
after his friend Captain William Kent, 



and Cape James Kent, in Kane's Sea, 
was named by Kane after a firiend. 

Elentish Town, a London suburb, was 
so called from the prebendal manor of 
Cantlers or Kantelowes, on which it was 
built. (See Camden Town.) 

Kentucky, one of the United States, 
admitted in 1792, bears an Iroquois name, 
Kahenia-ke 'where plains are,' -ke being 
the locative suffix, and Kahenta being con- 
tracted to Kenta, which we have in Quints 
Canada. This is better than the old explana- 
tion * bloody ground,' from tribal conflicts. 

Kepi)ers Isle, one of the Friendly 
Islands, discovered by Wallis in 1767, 
Keppel's Island, one of the Queen 
Charlotte Group, Keppel's Islands and 
Keppel's Bay in Queensland, discovered 
by Cook in 1770, were all named in 
honour of Admiral Lord Keppel. 

Elerak, ' the fortress,' a stronghold of the 
Crusaders near the Dead Sea, was the 
castle of Renaud of Chatillon, slain by 
Saladin. It occupied the site of the Bib- 
lical Kir-Moab, the 'fortress of Moab." 
The name Kerak (Syriac karkd, a • fort- 
ress') is as old as the time of the Macca- 
bees. Being the chief place in the land 
of Moab. it gives names to the Wady and 
the district of Kerak. In Asiatic Turkey, 
140 miles north of Bagdad, we have a 
similar name, Kerkuk, a corruption of 
Karkd a Beth Slok, * the fortress of the 
house of Seleucia.' 

KerSTuelen Land, an Antarctic Island, 
was discovered by me French navigator 
Kerguelen in 1772. Till proved by Cook 
to be an island it was supposed to be a 
I)art of the hypothetical Antarctic con- 
tinent. 

Kermadeo Islands, north of New 

Zealand, were discovered in 1793 hy 
d'Entrecasteaux, and named after one of 
his officers. 

Kern River and Kern Lake, in Cali- 
fornia, were named in 1846 after one of 
Fremont's companions, killed in 1853 by 
the Utah Indians. 

Kerry, an Irish county, is, like Dorset or 
Essex, a tribal rather than a territorial 
name. The old form was Ciar-raidhe, 
the tribe or ' race of Ciar,' who, according 
to Irish tradition, was a son of Fergus, 
king of Ulster. 

Elersers, a village in Freiburg, is a cor- 
ruption of the Latin name Ad Carceres. 

Kertoh, Straits of, connecting the 
Black Sea and the Sea of AzoV, are so 
called from the town of Kertch (Russian 



l62 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



ICrUheff), which is probably a corruption 
of the descriptive Genoese name Cerchio, 
' the circle ' or ' round.' 

Klesmark, in Hungary, originally one. of 
the Saxon settlements, is believed to be a 
corruption of the German Kasemarkt^ 
•cheese market.* In medieval Latin 
dociunents it appears by the translated 
name Forum Caseorum. 

Klesteven is one of the ridings or ' parts' 
of Lincolnshire. It includes the steep 
limestone range locally called ' The Cliflf.' 
The A.S. name Ceostefne is imexplained, 
but the Domesday form, Chetsteven^ sup- 
ports a conjecture of Mr. Bradley that the 
first element in the name may be the 
Celtic coed, a 'wood,' the district having 
been densely wooded before the Norman 
Conquest, in which case Steven might mean 
' dense ' ( Welsh ystyfnig, ' stubborn *). 

Key "West, one of the Florida Ke3rs, a 
low coral island, is a curious English 
assimilation of the Spanish name Cayo 
Hueso, ' bone reef,* so called because of a 
quantity of bones, supposed to be those of 
the aborigines, found there by the Span- 
iards. From the Spanish cayo, a ' shoal ' 
or • reef,' we have Rum Cay, Salt Cay, 
Sand Cay, and the other numerous Cays 
or Keys in the West Indies, as well as the 
Pacific Islands called K]£ or Kl. {See 
Cayo.) 

Khalkha, or Chalcha, which means 
' the frontier,' is the Mongolian name of 
the district contiguous to the great Wall 
of China. 

Elhartum, in Nubia, at the confluence of 
the Blue and the White Nile, was founded 
in 1823 by Mohammed Ali on a spit of 
land called from its shsLpel^as eZ-HTAar/um, 
*the cape {ras) of the elephant's trunk* 
(kharium). 

Kherson, or Cherson, a town near the 
mouth of the Dnieper, was founded in 
1778, and so named because it was 
erroneously supposed that the site was 
that of the old Greek city of Chersonesus 
Heracleotica, founded by the Dorians of 
Heraclea in the Tauric Chersonesus. 

Khiva, a town of Central Asia in an oasis 
in the desert, was formerly called Khaivak, 
a name explained by Vamb^ryfrom the 
Turkic word khavak, 'dry,' applied to 
the steppe by which it is approached. 

Khor^san, or KhorXssan, the 'land 
of the sun,' now the north-east province 
of Persia, was so called because it formed 
the eastern quarter of the four parts into 
which the Sassanian monarchy was 
divided. 



Kbotan, a town in Eastern Turkestan, is 

believed to be a corruption of Ku-stana, 

a ' nipple,' or * teat,* an Aryan name re- 

< ferring to the shape of the hill on which 

it stands. 

Elhyber (KhAibar), a pass through the 
Khaibar hills, leads from Peshawar to 
Cabul. The hills and the pass are so 
called from the village of Haibar or 
Khaibar. 

ELiaohtSi, the frontier town on the trade 
route between Russia and China, stands 
on the River Kiachta, a name derived 
from the Mongolian word for a grass 
(Triticum ripens), which affords excel- 
lent fodder for the transport animals. 

KianfiT-nan, a Chinese province, means 
' south of the river ' {kiang). So Kiang- 
PEH is the province * north of the river,' 
and KiANG-si that 'west of the river.' 
The name of the province of Kiang-Su 
means ' abundance of rivers,' inasmuch as 
it is watered by the two great rivers, the 
HOANG-HO or 'yellow river,' and the 
Yang-Tsi, the 'son of the ocean,' also 
called Yang-Tsi -Kiang, whose lower 
course goes by the name of Ta-Kiang, 
or ' great river,' being the largest river in 
China. The western arm of the Canton 
River is called Si-Kiang, ' west river,' the 
northern arm is the Pe-Kiang, 'north 
river,' and the eastern arm is the Tong- 
Kiang, ' east river,' all joining the Ta- 
Kiang or ' great river,' which forms the 
main stream. The Tsin-Kiang is the 
•clear river,' the Kin-Kiang is the 
• golden river,' and the Hoang-Kiang in 
Tonquin is the 'yellow river.' 

Kiokingr-Horse Peas, which crosses 

the Rocky Mountains in Lat. si** N., 
is so called from the Kicking- Horse 
River, in crossing which the geologist 
Hector received a kick in the chest wmch 
laid him up for several days. . 

Kidderminster, Worcestershire (A.S. 
Chider-minster), was the minster bmlt by 
Earl Cynebert on the brow or cliff above 
the Stour. It is commonly alleged, but 
without due authority, that there was a 
British word chedder, meaning a ' cliff,' 
which we have in the name of the Ched- 
der Hills, Somerset, whence the name 
of Chedder cheese. 

Kidnappers, Cape, at the southern 
extremity of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, 
was so called by Cook, in 1769, because a 
boy who had been brought from the 
Society Islands was kidnapped by the 
Maoris, who, however, were so frightened 
by the discharge of a gun, that the boy 
managed to escape by swimming. 



r^ 



GLOSSARY 



163 



Kiel, 'the bay,' in the provinoe of Schles- 
wig Holstein, is the great arsenal of the 
German fleet (Dutch kiel, a 'bay,' Nor- 
wegian ktl, a 'small bay/ O.N. kill, a 
'channel'). 

Elienfir-Kei, the ' district of the Court,' 
the chief province of Corea, contains the 
capital Seoul, Kieng, or Kieng-kei- 
TAO, which is the permanent residence of 
the Court. (See Peking.) 

Kligrla.pait, the ' great saw teeth,' is the 
Eskimo name of a serrated mountain 
range in Labrador. Kikkertarsoak, 
' great island,' is the Elskimo name of an 
island on the Greenland coast. 

K'll or Kel means ' people ' or ' tribe' in 
Berber, as in Kil-Tamar, the ' people 
of Taraar,' Kel-owi, the ' people of Owi,* 
Kel-ulli, the * goat-herds ' or ' people of 
the goats.' 

Kildare, an Irish county, takes its name 
from the cotmty town Kildare, a corrup- 
tion of Cill-dara^ the 'cell of the oak,' 
under whose boughs, according to the 
legend, St. Brigit constructed her cell. 
Kilkenny, another Irish county, takes 
its name from the town of Kilkenny, the 
* church of St. Cainnech ' (517-598), abbot 
of Aghabo, Queen's County. Killarney, 
in Kerry, \s2LCOTT\xp\.\onoi Cill-eameadh, 
the ' church of the sloes.' Killaloe is 
Cill-dalua, the 'church of St. Lua' or 
Dalua. Kilbride is the name of thirty- 
five Irish parishes, from churches dedi- 
cated to St. Brigit, and Kilmurey of 
fifty dedicated to St. Mary. Kilmain- 
HAM, the site of a large prison near 
Dublin, is the 'church of St. Maighnenn,' 
who was abbot in the seventh century. The 
name has acquired by assimilation the 
English ending -ham. We have a curious 
corruption in Closeburn, Dumfriesshire, 
which appears in 1200 as Kylosbem, 
the 'cell of St. Osbern,' and in Killa- 
MARSH, Derbyshire, which is ' Cynewold's 
marsh.' Nor can Kilburn, Middlesex, 
be the 'stream by the cell,' as the Bene- 
dictine nunnery founded in the reign of 
Henry I. was at first called Cunebum, or 
Keneburn, which only became Kilburn in 
the thineenih century. Though there are 
some 2700 Irish names with the prefix kil-, 
which means either 'church' or 'monas- 
tic cell,' yet since the Latin cella does not 
seem to have become an English loan 
word before the thirteenth century, we 
must distrust the tradition that the cell of 
Robert de Alneto, which in 1138 was con- 
verted into a Cistercian Abbey, gave a 
name to Kilburn in Yorkshu-e, which 
probably means ' the cold burn.' 



TT^HTvifl. is a common East African moun- 
tain name, which we have in Kilima- 
njaro or Kilima-Ndjaro, a mountain 
22,000 feet high, Ndjaro being the name 
of a demon believed to bring cold. The 
Wa-kilima or Wa-kirima tribe are * the 
mountaineers. ' (See Quilimani. ) 

Killersoak^ ' the great wound ' or ' hurt,' 
an island ofif the coast of Labrador, was, 
according to tradition, the scene of a 
bloody struggle between the Eskimos and 
the Red Men. 

EUxn-Bandi, 'the land of pots,' is a 
clayey district in Benguela to which neigh- 
bouring tribes resort for pottery. 

Kixnberley^ in South Africa, was named 
after Lord Kimberley, Colonial Secretary. 

Elixnboltoil, Hunts, called Kynehauton 
in 1276, is probably the tin of Cynebald. 
It stands on a river now called the Kym, 
a name seemingly an antiquarian fiction 
evolved out of Kimbolton. Chilbolton, 
in Hants, also apparently a southern 
occurrence of the northern form bolton, is 
Ceolbaldington in a charter, evidently from 
a personal name. 

EUnohinjanJa, one of the loftiest sum- 
mits of the Himalaya, 28,156 feet in 
height, is a Tibetan name meaning ' the 
five treasuries of the lofty snow,* so called 
fi-om the five great snowfields which sur- 
round the peak. 

EZinderton, near Middlewich inCheshire, 
is a corruption of the Celtic name Condate, 
a word meaning a ' confluence,' of which 
various places in France called Condj^ 
(q.v.) are obvious corruptions. We learn 
from the Antonine Itinerary that the 
Roman station of Condate was twenty 
miles from Deva (Chester), and eighteen 
from Mancunium (Manchester). At Kin- 
derton there is a Roman camp; it is 
twenty miles from Chester and nineteen 
from Manchester, and is at the conflu- 
ence of the Dane and the Weaver. But 
Congleton, frequently identified with 
Condate, is thirty-one miles from Man- 
chester, and the Domesday form Cogletone 
suggests that Congleton may have been 
a tun surrounded by a fence built of 
* coggles ' or pebbles, the n being intrusive 
and merely euphonic. 

Elingr's County and Queen's County 
formed the territory of the O'Mores, the 
O'Connors, and the O'Carrolls, which was 
forfeited in Elizabeth's reign. The western 
district was constituted into a shire in 
1557, and called King's County by Queen 
Maiy, in honour of her husband King 
Phiup, the assize town being called 



164 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Philipstown, the eastern district, with 
Maryborough for its county town, being 
named Queen's County (q.v. ). 

Elingrs, The Three, three small islands 
at the northern extremity of New Zealand, 
were discovered by Tasman on January 
6tb, 1643, ^c festival of the three kings, 
which we call the Epiphany. 

Kingrston is the name of twenty-two places 
in England, and Kington of nine, several 
of which appear in charters as Cynin^estiln, 
Cingestilrtt Cyngtiln, or Kingt'dn^ all 
denoting royal manors. KlNGSTON-ON- 
Thames was a royal demesne, where 
seven kings, from Edwin in 901 to Ethel- 
red in 978 were crowned. It is usually 
asserted that the name is Kings-stone, 
referring to the ancient coronation stone, 
still preserved in the centre of the town, 
but this is disproved by the A.S. name 
Cyninges tiin. Kingston, at the outlet 
of Lake Ontario, was so named in honour 
of George 11. when Canada was taken by 
the English. It was previously called 
Fort Frontenac, from the Comte de Fron- 
tenac who had improved its defences. 
Kingston, the capital of Jamaica, was 
founded after the destruction of Port 
Royal by an earthquake in 1692, and was 
named in compliment to William 11 1. 
Kingston, New York, settled in 1665, 
was named in compliment to Charles 11. 
The capital of the island of St. Vincent also 
bears the name of Kingstown. Kings- 
town, the mail packet station for Dublin, 
was formerly called Dunleary, but was 
renamed Kingstown in compliment to 
George iv. when he embarked here for 
England after his visit to Ireland in i8ai. 
Kingsgate, in the Isle of Thanet, was a 
name given to commemorate the spot 
where Charles il. landed on his return 
from exile. Kingsclere, Hants, was 
a residence of the kings of Wessex, the 
SMf^x-clere. which we have in BuRGH- 
CLERE. HiGHCLERE, and a few other 
names, signifying, it is supposed, a palace. 
Kingsbury, close to Houghton Regis, 
is supposed to mark the site of the palace 
built by Henry I. near Dunstable. 

Elingr Sound and King's Cove, North 
Australia, Cape King in the South Shet- 
lands, and Point King, near the mouth 
of the Mackenzie River, bear the name 
of Captain P. P. King, who surveyed 
the Australian coasts between 18 18 and 
1822. King Island, at the mouth of the 
Great Fish River, bears the name of 
Richard King, who took part in Back's 
expedition. King's Island, in Bass 
Strait, and King's Island, New Cale- 



donia, bear the name of Philip Gidley 
King, Governor of New South Wales, 
1800-1806. King's Island in the Bering 
Sea, discovered in 1778, bears the name 
of James King, one of Cook's officers. 

Khltbury, Berks, (A.S. Cynetan byrig) 
as well as Kennet in Wilts, take their 
names from the River Kennet (A.S. 
Cynefe) on which they stand. 

Kintsrre or Cantire, the great peninsula 
in Argyll, is from the Gaelic ceann-iir^ the 
' head of the land.' In Scotch and Iri^ 
names re/z»» (nom. ) or cinn(<daX. ), ' a head,' 
corresponding to the Welsh pen, is a com- 
mon element. KiNCARDiNE,.near the head 
of the Firth of Forth, is the Gaelic cinn 
gairdein, * head of the arm ' or inlet of the 
sea. KiNTAiL, which stands at the head 
of Loch Duich, a sea loch, has the same 
signification, being from the Gaelic ceann- 
t-saile, the 'head of the brine' or salt 
water, and Kinsale, in County Cork, 
means the same. Kenmare, in Kerry, is 
ceann-mara, the 'head of tlie sea.' It is 
the highest point in a long sea loch to 
which the tide reaches. KI^fLOCH, the 
' head of the loch,' is the name of several 
places at the upper end of Scotch lochs, as 
KiNLOCH Rannoch and Kinloch Ard, 
at the heads of Loch Rannoch and Loch 
Ard. Kenmore is ceann-mdr, the ' great 
head ' ; Kinnaird is the ' head of the 
height'; Kingussie, the 'head of the 
fir wood ' ; Kinross, which gives its name 
to a Scotch county, is the ' head of the 
wood,' and Kanturk, in County Cork, 
was anciently ceann^tuirc, the 'boar's 
head. ' 

Kirgrhiz Steppe, in Central Asia, is in- 
habited by the Kirghiz Hordes. The 
Kirghiz are the 'Steppe rangers,' from kir^ 
'desert, and ^Ai>, 'rangers.' Horde is 
the English corruption of ordu or urdu, a 
' camp.' The Kara Kirghiz Horde are 
so named from the colour of their tents 
{kara, ' black '). The Middle Horde call 
themselves Kasaks, the ' riders ' or horse- 
men, a name which the Russians have 
adopted in the form Cossack. The Kir- 
ghiz folk-etymology explains their name 
by a legend about forty girls and a dog 
(kyrk, ' forty ' and kyz, a ' maiden *). An- 
other legend, given by Radlof, is that the 
tents of one horde were forty {kyrk), and 
those of the other horde were a hundred 
(fj), Kyrk-is thus meaning 140. 

Kirk's Rangre. west of the River Shire, 
was so named oy Livingstone in 1863, 
after Dr. Kirk, afterwards Sir John Kirk, 
the resident at Zanzibar. 

Kirkwall, the chief town in the Orkneys, 



GLOSSARY 



»6S 



possessing a cathedral built by Earl Ragn- 
vald, is a corruption of the Scandinavian 
name Kirkjuvagr, afterwards Kirkvaw, 
'church bay.' Kirby, 'church village,' 
a common name in the Danish districts, 
usually has a distinguishing suffix. Thus 
Kirby Moorside stands Inside the York- 
shire Moors; Kirby Underdale is in the 
Hundledale or dale of the Hundle beck ; 
Kirby Grindalythe is in the green dale 
district (A.S. IcBth, a lathe or district, O.N. 
Idth, a levy) ; Kirkby Wharfe stands 
on the Wharfe; Kirby Wisk on the 
Wisk, and Kirby Lonsdale in the dale 
of the Lune. (See Kendal.) 

TTiaTTm is the Arabic name of an island 
at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, so called 
from its chief town, Kishm, which means 
' beautiful. ' In Persian it is called Jeze- 
R AT- AT-T A WILAH, 'long island.' 

.Kisliar, ' the girls,' a town on the Kisliar, 
one of the mouths of the River Terek, 
which falls into the Caspian, was so called, 
according to the local tradition, because 
superfluous girls were formerly drowned 
in the stream. 

Kissin^en, the celebrated Bavarian 
baths, IS an assimilated German form of 
the ninth century Slavonic vi2oait.Chizzicha, 
descriptive of the ' bitter bubbling ' water 
of the chief spring. 

Elistna, an Indian river, is probably not 
named from the god Krisna, as sometimes 
asserted, but is rather the ' black ' river, 
so called from the dark alluvial soil 
through which it flows. 

Kitchi-NatohL the 'great spit,' is the 
Ojibwy name of the great promontory 
which stretches far into Lake Winnipeg. 

Kittiks-unsroit, the ' small islands,' is 
the Eskimo name of a Greenland group. 

KinsilL the 'nine districts,' the southern- 
most oi the Japanese islands, is so called 
from the number of the provinces into 
which it is divided. 

EUagrenfurt, the capital, of Carinthia, is 
probably the ford over the River Chlagen 
(now called the Glan), and not, as some- 
times asserted, a corruption of Claudii 
Forum. 

E^apmuts, the ' riding cap,' a mountain 
in the Cape Colony, so called from its 
shape, has given its name to an adjacent 
town. 

Klausen, Klause or Klaus, the ' clo- 
sure,' is a common name for Alpine 
defiles, where the mountains close upon 
the road. Klausenburg, the capital of 
Transylvania, received its name in 1178 
from the Saxon colonists, probably from 



a desire to render significant the Magyar 
name Kolozsvar^ ' the fortress of Kolozs,' 
which is still the name of the county in 
which it is situated. 

Elaver, ' clover,' a town in the Cape 
Colony, and Klaver Vley, 'clover 
valley,' are so called from the luxuriant 
herbage. 

Elleb, the 'heart,' a volcanic cone in the 
Hauran, is so called from its shape. 

Elling, the name given to the Dravidian 
settlers in the Malay Peninsula, is from 
Kelinga or Telinga, the Malay pronuncia- 
tion of Telugu. 

EUngren, a 'ravine,' is not uncommon in 
Swiss names, such as Klingenberg, 
Klingenbach or Klingau. Klingen- 
zell, in Canton Thurgau, derives its 
name from the cell or monastery of Maria 
Hilf, founded by John Walter of Hohen- 
klingen, who, attacked by a wild boar 
when hunting, made a vow to found a 
chapel to the Virgin in gratitude for his 
preservation. 

Ellipfontein and Klipberg, in the 
Cape Colony, are from the Dutch klip, 
a 'cliff.' 

Klosterthal, in the Vorarlberg, means 
the ' convent dale.' 

Knee Lake is the name of three knee- 
shaped lakes in the Canadian dominion. 

Knocker's Bay, Port Essington, North 
Australia, was so called because a hafted 
stone axe was found there by the dis- 
coverers in 1818. 

Knuokle Point, New Zealand, was so 
named by Cook in 1769 from its shape. 

Eloft, a town on the Nile below Thebes, 
represents the old Kopics, where the monu- 
ments of the earliest dynasties have been 
found. (See Copt. ) 

Klola*, a town on the River Kola, gives its 
name to the Peninsula of Kola, north of 
the White Sea. 

Kong*, which means ' mountains,' is the 
Man dingo name of the coast range in 
Guinea. (See Congo. ) 

Kloniell, near Smyrna, represents the old 
name Jconium. 

K^ni^bergr, the 'King's hill,' in East 
Prussia, was so called from the castle the 
Bohemian King Otakar Premysel built in 
1255, and called Kr61ewicz, a Slavonic 
name of which Konigsberg is the German 
translation. KOnigsfelden, the ' King's 
plain,' a town in Baden, grew up round 
a monastery biiilt by Agnes, Queen of 
Hungary, on the spot where her father, 
King Albrecht of Habsburg, son of the 



1 66 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Emperor Rudolf iii., was stabbed by 
John of Swabia in 1308. The high altar 
marks the spot where he expired in the 
arms of a poor beggar-woman. Such 
names as Konigs-stuhl, Konigshofen, 
etc., are common in Germany. From 
the Swedish kong, ' king.' we have sundry 
Scandinavian names such as Kongsberg, 

KONGSDAL, or KONGSTRUP. 

EloiiakS, a tribe to the North of Kam- 
tchatka, are the 'reindeer people,' kora 
or chora meaning a 'reindeer' in the 
Koriak language. 

Kosciuszko, Mount, in New South 
Wales, one of the summits of the Aus- 
tralian Alps (6500 feet high), was so called 
by Count Strzelecki because its form 
resembled the tumulus raised at Cracow 
over the grave of the great Polish patriot. 

Kotelnoi Ostrov, * Kettle island,' the 
largest of the New Siberia Islands, was 
discovered in 1773 by the Russian merchant 
LUchow. The name is supposed to have 
been transferred from the island of the 
same name near St. Petersburg on which 
the fortress of Cronstadt stands. 

Kotzebue Sound is a large gulf north 
of Bering Strait which Cook passed with- 
out noticing it. It was discovered in 18 16 
by the Russian Lieutenant von Kotzebue, 
who informs us that at the unanimous 
request of his shipmates he consented to 
bestow upon it his own name. 

Krenitzin Islands, a group in the 

Aleutian chain, were discovered by a 
Russian Captain, whose name they bear. 

Kremlin, tiie citadel of Moscow, means 
the • fortress.' 

Sreuzlingen, in Canton Thurgau, is so 
called from a monastery which prided 
itself on the possession of a fragment 
of the true Cross. Kreuzli, the ' little 
cross,' a pass between Canton Uri and the 
Graubiinden, takes its name from a small 
iron cross at the summit. 

Kronune Rivler, the 'crooked river,' 
in the Cape Colony, is so called from its 
tortuous course. There is a river of the 
same name at Utrecht. 

Krusenstem (or Ailu), an island in 
Marshall's Archipelago, was discovered 
by Kotzebue in 1816, and bears the name 
of Admiral Krusenstern, the first Russian 
who circumnavigated the world (1803-6). 
His name has also been given to two 
Arctic Capes, to an island in Bering 
Straits, and to an island in the Dangerous 
Archipelago, also known by the native 
name Tikehau. 

Kufstein, in the Tyrol, appears in the 



tenth century as Chuofstdn^ a nd.rae ex- 
plained by the 'bowl -shaped rock* on 
which the castle dominating the pass was 
built. 

Kuka, or KuEAWA, near Lake Tsad, is 
the capital of the kingdom of Bomu. It 
received its name from a monkey bread- 
tree {Adansonia digitata), locally called 
kuka, which attracted the attention of the 
settlers as being a rare tree in this district. 

Klulijai, locally pronounced Gulja, is a large 
town in Chinese Tartary on the River 
Ili. The word gulja means an ' elk ' or 
' moimtain goat. ' It is also called Ili 
Balik and Ili Khoto, names signif3dng the 
' town on the Hi.' 

Klultuk means a ' gulf in Russian. The 
north-east bay of the Caspian is called 
Mertvy Kultuk, the ' Dead Gulf,' 
because of the stillness of the water. 
Other bays on the Caspian are called 
GoLYi Kultuk, 'naked gulf,' and Bo- 
GATYi Kultuk, * rich gulf. 

KunterswefiT is a district in the T3n"ol, 
through which, in 1314, Heinrich Kunter, 
a burgher of Botzen, made a road. 

Klunupeli is a marshy coast district in 
Elis, mfested by the Culex cunupi, a 
minute midge. 

ELur, a river flowing into the Caspian, 
whence the name of the Georgians (q.v. ) 
is the Cyrus of Pliny. 

Klurdistan is the country of the Kurds, 
the ' braves ' or valiant men. At the 
dawn of history they were called Gutu, 
' warriors,' of which Gardu or Kardu was 
the Ass3Tian translation, whence the Greek 
name Karduchi, In Armenian kordu, 
and in Persian gurd^ means 'valiant.' 
In Georgian kurd means a 'robber,' and 
in Turkish kurt means a ' wolf.' 

Klurile Islands, a chain stretching from 
Japan to Kamtchatka, bear the nam. 
of the inhabitants, who call themselves 
Kurili, the ' men ' or the ' people.' 

Klurisohes Haff, on the Baltic, is the 
Courland Haven or gulf. 

Klusnetsk, the • smithy,' is a Siberian 
mining town on the River Tom, founded 
in 16 18. 

Kustendji, or Constantino, is a port 
on the Black Sea near the mouth of the 
Danube. Both names are corruptions of 
the old name Constantia, given in honour 
of the sister of the Emperor Constantius 
to the city of Flavia Nea, founded by Titus. 

KlUstrin, a fortress on the Oder, is sur- 
rounded by a sedgy marsh, which explains 
the Slavonic name Kozirsyn, ' reed basket. ' 



GLOSSARY 



167 



Kutab Minar, at Delhi, often called 
the ' polestar minaret/ was named from a 
Saint, Kutb-ud-Din, the 'pole of the 
faith.' 

J&utoh, or CUTCH, a province in India (in 
the new spelling Kachch), is explained 
by Yule as the ' marshy * and by Hunter 
as the 'sea-coast land' There are salt 
marshes on the coast. The Gulf or Rim 
of Cutch takes its name from the province. 

]&utusoff, Cape, on the Japanese Island 
of Yesso, and Kutusoff (or Button) 
Island in the Marshall group, bear the 
name of a Russian Admir^. 

K3rles of Bute are the 'Straits' which 
divide Bute from the Mainland. Kyle is 
the Gaelic caol, a ' strait' So the Sound 
of Mull is Cool Muileach in Gaelic, the 
Sound of Isla is Caol Isla. Eddrachilis 
is the place ' between the Straits,' and 
Ballachulish is the ' town on the strait.' 

Ksnik Phyu, the • white stones,' is the 
name of a large Burmese coast town, so 
called from the white pebbles of which the 
beach is composed. 

Xjaaoh, near Andernach, appears in an 
eighth century document as Lacha, a 
word meaning 'lake' (unrelated to the 
Latin lacus) whence the Benedictine Abbey 
founded in 1093 was called Abbaiia 
Lacensis, the ' Abbey by the Lake,' now 
called the Laacher See, a remarkable 
circular lake which fills the crater of one 
of the extinct volcanoes of the Eifel. 

Labrador bears a name which is believed 
to testify to the early maritime enterprise 
of the Portuguese. On a Portuguese chart 
of 1504 it is called Terra de Corte Real, 
and on another chart of 1508 it appears as 
Terra Carterealis. Gaspar de Cortereal 
was a Portuguese navigator who visited 
the coast in 1500 or 1501, and Pasqualigo, 
the Venetian ambassador at Lisbon, re- 
lates that Cortereal, sailing along the 
coast, captured and brought back with 
him to Lisbon fifty -seven natives who, 
it was thought, would prove excellent 
labourers ( lavradores). Hence the country 
seems to have acquired the name of 
Terra de Lavradores, the 'land of the 
labourers.' According to another ex- 
planation Bradore Bay, formerly called 
Labrador Bay, acquired that name from 
the visit of a Basque whaler called the 
Labrador, the name of the Bay being 
subsequently extended to the whole coast. 

Labuan, a British settlement in Borneo, 
is a corruption of the Malay name 
Pulo Labuhan, 'anchorage island' (puh, 
' island,' and labuh, ' to anchor.' 



Laooadives, a corruption of laksAa- 
dvipa, 'the hundred thousand {lakh) 
islands,' is the name of a group of coral 
islets off the Malabar coast. The name 
was probably intended to include the 
myriad Maldives as well. In Malay and 
Javanese lakh means 10,000. 

Laohlan River, a tributary of the 
Murray, discovered in 1815, bears the 
name of Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, who 
was at that time Governor of New South 
Wales. 

Ladogfa, the largest sheet of fresh water 
in Europe, is very shallow, with marshy 
banks. The name is doubtless Finnic, 
laddo meaning a ' marsh ' in Lapp, and 
-ga being the common suffix denoting 
'water,' as in the names Onega and 
PiNEGA. The name has also been ex- 
plained as the ' duck lake.' 

Ladrones, or Marianas, a Pacific 
group of islands, were the first land 
reached by Magellan and his starving 
crew when he crossed the Pacific on his 
circumnavigation of the world in 1521. 
He called them Islas de los Ladrones, 
'Islands of the Robbers,' because the 
natives were such pertinacious thieves. 
Las Marianas, the ofiScial designation, 
was given in 1668 in honour of Maria 
Anna of Austria, mother of Charles 11. of 
Spain. 

Liagrrang'e Bay, Lac^p^de Bay, and 
Lac^p^de Island, in Australia, were 
named by Baudin in 1801-3 after two 
eminent Frenchmen, the mathematician 
and the naturalist. 

Lagruna, a Brazilian coast town, takes its 
name from a lagoon by which it stands. 

Labn, a river in Nassau, was called in 
the eighth century Logan-aha, ' lye water ' 
or 'laundry river,' the colour of the 
stream resembling water in which clothes 
had been washed. Laugarvatn, ' bath 
lake,' and Laugardalr, 'bath dale,' are 
places in Iceland with hot springs (O.N. 
lauga, 'to wash'). 

Lahol, in Tibet, means the 'southern 
region ' as distinguished from the northern 
Ladak. 

Lahore (Lah<5r), the capital of the Pun- 
jab, is probably a corruption of Lohdwar 
or Lohdwarana, Indian legend ascribes 
the foundation of the city to Loh, who in 
the Rdm&yana is a son of R&ma and 
SftA. The legend is supposed to have 
arisen from a corruption of an earlier 
name, conjecturally Lavana-pur, the ' city 
of Lavana,' the ' salt' district west of the 
Jhelum. 



6& 



MAMfiS AND TttEIk HISTORIES 



Laibaoh, or Laybach, in Carinthia, 
stands at the confluence of the Laibach 
and the Save. 

Lambert Island, in Arctic America, 
and Point Lambert, North Australia, 
bear the name of A. B. Lambert, vice- 
president of the Linnean Society. 

Lambeth, Surrey (A.S. Lambh^th or 
Lambehyth), was probably a wharf or 
landing-place for lambs (A.S. lamb, a 
' lamb '), or possibly from a personal name. 
The old etymology from lam, 'loam, 
clay,' is precluded by the A.S. form of 
the name. Lambey, near Dublin, is the 
'Iamb island,' so called because in the 
spring lambs were sent there to graze. 

Lammas Island, North Australia, was 
discovered on Lammas Day, August ist, 
1821. Mount Lammas, in Gusdcamar, 
one of the Salomon Group, was first 
sighted on Lammas Day, 1788. 

Lampedusa, an island west of Malta, 
has preserved the old Greek name Lopa- 
dussa, the ' oyster bank.' 

Lamsaki, a town opposite Gallipoli, on 
the Asiatic shore of the Dardanelles, re- 
tains the Greek name Lampsaeus, which 
means ' the passage.' 

Lanark, a town which gives a name to a 
Scotch county, was formerly Lanerch, 
which has been explained from the 
Cymric llanerch, which signifies either an 
enclosure in a wood, or a glade, or open 
space in a forest. 

Lanoashire, a corruption of Lancaster- 
shire, as Cheshire is of Chestershire, was 
formed into a County Palatine for the 
Earl of Lancaster out of Blackbumshire, 
Salfordshire, Amounderness, and Fur- 
ness. Lancaster, the county town 
(A.S. Lunceaster), is the Chester on the 
Lune, formerly the Alauna, whence the 
name Ad Alaunam, as the Roman station 
at Lancaster was called. 

Lanoaster Sound^^the main channel 
leading fi*om Baffin Bay into the Polar 
Archipelago, was discovered by Baffin in 
z6i6, and named after his patron. Sir 
James Lancaster, the first Englishman 
who sailed round the Cape to the East 
Indies (1591-1594), and who in 1600 com- 
manded the first expedition despatched 
to India by the East India Company, of 
which he was one of the directors. 

Lanoe, or La Lance, on the Lake of 
Neufch&tel, is called in Latin documents 
Monasterium de Lancea, because it pos- 
sessed a reputed fragment of the Holy 
Lance as a relic 



Lanohester, County Durham, is called 
Langchestre, the 'long Chester,' in the 
Boldon Book, which is, however, of too 
late a date to be decisive as to the ety- 
mology, which may be from the Roman 
name, eitho* Claftoventum or possibly 
Longovicum. 

Landes is a French department con- 
taining the vast heath called Les Lan- 
des, a name formerly supposed to be a 
German loan word, but it is now be- 
lieved that there was a genuine Gaulish 
word landa, denoting 'untilled land.' 

Landfall Island, at the western end of 
the Straits of Magellan, was the first land 
sighted by Cook, in 1774, on his return 
from New Zealand roimd Cape Horn. 

Landquart is a Swiss river, whose older 
names, Langarum (1219) and Languuar, 
point to longum aquarium, the 'long 
watercourse,' as a probable etymology. 

Land's Snd, Cornwall, has replaced 
the Celtic name Pen - with. In the 
Chronicle it is called Penioith-sieort, the 
Saxons adding to the Cornish name their 
own word steort, a 'tail,' whence the 
name of Start Point in Devon, and of 
the bird called the red-start or • red-tail.' 

Langenes, the 'long ness,' a spit on 
the north-west coast of Novaya Zemlya, 
was discovered and named by Barents in 
1594. Lange Kloof, the ' long ravine,' 
and Lange Fontein, the ' long brook,' 
are Dutch names in the Cape Colony. 
Lango, Denmark, is the 'long island.' 

Langfres, in the Haute Marne, in Old 
French Langoinne, derives its name from 
the tribe of the Lingones, whose chief 
town it was. 

Langruard, Piz, in the Graubtlnden, is 
so called from the vast panorama it 
commands. 

Langfuedoo, the fourteenth centiu-y name 
of one of the old provinces of France, was 
the region of the ' tongue of Oc ' as dis- 
tinguished from that of the Langue d'oi'l, 
or ' tongue of Oil,' in the North. A line 
drawn from La Rochelle to Grenoble 
represents approximately the boundaiies 
of the two dialects. The Langue d'oc 
originally extended to the Ebro, embrac- 
ing the Catalan district. In Southern 
Graul the sign of affirmation was hoc, 
which became oc, in Northern Gaul it 
was hoc illud, which became oil, and 
then oui \ in Italy it was sic, which be- 
came si. Hence Dante calls Italian la 
lingua di si, 

Tfq.Tn1fl^]h in Arran, formerly called MoUu, 



GLOSSARY 



169 



is a cotruption of Lann - Molais, the 

• church of St. Molios * or Molaise. 

Lanzarote, formerly Lancilote, one of 
the Canaries, bears the name of Lancilote 
(Lancelot) Malocello, a Genoese knight 
in the Portuguese service, who built a 
castle on it about 1344. In some old 
maps it is called Maloxelo. 

Xjaon, in the Aisne, is, like Lyons (^.f.), a 
corruption of the Celto-Latin name Lug- 
dunum, believed to mean the * tower on 
the hill,' an etymology favoured by the 
situation of the city, which is perched on 
an almost impregnable rock. The name 
Lvgdunum became Laudunum in the 
tenth century, and Loun in the thirteenth. 

Laos is the Portuguese plural form of Lao, 
the native name of the people on the 
Lower Mekong, who are called Shans by 
the Burmese. 

Xjapland is the land of the Lapps, who 
were called by the Finns Lapp-alaisei, 
•people of the frontier,' literally 'people 
of the end of the land.' The Lapps call 
their country Same, and themselves Same- 
lads, which means 'people of the marshes ' 
or tundras. Similar names are Samoyed, 
{q.v. ) and Suomi-laisef, the name by which 
the Finns call themselves. 

Larcom. Mount, in Queensland, was 
named oy Flinders in 1802 in compli- 
ment to Captain Larcom, R.N. 

Xiame, a town in Ulster, formerly Lath- 
arna or Lahama^ was in the district 
assigned to Lathair, son of Hugony the 
Great. 

La Salle, a city in Illinois, was so called 
in memory of La Salle, the intrepid French 
explorer who discovered the Mississippi 
River. 

Latakia or Ladakiyeh, a Syrian sea- 
port whence the Latakia tobacco was ex- 
ported, was one of the five cities built by 
Seleucus Nicator, and named after his 
mother Laodicea. The Laodicea of the 
Bible is now represented by the desolate 
ruins in Asia Minor called LadIk. 

Latitude Bay, Tierra del Fuego, is a 
foolish name, commemorating an obser- 
vation for latitude here obtained by 
Fitzroy in 1829, 

LauenburST, a duchy in Holstein, takes 
its name from the town and castle of 
Lauenburg, a corruption of Labenburg, 

* the castle on. the Labe,' which was the 
Slavonic name of the Elbe, on which it 
stands. 

Laufen, 'at the rapids/ is the name of 
a castle and village below the falls of the 



Rhine at Schaffhausen, and also of a 
place near the falls of the Traun. Lau- 
FENBURG, the ' castle at the rapids,' is a 
town at the rapids midway between Basel 
and Schaffhausen. 

Laugrhlan Islands, a group lying be- 
tween New Guinea and the Salomons, 
were discovered in 1812 by the ship Mary, 
commanded by the seaman whose name 
they bear. 

Launoeston, in Cornwall, is a corruption 
of Lan ' Stephen - dun , the 'hill by St. 
Stephen's Church,' an adjacent monastery 
being dedicated to St. Stephen. The 
name has been transferred to the town of 
Launceston in the Tasmanian county 
of Cornwall. 

Lausanne, anciently Lausodunum, Lau- 
sonium, or Losene, called Lausanna in 
the Peutinger Tables, and Vicus Lausonii 
in the Antonine Itinerary, was a Celtic 
dun or hill fort on the Laus or Lauso, a 
small river now called the Flon. 

Lausitz or LusATiA, a district in Prussia 
and Saxony, is a Slavonic name meaning 
the * Marshland,' from Ivtice, the diminu- 
tive of lux or luh, a ' marsh,' which Is 
the source of numerous names in Eastern 
Europe. 

Laut signifies in Malay the 'sea' or 

• ocean.' Hence the names of two islands 
on the coast of Borneo called PuLO Laut 
or ' sea island,' and of a coast district in 
the south of Borneo called Tanak-Laut 
or ' sea land.' The sea south of Java is 
called by the Javanese Laut-Kidul, the 
' south sea.' 

Lauterbrunnen, a village in the Bernese 
Oberland, takes its name from the ' clear 
springs' which issue from the limestone 
cliffs. To the O.H.G. hlutar^ * pure* or 

* clear,' we may also refer the Lauter- 
BACH and the River Lauter, anciently 
Hluiraha or ' clear river. ' But Lauters- 
HEIM near Worms is shown by the old 
form Liuteresheim to be from the personal 
name Liuter (Luther) which also appears 
in LuTTERHAUSEN, LOderstedt, Lig- 
GERSDORF, and other names in Germany. 

Lavlzzara, Val, in Canton Ticino, 
takes its name from the laveggi or cook- 
ing pots made out of a serpentine rock 
found in the upper part of the valley. 

Lawford'S Islands, in Coronation 
Gulf, at the mouth of the Coppermine 
River, were so named by Franklin, in 
1821, after Captain John Lawford, R.N., 
the seaman under whom he first served in 
the Polyphemus at the battle of Copen- 
hagen in 1800. 



tjo 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Leamington, near Warwick, on the 
River Leam, called Leamington Priors to 
distinguish it from Leamington Hastings, 
also on the Learn, may be the tun of the 
Learnings, or people of the Leam ; but 
more probably the syllable in^ may have, 
as it occasionally has, the force of a pos- 
sessive, or it may be a mere assimilation, 
as in the case of Itchington, on the 
Itchen, a tributary of the Leam. Similar 
questions arise in the case of Ermington 
on the Devonshire Erme, of Tyningham 
on the Tyne, and Leavington on the 
Yorkshire Leven. 

Leatherhead, in Surrey, is a name 
which, like Maidenhead, has been curi- 
ously assimilated to make it significant in 
modern English. In King iElfred's will he 
bequeathes to his son Eadward his land, 
at Leodrithan, where rithan is plainly the 
dative of rithcy a ' rivulet ' or ' stream of 
running water.' As the first part of the 
name cannot well be lad, a * water-course ' 
or * lode, ' or lidht, • quick,' ' bright,* ' shin- 
ing,' it must be referred to le6d^ * people,' 
country,' ' district.' 

TjQQiVGn'WOTtpL, a city in Kansas, laid 
out in 1854, is two miles below Fort 
Leavenworth, a frontier post established 
in 1827 by Colonel Henry Leavenworth. 

Lebanon, the 'white' mountain, from 
the Semitic root ladan, ' to be white,' was 
probably so named from its cliffs of white 
dialk and limestone, rather than from its 
snows. It is now locally called /edel 
Libnan. 

Lebda, in Tripoli, preserves the name of 
the Roman LepHs Magna, and Lemta 
in Tunis that of the Leptis Parva. Leptis 
was a Carthaginian name meaning a 
'station for ships.' 

Leoompton, the state capital of Kansas, 
was named from Samuel D. Lecompte,. 
who was the Supreme Territorial Judge 
of Kansas before its reception as a State. 

Ledbury, Herefordshire, called Leideberge 
in Domesday, takes its name from the 
River Leden on which it stands. 

Leeds, in Yorkshire, represents the British 
kingdom called Loidis by Baeda, which 
with the neighbouring kingdom of Elmet 
{q.v.) held out against the Angles, after 
York had become the capital of Deira, 
and Chester had fallen before iSthelfrith. 
It was probably subdued by Eadwine in 
the seventh century. There was another 
kingdom of Loidis which is believed to be 
Lothian [q.v.). 

Leek, a town in Staffordshire, is supposed 
to be from the Welsh llech or lech, a ' fiat 
stone/ whence the name of Auchinleck, 



in Ayrshire, which means the ' field of the 
stone,' and of Harlech, Merionethshire, 
supposed to be Hardd-Uch, 'the fair 
rock.' Leake in Lincolnshire is probably 
from M.E. leche, a 'swampy pool.' The 
river name Lech may mean the ' stony * 
river, or may be from the Celtic root lek, 
'to bend.' Lechlade, in Gloucester- 
shire, is at the Idd or 'passage' of lie 
River Leech or Leek into the Thames. 
There is a river Leek in Belgium, and 
the Lechfeld in Bavaria is 3ie district 
traversed by the River Lech. 

Leeu'win Land and Cape Leeuwin, 

West Australia, bear the name of the 
Dutch ship Leeuwin, the lioness, by which 
they were discovered in 1622. Leeuwen- 
BOSCH and Leeuwen Rivier, in the 
Cape Colony, were so called from the 
lions which infested them. 

Leghorn is an English sailors' corruption 
of LivoRNO, the Forius Libumus of the 
Romans. 

Leicester, erroneously supposed to be 
Legionis castra, was the Roman station 
of Ratts or Ratiscorium. The A.S. name 
was Legra-ceasier or Ligora-ceaster, while 
Nennius has Kair-Lirion, and Domesday 
Ledeceaster, names which must be ex- 

Elained as the Chester on the River Ligera, 
.igra, Lear, or Leire, now called the 
Soar. A village called Leire, on the Upper 
Soar, still preserves the old name of the 
river. Llyr was the Celtic water-god, 
whose name has been embodied in Shake- 
speare's play of King Lear, Geoffrey of 
Monmouth says that Llyr (King Lear) 
was buried at Caer Lyr, or Leicester. 

Leiohhardt's Bajigre and Leich- 

hardt's River bear the name of Dr. 
Leichhardt, the intrepid but ill-fated 
Australian explorer. 

Leinster, like Ulster and Munster, ex- 
hibits the Danish suffix -siadr, a ' place ' 
or ' district,' The Irish name of the 
province was Laighen, Leinster being a 
corruption of Laighen-stadr, which in the 
sixteenth century had become Laynster. 
In Irish the word laighen denotes a 
peculiar kind of broad • pointed spear, 
which, according to a venerable legend, 
was the weapon used by the foreign mer- 
cenaries of an early king of Leinster, who 
settled in the district which was hence 
called Laighen. 

Leipzig, Saxony, is a German corruption 
of the Slavonic name Lipsk or Lipzk, 
which means a ' linden wood.' The word 
lipa, a ' lime tree,' is the sotu^e of many 
names in Eastern Europe, such as Lbipb, 
Leibnitz, Lipnitz, and Lipten. 



GLOSSARY 



tjj 



Xjeith, the port of Edinburgh, appears in 
a twelfth century document as inverlet 
The name Leith is therefore an abbrevi- 
ated form of Inverleith, the place 'at 
the mouth of the Leith,' a stream which 
has now acquired from the town to which 
it had originally given a name its present 
appellation of the Water of Leith. 

Leitrim, the name of an Irish county and 
of many Irish townlands, is a corruption 
of Liath'dhruimy the ' grey ridge.' 

Leixlip, a village at the falls of the LifTey, 
in Kildare, is one of the few local names 
in Ireland testifying to the dominion of 
the Danes, being a corruption of the O.N. 
Lax-hlaup, ' salmon leap. ' The apparently 
similar name of Abbey Leix in Queen's 
County affords a good example of the 
danger of etymological speculation based 
merely on the modem form of a name. 
It is not Scandinavian* bat Celtic, Leix 
being in this case the modem form of the 
tribal name Laeigkis, which denoted the 
territory acquired by Lughaidh, an Ulster 
chief. Laxweir on the Shannon, near 
the Danish settlement at limerick, is, 
however, a genuine Norse name mean- 
ing a 'salmon weir.' There are several 
streams in the Hebrides and the Isle of 
Man called Laxat and Laxet, which, 
like the Laxa in Iceland, mean ' salmon 
river.' Lax Voe, in Shetland, is the 
'salmon bay,' while Loch Laxford, in 
Sutherland, is a reduplicated nsLme,/ord 
being the O.'ti . fjordr, a • firth ' or loch. 

Le Maire, a strait between Tierra del 
Fuego and Staaten Island, was discovered 
in 1616 by Jakob Le Maire, a Dutch 
seaman. 

Lembergr, Lemburg, or LSwenburg, in 
Latin documents Leopolis, is the capital 
of the Austrian crownland of Galicia. It 
was founded about 1259 by the Ruthenian 
prince Daniel for his son Leo, whose 
name it bears. A similar name is that 
of Leonberg, a town in Wiirtemberg, 
founded in 1248 by the Graf von Calw. 
By an almost unique inversion of the 
usual relations between heraldry and geo- 
graphical onomatology, the name was 
derived from the founder's crest, a lion on 
a hill. 

Leominster^ pronounced Lempster, is a 
town in Herefordshire which arose round 
a monastery founded about 658 by Mer- 
wald, king of the Mercians, on the River 
Lug. llie name has been thought to 
be a corruption of Lugminster, from the 
river on which it stands. This will not 
explain the name of another Leominster 
in Sussex, where was a priory of Bene- 



dictine nuns. Leofminstre, the early form 
of both names, suggests the A.S. leof, 
' beloved ' or * dear, as the probable ex- 
planation. The Lulling mynster men- 
tioned in King ^Elfred's will is believed 
to be Lullington in Sussex. 

LteoUt ^ ^'^y i'^ Spain, the capital of the 
medieval kingdom and the modern pro- 
vince of the same name, was fortified by 
Trajan. It is the Legion of Ptolemy, 
a name explained by its having been the 
station of the Seventh legion, Legio Sep- 
tima Gemina, The name has been trans- 
ferred to two cities in Central America. 
Caer-Leon (q.v.) is a name of similar 
origin. 

Leones, a Patagonian harbour, properly 
Puerto de Leones y Lobos, the 'port of 
Sea Lions and Seals,' was so named by 
Alcazora in 1535. ^^ 'S^^ Magellan 
named an island in the straits which 
bear his name, Isla de los Leones on 
account of the number of sea lions (Flaiy- 
rkynchus Leoninus, a large maned seal) 
seen upon the rocks. Monte Leone, 
on the eastern side of the Simplon Pass, 
is believed to be named from its resem- 
blance to a lion when viewed from a cer- 
tain point on the Italian side of the pass. 

Leopoldvilla the station at Stanley 
Pool on the Congo, bears the name of 
Leopold II. , king of the Belgians. PORT 
Leopold and Prince Leopold Isle, at 
the entrance of Prince Regent's Inlet, dis- 
covered by Parry in 1819, and Cape 
Leopold, at the entrance of Coburg 
Bay, discovered by Ross in 1818, bear 
the name Prince Leopold of Saxe- 
Coburg, son-in-law of the Prince Regent, 
and afterwards Leopold i., king of the 
Belp^ians. Lake Leopold, in Central 
Afnca, was so named hy Joseph Thomson 
in honour of Prince Leopold, Duke of 
Albany. 

Lepanto, a Greek port, where a Turkish 
fleet was defeated in 1571 by the Spanish, 
Papal, and Venetian forces imder the 
command of Don John of Austria, gives 
its name to the Gulf of Lepanto (or 
Gulf of Corinth), at the entrance to which 
it stands. Lepanto is an Italian corrup- 
tion of the Neo- Hellenic Epakto or 
Epakios, which represents the old Greek 
name Naupactus, the 'ship station.' Ac- 
cording to the eponymic Greek legend, the 
Heracleidse here built the ships in which 
they crossed over to the Peloponnesus. 

Lerida, a Spanish city, which gives its 
name to a province, was the Roman 
lUrda^ believed to be an Iberian word 
meaning ' town.' 



17* 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Iterwioki the chief town in the Shetlands, 
is a Scandinavian name, from the O.N. 
leir, * clay,' and vik, a bay. The bottom 
of Lenvick Harbour still consists of clay, 
mud, and sand. There is also a Lervik 
in Norway. 

LeSRhi, the name of one of the races 
in the Caucasus, means the ' men ' or 
• people.' 

Lesina or Lussin, the ' cobbler's awl,' a 
lon^ and narrow Istrian island, derives its 
Italian name from its shape. 

Jj&tt, an Australian stream, derived from 
the last syllable of rivulet, is one of the 
silly names which were given by Mitchell. 

Leucadia^ one of the Ionian Islands, for- 
merly Leucas, was so called from the white 
cliffs which fringe its western shore. The 
island is also called Santa Maura, from 
a foit erected to command the northern 
entrance to the channel. Capo di Leuca 
is the southern point of Calabria. Here 
on the site of the old Greek town of Leuca, 
the 'white,' stands the ancient church 
of Santa A/aria di Leuca, also called 
Madonna di Finisttrra^ who is believed 
to help sailors in peril. 

Leuk, in Canton Valais, at the foot 
of the gorge through which the Gemmi 
Pass descends, is called Leuca in 1153, 
explained by Gatschet as a dialectical form 
of the O. H.G. luog, * a cleft or chasm. ' 

Levant, the region of the ' sunrise,' is an 
Italian name given to the lands in the 
Eastern Mediterranean. So the Eastern 
Riviera is called Rxviera de Levante. 

Leventina, a name given to a part of 
the valley of the Ticino, is derived from 
the tribe of the Lepontii^ by whom it was 
inhabited, whence also the modem name 
of the Lepontine Alps. 

Le"w-Ohe"w, Loo-Choo, or Liu-Kiu 

1 slands,lying between Japan and Formosa, 
are called by the Japanese Riu Kiu, which 
is believed to be a corruption of the Chinese 
name Lung khieu, ' the horned dragon.' 

Lewes, Sussex, was anciently called Lcpvoe 
and LcBwes, probably a corruption of 
the A.S. Hlaewas, 'mounds, tumuli,' and 
not, as usually said, of Lceswe^ ' the pas- 
tures,' a name which appears repeatedly 
in Salop and Cheshire as Leasow or 
Leasowes. 

Lewis, or The Lewis, locally called The 
Lews, forms together with Hanis the 
largest island in the Outer Hebrides. The 
name is probably fronl the Gaelic Uoghas, 
' marshy land.' In a Gaelic tract on the 
wars of the Gaidhil it is called Lodhusa 
and Leodust Scandinavian forms which 



may have beeen influencd by the Gaelic 
Idd, a • pool,' or by a supposed connection 
with the neighbouring clan Leod or Mac 
Leod. In the Norse Sagas we have 
Liddhils,Leodhus,Q.xid. LyodhuusfiSi assimi- 
lated name apparently denoting a ' house ' 
of some kind, but of what kind is not so 
clear. The local word lod means a bundle 
of fishing lines, and in O.N. lod means 
crop or produce, and lidd^ a lay or song. 
Hence it has been supposed that the 
Norse name referred to a ' grange,' or a 
storehouse for fishing gear, or to a house 
for popular assembly for speech or song. 
Harris [q.v. ), the lotlysouuiern end of the 
island, is in striking contrast with Lewis, 
the ' marshy land, ' at the northern end. 

Lewis and Olarke' Pass, over the 

Rocky Mountains, bears the name of two 
American explorers. Captain Meriwether 
Lewis, afterwards Governor of Louisiana, 
and Captain William Clarke, both of them 
Virginiai)s, who in 1803-1805 were sent by 
Jefferson to ascend the Missouri and reach 
the Pacific. They were among the first 
Europeans to cross the continent north of 
Mexico. Two tributaries of the Columbia 
River, Clarke Fork and Lewis Fork, 
with the town of LEViriSTON, also com- 
memorate their names. 

Lewisham in Kent, called Liofshema, 
I^ofshima, or Leofsnhdma mearc^ 'the 
mark of the men of Leofsham,' is from a 
personal name. {See p. 142. ) 

Lexinffton has become a favourite name 
in theUnited States, being given to more 
than twenty places, of which the most 
important is Lexington in Kentucky, 
which occupies the site of a camp fire, 
assembled round which a party of hunters 
first heard the tidings of the battle fought 
on April 19th, 1775, at Lexington, in 
Massachusetts. 

Leyden or Leiden, in Holland, has for 
centuries been identified with the Roman 
Lugdunutn Batavorum, a name which 
appears on the title-pages of boo^ printed 
at Leyden. This identification is how- 
ever very doubtful, the tenth century name 
Leithon making it probable that leyden 
is a dative form, meaning ' at the lode ' or 
watercourse. 

Lhasa or L'assa, the capital of Thibet, 
is the residence of the Dalai Lama, who 
receives divine honours as the incarnation 
of the Deity, whence the name Lhasa, 
which means 'God'-s ground* or the 
'divine land,' from Iha^ *god,' and sa, 
'land' or 'ground.' 

Liciikov, one of the New Siberia Islands, 
near the mouth of the Lena, bears the name 



GLOSSARY 



173 



of a Russian merchant who discovered it 
in 1770. 

Libau in Courland, was called Lywa in 
the thirteenth century, probably from the 
Finnic liwa, * sand,' the town standing on 
sand dunes by the sea. 

Xilberia, the 'land of the free,' now a 
Negro republic in Western Africa, was a 
settlement founded by American philan- 
thropists in 1822 for lioerated slaves. 

Xiiberty is a common town name in the 
United States. The oldest is Liberty 
Hill in South Carolina, the station of 
the American force which compelled the 
British troops to evacuate the town of 
Augusta in Georgia. 

Lichfield, an Episcopal see in Stafford- 
shire, is usually explained as the ' field of 
corpses,' from the A.S. //^, a corpse, 
an etymology which has given rise to the 
legend of the massacre of a thousand 
Christians during the Diocletian persecu- 
tion. But for this legend there is no 
historical evidence, and the et3anology is 
grammatically impossible, as the older 
forms of the name are Licidfeld and 
Liciifeld in Bseda, Licetfeld and Licced- 
feld in the A.S. Chronicle, Licetfeld and 
Liccidfeld in A.S. charters. The clue to 
the etymology, as Mr. Bradley has pointed 
out, IS given by Nennius, who, writing 
in the ninth century, enumerates Cair 
Luiicoit as one of the ancient cities of 
Britain. The Welsh forms are Kaer 
Loidcoit, Caer Ludcoth, Caer Lwydgoet, 
and Llwyt Koet. St. Chad, we are told, 
was bom at Llwydgoet. In the Antonine 
Itinerary we have Efocetum, and in the 
Ravenna Geographer Lectocetum, corrupt 
forms which point to an Old Welsh Leto- 
cetuffit which m Middle Welsh would give 
the Luitcoit of Nennius, and in Modern 
Welsh would be Llwyd-goed, the 'grey 
wood.* Hence we may explain Lichfield 
as the ' plain of the grey wood.' 

Liddon Island and Liddon Gulf, in 
Arctic America, bear the name of Matthew 
Liddon, one of Parry's officers. 

LidseST, Sussex, is the A.S. Lydes ig, 
'ship isle,* apparently from tides, genitive 
of lid, a ' ship. ' 

Liieclltensteill, a sovereign and inde- 
pendent princii ality on the Upper Rhine, 
between Switzerland and the Vorarlberg, 
was constituted in 1719 out of the Lord- 
ships of Vaduz and Schellenberg. The 
name is derived from the princely Austrian 
house of Liechtenstein, to which it was 
assigned. Its capital, the town of Vaduz 
(Romansch Val-dultsch, the sweet val- 



ley*), is often wrongly called Liechtenstein, 
which properly is Uie name of the State. 

LiS^e is the French name of the Belgian 
city called Lt^TTiCH in Gennan, LuiK in 
Flemish, and Leodium or Legia in Latin 
documents. The old forms Laudovicum 
and Luticha are referred to liud, * people.' 
But the French name Li^ge, which goes 
back to the old form Legia, may have 
been derived from the brook L^gie which 
flows through the town. 

Lifford in Donegal, which gives a title to 
an Irish peer, is a corruption of Leitk 
bhearr, a name which has been assimi- 
lated to the Danish names in ' ford.' The 
intrusive d has crept in since the sixteenth 
century, when the spelling was Liffer. 

LigrhthOUSe Hill, a rock in Bass Strait, 
910 feet high, was so called by Stokes 
because of an imaginary lighthouse for 
which he thought it might prove useful. 

Liguanea Islajid and Cape Wiles, 
in South Australia, were so named by 
Flinders in 1802, in compliment to a 
friend named Wiles, residing at Liguanea 
in Jamaica. 

Lille, in French Flanders, founded in the 
tentn century on a river island, is called 
Insula in early Latin documents, and in 
the thirteenth century Lisle, ' the island.' 
The Flemish name RijSSEL, for fer Ij'sel, 
•the island,' retains a fragment of the 
Flemish article. 

Lima, the capital of Peru, was founded by 
Francisco Pizarro on January i8th, 1535, 
and called Ciudad de los Reyes, the ' city 
of the kings,' probably because the site 
was chosen on January 6th, the Festival of 
the Epiphany, or possibly in honour of 
Charles v. , and his mother, Dona Juana. 
The modem name, Lima, is a corruption 
of Rimac, the Quichua name of the plain 
on which it stands. The plain took its 
name from a temple called RimaC'Tam- 
pu, the ' house of Rimac,' now corrupted 
to Litnatambo, the ruins of which may 
still be seen a little south of the city. The 
god was called Rimac, ' he who speaks,' 
from a hollow idol in which a priest con- 
cealed himself and gave oracles to the 
worshippers. 

Limburg', on the Lahn, was ancientlv 
Lindburg and Linfburd, which would 
signify 'linden castle' (O.H.G. linda, a 
•lime tree'), or the dragon castle {lint, a 
'drap^on'). LiMBOURG, or Limburg, in 
Belgium, has given its name to a province 
now divided between Belgiiunand Holland. 

Lizneriok is a corruption of the Old Irish 
name Luimneack, which commemorates 



174 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



the 'bare' or ' barren' site, on which the 
now prosperous city is built. 

Lixniuen Bi^ht, a large bay in the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, is a translation of the 
early Dutch name LimmerCs Bogt, sup- 
posed to have been given by Tasman 
on his second voyage in 1644, from the 
Limmen, one of his ships. 

Ijimno, or LiMNi, also, with the prefixed 
Greek preposition and article, called 
Stalimene, is an island in the ^Sgean, 
anciently Lemnos, which is believed to be 
a Phoenician name meaning ' white,' from 
tiie colour of the cliffs. 

liimog'es, the capital of the district called 
the LiMOSiN, preserves the name of the 
Gaulish tribe of the Limovices or Lemo- 
vices, explained by GlUck as the ' dwellers 
among the elms,' Their capital was 
the Roman Augustoritum, 'the ford of 
Augustus,' a name superseded in the 
seventh century by Lemovecas, which be- 
came Leiuovigas in the eighth century 
and Lemoges in the fourteenth, the pagus 
Limovicensii becoming the Limosin. 

Linares, a town in Mexico, was founded 
in 1716, during the Viceroyalty of the 
Duke of Linares, who took his title from 
Linares, a town near Jaen. 

liinooln was the Roman Lindutn, which 
is probably from Hndon, the prehistoric 
form of the Welsh llyn, but often sup- 
posed to be the British name Llyn- 
dun, the ' dun ' or ' hill fort ' at the pool. 
Lincoln is usually explained as a corrup- 
tion oi Lihdum Colonia, supposed to have 
been the name of the Roman colony on 
the hill where the minster now stands. 
But there is no evidence except that of the 
Ravenna Geographer to show that Lindum 
was a colonia. The modern name may be 
traced to the Lindocolina of Baeda, and 
the Lindkylne and Lincolle of the Saxon 
Chronicle. Lincoln is the name of no 
less than 160 places in the United States, 
which were named after Abraham Lin- 
coln, President from i860 to 1865. Port 
Lincoln, in Spencer Gulf, South Aus- 
tralia, was named by Flinders in 1802 after 
his native county. 

Llndatl, on the Lake of Constance, 
anciently Lindaugia, is from O.H.G. 
linda, *a lime tree.' There also is a 
LiNDAU in Canton Ziirich. 

Lindsey, or Parts of Lindsey, one of the 
Ridings of Lincolnshire, is the A.S. 
Lindes - Ig^ also Lindessi, Lindesse, or 
Lindesie^ meaning apparently the * Isle 
of Lindum' (Lincoln) which it includes. 
It is called an island in the same sense 
as the Isle of Ely or Isle of Axholm, being 



nearly surrounded by the waters and 
marshes of the Trent and the Witham. 

Line Island, in the Ohio River, was so 
called because the line dividing the States 
of Ohio and Pennsylvania here intersects 
the river. 

Linlithgow, which gives a name to a 
Scotch county, is the place at the linn or 
pool of Liath-chu, probably a personal 
name or nickname meaning the 'grey 
dog.' (5« Glasgow.) 

Linz, a town on the Danube, is believed to 
represent the Roman station Lentium or 
Lentia. 

Lions, G-ulf of, is often wrongly called 
the Gulf of Lyons or Golfe de Lyon, from 
a supposed connection with the city on 
the Rhone. The name which occurs as 
Mare Leonis in the fourteenth century, 
and afterwards as Leonis Sinus, is doubt- 
less to be attributed to the roaring waves 
raised by the mistral blowing down the 
valley of the Rhone. 

Lipari Islands, north of Sicily, are so 
called from Lipari, the largest island, 
which preserves the ancient name of 
Lipara, the 'rich island.' 

Lippe-Detmold, a German princi- 
pality, takes its name from its capital, the 
town of Detmold {q.v. ), which stands on 
the River Lippe. Lippstadt, the former 
residence of the princes of Lippe, is on an 
island in the Lippe. Lippe-Schaumburg 
is so named from the Stamm-Schloss of 
its princes, which is called Scouwen-burg^ 
the ' watch-tower,* in an eleventh century 
document. 

Lis§Jl, or El-Lisdn, 'the tongue,' is the 
Arabic name of the great tongue of land 
which projects into the Dead Sea. 

Lisbon, in Portuguese Lisboa, is derived 
from an oblique case of the old name 
Olisipo, supplosed to contain the Phoeni- 
cian word hippo, a * fortress * or ' walled 
town,' which we have in Hippo, the 
Herodian fortress at Jerusalem, and in 
Hippo, a Sidonian colony near Carthage, 
which became the see of St. Augustine. 
The modern name Bona is, like Lisbon, 
from an oblique case of Hippo. The 
form Lisbon may have been influenced 
by Oshbuna, Lashbuna, or Lixbona^ the 
Arabic corruptions of Olisippo, which was 
also written Ulissipo, by reason of a legend 
referring its origin to the wanderings of 
L lysses. 

Lisiansky, correctly LisiANSKOY, an 
isolated Pacific Island, north-west of the 
Sandwich Group, was discovered in 1805 
by Captain Lisianskoy. 



GLOSSARY 



175 



Iiisieuz, in Normandy, the Noviomagus 
of Caesar, was the capital of the Lexovii. 
The twelfth century forms, Liseuis and 
Lisieues, point to the dative plural ILexo- 
viis as the source of the modem form. 

Xiismore, a cathedral town in County 
Waterford, derives its name from a monas- 
tery foimded in 633 by St. Carthagh, 
which he called Liass-mor (Atrium 
Magnum) t the * great enclosure.* The 
* Book of the Dean of Lisraore ' was written 
at LiSMORE, the ' great enclosure ' sur- 
rounding a Columban monastery on one 
of the islands in Argyll, which became the 
seat of the Bishop of Argyll. Lesmaha- 
GOW, in Lanarkshire, was the 'enclosure 
of St. Machute,' being called Ecclesia 
MachuH in a Latin document of the 
twelfth century. The prefix Zw-, which 
occurs in 1400 Irish names, usually de- 
notes a secular fort and not a monastic 
enclosure, as in the case of Lisduff, the 
' black fort * ; Lisbane, the ' white fort ' ; 
LxsBOY, the ' yellow fort ' ; Lislea, the 
' grey fort ' ; LissARD, the ' high fort ' ; 
or LiSTOWEL, which signifies * I'uathal's 
fort.' 

liissa, an island in the Adriatic, off 
which Captain Hoste gained a victory 
over the French in 1812, and the Aus- 
trians over the Italians in 1866, would 
mean the ' bald ' island in Slavonic, but 
is an assimilated form of the Syracusan 
name Issa^ which must not be confounded 
with Lissos on the Albanian coast, now 
called Alessio in Italian and Lesh in 
Albanian. 

Liu-Malal, the 'white enclosure,' and 
Liu-Leu vu, the 'white river,' are Pata- 
gonian names. 

Lively Shoal, off the north coast of 
West Australia, became known from the 
wreck of the whaler Lively. 

Ijiyerpool, according to the local tradi- 
tion, was so called from a pool frequented 
by the liver or lever, a waterfowl repre- 
sented in the arms of the city. No very 
early form of the name has been pre- 
served. It appears at the close of the 
twelfth century as Liverpul. An earlier 
form is Litherpul^ which might mean the 
' stagnant pool.' Among the conjectiu-al 
etymologies proposed is the Cymric Llyr- 
pool, the • sea pool,' Llyr (Shakespeare's 
King Lear) being the old Celtic sea-god. 

Livingstonia, a missionary settlement 
on Lake Nyassa, and the Livingstone 
Falls on the Congo, bear the name of 
David Livingstone, the missionary ex- 
plorer* 



Livonia^ or Livland is a Russian pro- 
vince innabited by the Liefs, a Finnic 
people. 

Lizard, a Cornish promontory, is a Celtic 
name meaning the enclosure or fort on 
the height. Lizard Island, Queensland, 
when ^scovered by Cook in 1770 was 
inhabited only by large lizards. Lizard 
Island, Tasmanland, was so named by 
Stokes in 1838 for a similar reason. 

Llan^adwaladr in Anglesea is believed 
to be the place where Cadwaladr, grand- 
son of Cadvan, the leader of the Welsh 
in their struggle with the Angles of Nor- 
thumbria, was buried in 664. Llan- 
THONY, in Monmouthshire, is not, as 
might be supposed, the Church of St. 
Anthony, but a corruption of Uan-dewi- 
nant-honddu, the ' Church of St. David in 
the valley of the Honddu.' Llan, which 
forms the prefix in the names of so many 
Welsh parishes, is now believed to be the 
same word as the Teutonic land (see 
Landes), though it was formerly sup- 
posed to be from the Latin planum ^ 
denoting originally a level spot of ground, 
hence a churchyard, and finally a church. 
We may compare the Spanish word 
Llanos, used to denote the gj"eat plains 
or steppes on the Orinoco. In Texas there 
is a plateau called Llano Estacado, the 
'staked plain,' or field of battle. The 
Spanish llano is indubitably from the 
Latin planum (Italian piano), the change 
from pi to // in Spanish being seen in 
llorar, to weep, from plorare, llegar from 
plicare^ lleno ixoxa plenus, and lla^a^ a 
wound, from plaga. Hence a plain in 
California, where many of the early settlers 
were wounded in a conflict with the 
natives, is called Las Llagas, ' the 
wounds.' 

Loanda, or Luanda, is an island off the 
coast of Angola, on which stands the town 
of S. Paulo de Luanda, the capital of 
Angola. Luanda is a native word mean- 
ing ' tribute,' which was applied to this 
coast, because here the negroes fished for 
the shells (zimbos), in which the annual 
tax was paid to the King of Congo. 

Lobos Islands, off the Peruvian coast, 
well known from their vast deposits of 
guano, derive their name from the Spanish 
word lobo (Latin lupus), *a wolf,' which 
was applied to the sea-wolf, a large seal 
which frequented this group, as well as 
Cape Lobos, in Peru. One of the sights 
of San Francisco is to watch the seals 
basking on the rocks at Point Lobos, 
formerly called Punta de los Lobos, at the 
entrance of the harbour* Camera de 



176 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



LOBOS, Madeira, is a cave formerly fre- 
quented by seals. 

Locarno, a town on the Lago Maggiore, 
appears in 807 as (villa) Leocardi, the 
personal name Liutgard becoming Leo- 
carda in Italian. 

Lochaber, a district in Inverness, takes 
its name from a loch now called Loch 
LOCHABER, formerly LocAa dor, the ' Loch 
at the river mouth.' Loch Long is be- 
lieved to be the ' Loch of the ships ' (Gaelic 
lon^, 'a ship'). Loch Buie in Mull is 
the 'yellow loch,' and Lochinvar is 
Lockan-a-bharra, the ' lake of the height/ 

LiOdeve, a town in the H^rault, called 
Loteva in the Peutinger Tables, represents 
the tribal name of the Lutevani, 

LiOdomeria, a Polish principality, is the 
realm of Vladimir, a Polish prince who 
governed it in the twelfth century. 

Logan, a river in Australia, bears the 
name of a Captain Logan who was killed 
by the natives. 

Loire, called in 1080 Legrum, is derived 
by Brachet from Li^rim, the accusative 
of Li^er or Ligeris, the Roman name of 
the river, which may be connected with 
that of the Ligures, who inhabited the 
coast district called Liguria, names pro- 
bably from a pre-Aryan or Aryan root 
meaning water. We may compare the 
name of Llyr (King Lear), the old Celtic 
water-god. 

Loma, Punta della, in California, is 

* the hill cape ' (Spanish loma, a * hillock '). 

Lombardy, anciently Langobardia, is 
the land settled by the Langobardi or 
Lombards. Isidore of Seville and Paulus 
Diaconus tell us that the Langobardi were 
named from their long beards (bart, 

* beard '). Grimm prefers this explanation 
to another from farta, the name of a 
weapon preserved in the words kal-beri 
and part-izan, which would make the 
name analogous to that of the Saxons, 
from seax, a short sword, and that of the 
Franks from franca, a kind of javelin. 
Some doubt is thrown on both these 
etymologies by the early forms Bardi for 
Langobardi, and Bardungawi for the gau 
or district on the left bank of the Elbe 
where they are placed by Velleius who 
accompanied Tiberius. In this region the 
dialect word borde or bord still signifies 
a fertile plain by the side of a river. A 
district near Magdeburg is still called the 
Lange Borde, and lower down near Ltine- 
burg, we find the local names Bardengau 
and Bardewik. 

Lomond is a corruption of leoman, the 



old form of the Gaelic leamhan, pro- 
nounced leven^ the plural of Uam, b. ' wych 
elm,* Loch Lomond, the Leamanonius 
Lacus of Ptolemy, and Ben Lomond, the 
mountain at its head, retain the older form, 
while the River Leven, which drains 
Loch Lomond, and Strath Leven, 
through which the Leven flows, exhibit 
the newer form of the word. We have 
the same two forms in Fife, Loch Leven, 
drained by the River Leven, being over- 
looked by the Lomond Hills. From 
the Fifeshire Leven we have the name 
Leslie, a corruption of Lis-Leven, the 
enclosure or 'fort by the Leven'; while 
Lennox, the old name of the district 
which corresponds to Dumbartonshire, is 
a corruption of the Gaelic Levenach, the 
• district of the River Leven. ' The River 
Leam, from which Leamington takes 
its name, may possibly be explained as 
an allied C3miric name. 

Lodi on the Adda, the scene of Napoleon's 
victory in 1796, is derived from the Roman 
name Laus Fompeia, the site of which is 
occupied by the village of LODi Vecchio, 
five miles from the modem city of Lodi 
to which the name was transferred. LODi 
is from laudi the dative of laus. 

London is a name of uncertain ety- 
J mology. It was known to the Romans as 
1 Londinium, and to the Saxons as Lunden 
ceasier, Lundenwic, Lundentun, Lunden- 
burh, Lundena, Lundone, Lundun, Lun- 
donia, and Lundenia, The name is 
usually compared with that of Lindum 
(See Lincoln), as meaning the ' dim by 
the Uyn,' or pool ; the dun being the hill 
on which St. Paul's stands, surrounded 
by the great tidal pool which covered the 
south bank of the Thames, and ran up 
the valleys of the Fleet and the Lea. 
The first vowel being a difficulty, it has 
been alleged that the Welsh lynn an- 
swers to the Cornish lo, which, however, 
is not the case. The name is doubtless 
Celtic, but the Welsh names Cair Lundain 
and Kaer Lundene, which we find in the 
Mabinggion and in Nennius, do not help 
us, as they were evidently derived from 
the Anglo-Saxon name. It is different 
with Geoffrey of Monmouth's Cair Lud 
{Caer LM), or ' city of Ltd,' which may 
preserve an important tradition, or may 
be one of his numerous inventions, sug- 
gested by the name of Ludgate, which 
might mean a 'postern gate' in Anglo- 
Saxon. But since Ludgate Hill leads 
directly to St. Paul's it is possible that the 
site of the cathedral may have been occu- 
pied by a temple of Llfidd, the Celtic 



GLOSSARY 



t77 



war -god, otherwise known as Lodens, 
Nodens, or Niiada. The remains of one 
of his temples have been found at Lydney, 
i^'V.), the ' isle of Lodens,' on the Severn. 
He is also called King of the Lothians 
(Lodonesia). Whether Lludd-dun or 
Luddon could have become Lun-dun is a 
difficult question, but since the Domesday 
Lodeneshurg has become Londesborough, 
and the Pettalandfjorth is now the Pent- 
LAND Firth, it is possible that Loden-dun 
or Lud-dun may have become Lundun or 
London. It has also been proposed to 
derive the name from a possible personal 
name *Londinos. Some other untenable 
conjectures may be briefly noticed ; one 
deriving the name from the Gaelic word 
for a ship which we have in Loch Long, 
or from the Celtic lorn, 'bare,' or from 
clon \cluain) which signifies land sur- 
roimded on one side by bog and on the 
other by water, which is common in 
such Irish names as Clontarf or Clonboy, 
and finally it has been proposed to 
explain the name as Luna-dun, on the 
supposition that the site of St. Paul's 
was occupied by a temple of Diana. 
The name London has been transferred 
to London in Canada, and to London in 
the Cape Colony. Davis gave the name 
of the London Coast to the western 
shores of Greenland, in honour of the 
London merchants who had equipped 
his expedition. Londonderry was long 
known as Derry (^.v. ), the ' place of oaks,' 
but when in 1613 it was granted by James I. 
to the Irish Society of London, it was 
incorporated under the name of London- 
Deny. The town of Londonderry, in 
New Hampshire, was settled in 1719 by 
120 Presbyterian families from the North 
of Ireland. Londres de Catamarca, 
an Argentine town in the province of 
Catamarca, and the district of Nueva 
Inglaterra, was founded by order of Piiilip 
of Spain, at the time of his marriage in 
London with Queen Mary of England. 

Longford, the Anglicised form of the 
Irish Longphort, ' a fortress,' ' stone fort,' 
or • castle,' is the name of twenty places 
in Ireland, one of which gives a name 
to an Irish cotmty, 

XiOOkers-On was the name given by 
Cook in 1770 to a part of the coast in the 
New Zealajid province of Marlborough, 
where the natives gazed 'with a look 
of vacant astonishment' at his approach. 
The name has now been transferred to the 
coast range, which bears the name of the 
Looker-on Mountains. 

Look-out Head, Bass Strait, was as- 



cended by Flinders in order to take ob- 
servations. Mount Look-out, on the 
Murray, was so called by Mitchell for a 
similar reason. Cook gave the name of 
Point Look-out to two Australian capes 
seen by him from the mast-head, where 
he had stationed himself in order to dis- 
cover a practicable passage through the 
maze of coral reefs around him. 

Loon Lake in New Brunswick, and 
Loon Head on the Greenland coast, 
were named from the abundance of the 
water fowl called loons. Lomsbay in 
Novaya Zemlya was so named for a 
similar reason by Barents in 1594, lorn 
being the Dutch equivalent of loon, 

Lopatka, the southern cape of Kamt- 
chatka, which means a 'shoulder-blade' 
or ' shovel,' was so called by the Russians 
from its shape. 

Loroa, a city in Spain, the Eliocroca of 
the Antonine Itinerary, and probably the 
Ilorci of Pliny, was called Lorka by the 
Arabs, whence the modem name. 

Lorch., a town on the Rhine, was called 
in the third century Lauriacum, a Cclto- 
Latin form derived from a personal name. 

LoretO, near Ancona, is the place where 
according to the legend the Holy House 
of Joseph and Mary at Nazareth, carried 
by angels through the air, was deposited 
in a laurel grove, lauretum. It is officially 
called Sacellum gloriosa Virginis in 
Laureto, whence the name Loreto, which 
has been transferred to Loreto in Low«: 
California, and to Nuestra Senora de 
Loreto in Peru, founded by the Jesuits 
in 1710. 

Lorn, a district in the north-west of Argyll, 
bordering the Firth of Lorn, gives a second 
title to the Duke of Argyll. The modern 
spelling Lome is wrong. It was the 
territory of the Cinel Loam^ or ' race of 
Loam,' one of the three branches of the 
Dalriad Scots ; Loam Mor, the ' great 
fox,' being one of the three brothers who 
in the fifth century are said to have led 
the colony of the Scots from Ireland to 
Argyll. 

Lorraine is the French equivalent of the 
German name Lothringen. By the 
treaty of Verdun in 843 Burgundy and 
Provence were allotted to the Emperor 
Lothar i., son of Louis the Pious and 
grandson of Charlemagne. On the re- 
division of the Carlovingian Empire in 
855, this great dominion, which has now 
dwindled to the modern province of Lor- 
raine, fell to his son King Lothar 11. in 
whose reign (855-968) it became known 
as the Regnum Lothari or Lotharingia, 



M 



178 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



whence Lothringen, which signifies the 
land of the Lotharingi, as the subjects of 
Lothar were called, while either Lothar- 
ingia or Lothari regnum might become 
Lot-rigne and then Lorraine in French. 

Los Angeles, in California, was founded 
in 1781 under tne name Pueblo de la Reina 
de los Angeles^ the ' town of the Queen of 
the Angels.' 

XjOt, a French department, was named from 
the River Lot, anciently the Oltis^ which 
by prefixing the article became LOlt^ 
and finally Lot. 

Lothian (Lodonia) was the name of the 
English district north of the Tweed, which 
now forms three Scotch counties. Skene 
holds it was the Regio Loidis of Bneda 
(654). It is called Lotheiu in the Saxon 
Chronicle, Laodonia in an early charter, 
and Lethead in Gaelic. The name is 
supposed to be Celtic, the old nameZ^<9»- 
esia being derivable from Lodens, Nodens, 
LUid, or Nuada (King Lud), the Celtic 
war-god, who was said to have been king 
of Lodonesia. {See London and Leeds). 

XjOUisiana^ one of the United States, 
comprises a very small part of the vast 
region to which the name was first given. 
In 168 1 La Salle left Lake Michigan, and 
after establishing a fort, which he called 

• St. Louis, on the Illinois River, descended 
the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. On 
April 9th, 1682 he took formal possession 
of his discoveries in name of Louis xiv., 
in whose honour he gave the name of 
Louisiana to a great territory in the valley 
of the Mississippi, which by a secret treaty 

. was transferred to Spain m 1763 ; it was 
ceded back to France in 1800, and pur- 
Chased by the United States from 
Napoleon in 1803. The old territory of 
Louisiana now constitutes the states or 
territories of Louisiana, Arkansas, Mis- 
souri, Iowa, Nebraska, Idaho, Dakota, 
Montana, and parts of Minnesota, Wyo- 
ming, Colorado, and Kansas. St. Louis, 
near the jimction of the Mississippi and 
the Missouri, was founded as a trading 
station by Pierre Liguste la Cl^de in 
February 1764, the year in which France 
surrendered her possessions in this region. 
The settlers urged La ClMc to give it his 
own name, but he insisted on calling it 
after Louis ix. , the name-saint of Louis 
XV. (See St. Louis. ) Louis le Grand 
was the name given by Beauchesne in 
T699 to one of the Fuegian islands, in 
honour of Louis xiv. Louisbourg, the 
French capital of Cape Breton, bears the 
name of Louis xv. who is said to have 
speat two mUlioDS sterling on its fortifica- 



tions. Louisville, in Kentucky, is a 
large city on the Ohio. The name was 
bestowed in 178a by the Virginian legis- 
lature as a compliment to Louis xvi., 
who was then assisting the Americans in 
their struggle for independence. St. 
Louis, the capital of the French settle- 
ment of Senegambia, was founded in 
1662; the name of St. Louis has also 
been given to a town in R^nion, to a lake 
in Canada, to a river in Minnesota, and 
to one of the French West Indian Islands. 
The LouisiADE Archipelago, east of 
New Guinea, was discovered by Torres in 
1606. In honour of Louis xv. , Bougain- 
ville in 1769 gave the name of Golfe de la 
Louisiade to a supposed bay, called Lou- 
isiade Archipelago when in 1793 it was 
proved by d'Entrecasteau to be a group of 
islands, and not, as had been thought, an 
indentation in the coast of New Guinea. 

Lourenzo Marquez, a district stretch- 
ing from Delagoa Bay to the Limpopo, 
was so called from a trading station for 
ivory established by Louren90 Marquez, a 
Portuguese trader. 

Lourznel, a town in Oran, bears the 
name of a French General who took part 
in the conquest of Algeria. 

Louth, an Irish town which gives its 
name to the county of Louth, is a cor- 
ruption oi Lu^h-magh, the ' field of Lugh.' 
Louth in Lmcolnshire is on the River 
Lud, anciently the Ludd, 

LouvaiB is the French, LSwen the Ger- 
man, and LovEN or Leuven the Flemish 
name of a Belgian city called Lovanium 
in the seventh century. 

LO'well, a manufacturing town on the 
Merrimack, in Massachusetts, was named 
after Francis C. Lowell of Boston. The 
native name, Patucket, which means ' at 
the falls,' occurs repeatedly in the States. 
There is a river called the Pawtucket 
in Rhode Island, and the Pawtuxunt 
flows into Chesapeake Bay. 

Loyalty Islands is the name of a 
Pacific group missed by Cook, and only 
discovered in 1794 by the ship Walpole. 
The name first appears on a map of 1799* 
but why it was bestowed is not known. 

Liibeok bears the name of its foundo*. 
Liuby, a Slavonic prince. Old Liibeck 
was destroyed in 1139, and rebuilt on the 
present site in 1143. 

Lucerne is the French form of the Ger- 
man name Luzbrn. According to an 
old etymology, which dates from 695 A. D. , 
a certain watch-towo* served as a light- 
house, lucema, for vessels navigating the 



GLOSSARY 



T79 



latce. In 844 mention is made of the 
Monasterium • Lucernense^ and in 1227 
of a Prior de Lucema, In some old 
documents the name is written Luceria, 
which might mean 'fishers' huts.' Possibly 
these names may be adaptations of an 
older Celtic name lug-cern. (See Lyons. ) 
From the town the Vierwaldstatter 
See, or ' Lake of the four forest Cantons,' 
is often called the Lake of Lucerne. 

Lucknow (Lakhnao), the capital of 
Oudh, may l>e a corruption of Lakshvia- 
nauii, the ' fortunate' or ' lucky.' Local 
legend refers its foundation to the mythical 
Lahshmana, who in the Rdmdyana is the 
brother of Rdma, and son of Dasartha, 
Maharaja of Oudh. 

XjUOky Bay, West Australia, commem- 
orates the good luck by which, at a 
critical moment, Flinders found a sheltered 
anchorage. 

Lud'Wlgrsburgri a town in Wiirtemberg, 
was originally a hunting seat built in 1704 
by Duke Eberhard Ludwig. Ludwigs- 
LUST, in Mecklenburg -Schwerin, was a 
hunting seat erected by Duke Christian 
Ludwig II. in 1756. Ludwighafen, on 
the Lake of Constance, bears the name of 
Ludwig, Grand Duke of Baden, by whom 
it was founded in 1826. Ludwighafen, 
a free port on the Rhine, opposite Mann- 
heim, was completed in 1843 by Ludwig, 
king of Bavaria, who also constructed the 
Ludwig Canal, which forms a communi- 
cation between the German Ocean and the 
Black Sea, by uniting the Main, a tribu- 
tary of tiie Rhine, with the Altmiihl, a 
tributary of the Danube. Ludwighohe, 
one of the peaks of Monte Rosa, was 
first ascended by the Austrian Baron 
Ludwig in 1822. 

XjU^O, a town in the Spanish province 
of Galicia, represents the Roman Lucus 
Augusti, the ' grove of Augustus.' 

.Lukniailier is an Alpine pass leading 
from Medels in the Graubiinden to Canton 
Ticino. The name was derived fi-om the 
church at Medels, which is called in Latin 
documents Santa Maria in luco nuLgno^ 
• St. Mary in the great wood.' 

liUnoheon Oove, Dusky Bay, New 
Zealand, is where Cook and Forster 
lunched on crabs, on April 13th, 1773. 

LiUnd, which means ' a wood ' or ' sacred 
grove,' is a common element in Scandi- 
navian names, as Lund in Sweden, Den- 
mark, and Yorkshire. Lundy Island in 
the Bristol Channel is so called because 
of the puffins (O.N. lundi^ a puffin), by 
' which it is frequented. 



Luneburgr, a town in Prussia, anciently 
Liuniburg, is from the stem hliun, formed 
from the O.H.G. hleo (A.S. hlaw, now 
law or low), ' a hill.' Lun^ville on the 
Meurthe, referred by the local legend to 
an ancient cult of Luna, the moon-god- 
dess, is probably from the same root. 

Lurgfan is an Old Irish word meaning 
the ' shin ' which is applied topographi- 
cally to denote a long low ridge. There 
are thirty places in Ireland called Lurgan, 
and sixty more in which it forms part of 
the name. 

Luton, in Bedfordshire, is the 'ftln on the 
River Lea,' as is shown by the name ap- 
pearing as Lygetiin in Offa's charter to St. 
Albans. In 1148 Henry of Huntingdon 
has in finibus Luitonia, which gives the 
transition to the modern name. Leyton 
in Essex is also, like Luton, a tun on the 
Lea. Cuthbert went from Bedford 10 
Ayltshvxy \hTOMg\i Lygeanbyrig, the 'burh 
on the Lea, ' which is most probably to be 
identified with Lodburn in Bucks. Lygean- 
burh is usually identified with Leighton 
Buzzard in Bedfordshire, but Leigliton 
stands on the Ouse and not on the Lea, 
as does Lenbury, in Bucks, which has 
also been supposed to be the Lygeanbyrig 
or Lygeanhurh of the Chronicle. 

Luxemburg is a corruption of Luzilun- 
burch, afterwards Lutzelburg^ 'the little 
castle ' (O. H. G. lutil, ' little \ The name 
was extended from the castle to the 
town, and from the town to the Grand 
Dutchy of which it is the capital. By a 
folk-etymology the name was Latinised 
as Lucis burgum, the ' city of light,' and 
curiously enough the great discovery of 
the polarisation of light was made by 
viewing through Iceland spar the reflec- 
tion of the sun's rays from the windows 
of the Luxembourg Palace at Paris. 

Luxor, one of the villages on the site of 
the Egyptian Thebes, is a European cor- 
ruption of the Arabic el-Aksor, ' the 
palaces,* an old plural of Kasr^ p. 42. 
The modern plural is ^/-ATajvr. 

Luzon, or Luc:on, the largest of the 
Philippines, obtained its name from 
Lozon, a conspicuous promontory at the 
entrance to the bay of Manila, so named 
by the natives because its shape resembles 
that of the wooden trough or mortar, 
locally called lasutig or losong, used for 

gounding rice. The name, denoting at 
rst merely the district near Manila, was 
gradually extended to the whole island. 
Lydney, or Lidney, a Gloucestershire 
village on the Severn, is notable for the 
remains of a British temple in which 



i8o 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



have been found inscriptions to the Celtic 
war>god, who became the King Lud of 
tradition, and from whom Ludgate and 
possibly London (Lud -dun or Luden- 
dun) may be named. He is called 
Nodens, the Latin form of the Gaelic 
Nuada, in Welsh NCldd and Lludd. 

Lyell RaJiffe, and Mount Lyell, in 
Australia, bear the name of Sir Charles 
Lyell the geologist. The Arctic Lyall 
Bluff, and the Antarctic Lyall Islets, 
commemorate the services of Dr. David 
Lyall, who accompanied the expeditions of 
Captains Belcher and James Ross. 

liynme near Hythe in Kent is the 
Partus Lemanis of the Itineraries. Le- 
manis is a locative-plural meaning at the 
pools or lagoons. From the same source 
Lake Leman. the classical name of the 
Lake of Geneva, is derived. 

liynn Kesris or King's Lynn, Norfolk, 
was formerly Lynn Episcopi, or Bishop's 
Lynn, the name having been changed 
when at the Reformation the town passed 
into the hands of Henry viil. The name 
is Celtic, denoting the ' pool ' on the 
Ouse which formed the port. {^See Lin- 
coln.) Lynn in Massachusetts, near 
Boston, was founded in 1627 and named 
after Lynn Regis, the home of its first 
pastor. 

Lyon Inlet, in Fox Channel, bears the 
name of Captain G. F. Lyon, who com- 
manded the Hecla in Parry's second 
voyage (1821). 

Lyons, in French Lyon, at the confluence 
of the Rhone and the Sadne, is a cor- 
ruption of the Celto- Roman name Lug- 
dunum or Lug-u-dunum. The meaning 
of the Celtic name Lugu-dun is doubtful. 
The older etymologies make it either the 
'dun on the marsh' or the 'raven fort.' 
Professor Rhys, following d'Arbois de 
Jubainville, considers that it is the dun or 
fortress of the god Lugus (Irish Liig)^ the 
Celtic solar hero. It is explained by Guest 
as • Tower Hill ' from a supposed Celtic 
word lug, a ' tower,* a meaning which 
Camden inferred from Mela's Turris 
Augusta being called Lugo-Augusti in 
the Antonine Itinerary. So Carlisle [q. v. ), 
anciently Luguballium, would signify the 
tower or fort at the end of the Roman 
wall. (See Laon. ) The Gulf of Lions 
{q.v.) is not named from the city. 

Lyra's Island, Corea, bears the name 
of the Lyra, Captain Basil Hall's ship. 
Lyra Shoal, New Ireland, was dis- 
covered in 1826 by Captain Rennett in the 
ship Lyra. 



Lyskamm, a ridge forming part of 
Monte Rosa, stands above the Lysthal 
or Val Lesa, which is drained by the 
River Lys or Lesa. 

Lyttleton, Port, in New Zealand, 
founded in 185 1, bears the name of Lord 
Lyttleton, the President of the association 
under whose auspices the province of 
Canterbury was colonised. 

Maas, anciently the Mosa, is the Dutch 
name of the river called Maes in Flemish, 
and Meuse in French. The meaning 
is unknown. Zeuss thinks the name is 
Celtic, while Ferguson suggests a Teutonic 
etymology, either the ' winding ' or the 
' marshy ' river. 

Maatsuyker Islands, Tasmania. 

were named by Tasman after a member 
of the Cotmcil of the Dutch East India 
Company in Batavia. They are also 
called De Witt Islands (q*v,), which is 
probably a later name. 

Macadam is an absurd name ^ven by 

Stokes to a range of Australian hills com- 

• posed of a pudding-stone conglomerate, 

which reminded him of the macadamised 

roads invented by John Macadam. 

Macao, a settlement near the mouth of 
the Canton River, occupied by the Portu- 
guese since 1557. was built on the site of 
a temple of the goddess Ama, the so- 
called queen of heaven, a patroness of 
seamen. The Chinese name Ama-ngao, 
which means ' ^^a Bay,' became succes- 
sively Amagoa, Amacao (the usual form 
in old documents), and finally Macao. 
The Chinese now call it Ngao-man, the 
• gate of the bay ' [ngao^ a bay or inlet, 
and man, a gate). 

JViacassar, the Dutch capital of Celebes, 
whence the name of the Straits of 
Macassar, is a corruption of Mang- 
kasara (in Portuguese Macafares^, the 
name of the paramount native tribe in 
the island. 

M'Clintock Ohannel, in the Arctic 

Archipelago, bears the name of Captain 
M'Clintock, who, in 1859, discovered the 
fate of Sir John Franklin. 

M'Clure Strait. Cape M'Clurb, and 
M'Clure Bay, bear the name of the 
officer to whom is due the final discovery 
of the North-West Passage, which had, 
however, practically been found by Sir John 
Franklin's ill-fated expedition, though 
none of his party survived to report the 
discovery that had been made. 

M'Oullocll Island and Cape M'Cul- 
LOCH, in Arctic America, commemorate 



GLOSSARY 



t8i 



the services of the medical officer and 
geologist who accompanied the first ex- 
pedition of John Ross. 

M'Diarmid's Island was named after 
the medical officer in the second voyage 
of John Ross. 

M'Q-ary Island, in Kane's Sea, bears 
the name of Kane's second officer. 

M'Kay River, Queensland, bears the 
name of the first settler on its banks. 
M' Kay's Peak, on the Great Fish River, 
was called after a Highlander in Back's 
expedition, who volunteered to ascend it 

Mackenzie River, flowing into the Arc- 
tic Ocean, was discovered and descended 
m 1789 by Alexander Mackenzie, the 
first European who reached the Arctic 
Ocean. Till FrankUn in 1825 gave it its 
present name it was known as the Great 
River. In 1793 Mackenzie crossed the 
continent, and reached the Pacific near the 
Strait of Fuca at Mackenzie's Outlet. 
Mackenzie Islands, in the Caroline 
Group, bear the name of Captain Mac- 
kenzie, commander of the James Scot, 
who discovered them in 1823 on a voyage 
from Acapulco to Calcutta. 

Mackinaw, a corruption of Michilli- 
nmckinack, * the great tortoise,' is an 
island in the strait between Lakes Michi- 
gan and Huron, which resembles a tor- 
toise asleep on the water. 

MS>COn, a town in Burgundy, formerly 
Mascon, is from an oblique case of Maiisco, 
a town of the iEdui. 

Maoquarie Island, seven hundred 

miles south-west of New Zealand, is 
named after General Lachlan Macquarie, 
Governor of New South Wales from 1809 
to 1821. From him are also named M AC- 
QUARiE River, Macquarie Strait, 
Lachlan River, Port Macquarie, 
and the Macquarie Mountains, all 
in Australia, as well as Macquarie 
Harbour and the Macquarie River 
in Tasmania. Governor Macquarie had 
a craze for naming places, bestowing 
many during his visit to Tasmania in 1810. 
To him we may probably attribute the 
numerous Scotch names m the colony, 
such as Hothwell and Ben Lomond, 
and the Rivers Clyde, Leven, Esk, 
Forth, and Gordon, if not those of 
the Tamar, Shannon, Ouse, and Cam. 
Two small outlying islands north of Mac- 
quarie Island, discovered in 181 1, are 
called the Judge and his Clerk, and 
two similar islands, south of Macquarie 
Island, are called the Bishop and his 
Cj-erk. The Macdonnell Ranges in 



Australia bear the name of Sir R. G. Mac- 
donnell, a Governor of South Australia. 
Madagascar is a name which, owing to 
a curious misconception, has been trans- 
ferred, in European maps, from a place 
on the mainland to the great African 
island. It is only within recent years 
that the Hovas have adopted from the 
missionaries the name Madagaskara as 
the designation of their island. It was 
possibly the Menrutkias of the Greek 
geographers, and was certainly known to 
the medieval Arabs, probably as fComr or 
Komara, the 'moon' island. The first 
European who visited it was FernSo Soares, 
a Portuguese captain who sighted the 
East Coast on February ist, 1506, the eve 
of St. Lawrence (Archbishop of Canter- 
bury), the West Coast being discovered by 
Joao Gomez d'Abreu on August loth in 
the same year, the feast of St. Lawrence 
the martyr, hence it was named Ilha de 
San LourenzOt and was long known as 
St, Laurens. The name Madagascar is 
due to Marco Polo, who at the end of the 
thirteenth century described, seemingly 
from the hearsay reports of Arab or 
Malay sailors, a large island, which is 
called in various MSS. of his travels Magas- 
tar, Mandesckar, Mandesgascar, Mada- 

fastar, Madeigascat, and Madeigascar. 
le says the country abounded in lions, 
leopards, elephants, and giraftes, and that 
the people are Moslems, who eat camels, 
a description excluding Madagascar, 
where there were neither lions, giraffes, 
elephants, or Moslems, but manifestly 
referring to some part of the mainland 
of Africa, probably to Magadascar or 
Magadoza (now called Magadoxo), a 
town and State in the southern part of 
the Somali peninsula, called Macdasur in 
Fra Mauro's map (1459) and Makdaschau 
by Ibn-Batuta, who describes the people 
as eating camels. In 1492 Martin Behaim, 
endeavoxiring to represent on his globe 
Marco Polo's account of Magadoza on 
the mainland, depicted it as a large island 
which he calls Madeigascar, the name 
found in one MS. of Marco Polo's travels, 
placing it some 1400 miles north of * Zan- 
guebar,* and not 400 miles south of it like 
the real island. The false Madagascar 
also appears in 1546 in the map of Hon- 
terius, but has disappeared in that of 
Peter Apian in 1551, of Mercaior in 
1569, and of Ortelius m 1570. In 1591 
Captain Lancaster calls this island which 
he visited St. Lawrence or Madagas- 
car. The word Malagasy or Malagas! 
is now used to designate the people and 
language of Mada^scar. with which it 



l82 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



seems to have no linguistic connection. 
The old Swahili, a language which was 
spoken on the coast from the Straits of 
Bab-el-Mandeb nearly as far as Zanzibar, 
was called Ki-n-gozi, ' the speech of the 
men,' and their country was called C/-n- 
gozi, ' the land of the men,' n-gozi or 
m-^ozi meaning ' men,' the n or m 
bemg a plural affix. Malagasi would 
therefore mean in Svvahili the ' Mala men.' 
What Mala means is doubtful. Malagasi 
is essentially a Malay language, having 
no affinities with any African tongue, 
and hence Malagasi might mean the 
' Malay men.' 

Maderaner Thai, in Canton Uri, is so 

called from an Italian named Maderano, 
who worked a mine at the entrance to the 
valley. 

Madeira is the chief island of the Madeira 
Group in the North Atlantic. From the 
Medicean map of 1351 it appears that the 
Italian mariners in the fourteenth century 
called it /sola do Legname^ ' the wooded 
island,' of which the Portuguese name 
//Aa da Madeira, 'island of timber,' is a 
translation. The Rio da Madeira, one 
of the great tributaries of the Amazons, is 
a descriptive name referring to the vast 
tropical forest through which it flows. The 
Spanish and Portuguese word madeira or 
madera is the Latin materia (whence our 
words matter ^ m.aterials, and immaterial), 
originally timber for building, and after- 
wards wood or forest. (See Madrid.) 

Madison, the State capital of Wisconsin, 
and two hundred and twenty - three 
counties, towns, and townships, chiefly in 
Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Pennsylvania, and 
Missouri, bear the name of James Madi- 
son, fourth President of the United States 
(1809-1817). 

Madras is usually explained as if from the 
conjectural name Madrisa-patam, ' the city 
of the college ' (Arabic Afadrissa, a. college 
or university). But the oldest known form 
of the name is Mandraj, apparently from 
Matidra-raj, the 'realm of Mandra,' a 
name of the god Yama. An older Tamil 
name was Chinna -patnam^ the ' little 
town.' 

Madrid was made the capital of Spain in 
1560 by Philip 11. The name is usually 
explained from the Arabic madarat, a 
' town. ' But the early form Mazerit or 
Magerit, given in the Chronicle of Sam piro, 
points to materita, a ' small wood ' or 
' copse,' a diminutive of materia, as the 
true etymology. (5w Madeira.) 

Maelson^ ap island near Novaya Zemlya, 



was discovered by the Dutch in X594 and 
named after Franz Maelson, a member of 
the Dutch Council. 
Maelatrbm, correctly MalstrOm, a 
whirlpool south of the Lofoden Islands is 
the ' grinding stream ' (Norwegian, male, 
' to grind '). 

MaentwrOfiT, in Merioneth, is the ' Stone 
of Twrog.' The Old Man of Coniston, 
the Old Man in Cornwall, the Old Man 
of Hoy in the Orkneys and the Deadman 
or DoDMAN, a Cornish headland, are 
supposed to be from maen, * a rock.' 

Magrdala., the ' tower,' a hill fortress in 
Abyssinia, gives a title to Lord Napier of 
Magdala, by whom it was stormed in 1868. 
Another Magdala, a town of Galilee, 
is best known as the birthplace of Mary 
Magdalene or Mary of Magdala, whence 
Madalena, one of the Marquesas, dis- 
covered by Mendana on July 2ist, 1595, 
the eve of her festival, and Magdalena, 
the largest affluent of the Orinoco, which 
gives its name to a State in the South 
American republic of Coliunbia. 

Mag^deburg', in Prussian Saxony, called 
in Latin documents Parthenopolis, the 
' maiden's town,' obtained its name 
according to the local tradition, because 
the Empress Eadgyth (Edith) received it 
as a dowry on her marriage with the 
Emperor Otho (936-973). This tradition 
is disposed of by the fact that the name is 
much older, appearing in 805 as Magatha- 
burg (O.H.G. magad, 'a maid'). The 
' maiden ' from whom the town was 
named was a heathen idol, destroyed by 
Charlemagne. We are told it was an 
image of Venus, by which the chronicler 
doubtless meant Holda. 

Magrellan'S Strait, between Fuegia 
and Patagonia, was discovered by a 
Portuguese in the Spanish service, who 
is called FernSo de MagelhSes in Por- 
tuguese, Fernando de Magellanes in 
Spanish, and in English books Ferdinand 
Magellan, a name which should not be 
pronounced Magellan but Magelldn, with 
the accent on the last syllable. With a 
squadron of five ships equipped by the 
Emperor Charles v. he sailed from 
Seville in 1519. Arriving at Port St. 
Julian in Patagonia, a mutiny broke out 
among the captains, which was suppressed 
with great but necessary vigour. On 
October 21st, the festival of the eleven 
thousand virgins, Magellan discovered the 
entrance to the strait which now bears 
his name, calling it Estrecho de las Vir~ 
gines, a name still preserved by Capk 
VIRGINS at its northern entrance. On 



GLOSSARY 



183 



November ist, All Saints Day, he began 
the passage of the actual strait, which he 
named from the day Estrecho de Todos los 
Santos, Other names have been pro- 
posed, but by common consent the name 
of the discoverer has been justly pre- 
ferred. He was thirty-seven days working 
through the strait, and on November 28th, 

1520, he reached the much 'desired Cape,' 
Cabo Deseado, and passed out into the 
open ocean to the West, ignorant of its 
identity with the ' South Sea,' discovered 
seven years before by Balboa. For more 
than three months he sailed over it with- 
out a storm, and hence be called it 
Mar Pacifico, the ' peaceful sea.' After 
touching at the Ladrones (^.z/.) he reached 
the Philippines, where, on April 26th, 

1521, he was killed in a skirmish with 
the natives. One only of the ships, the 
Victoria^ in command of her pilot, with 
eighteen survivors on board, reached 
Seville on September 8th, 1522, after an 
absence of nearly three years, thus 
accomplishing, for the first time, the cir- 
cumnavigation of the globe. 

Ma^Sriore, Lagro, in Italy, the ' larger 
lake,' is fed by the KIVER Maggia, pro- 
bably a back-formation from Maggiore. 

Mafirnetio Isle, Queensland was so 
called by Cook, in 1770, on account of a 
local deviation of the compass. A similar 
reason explains the names of Magnetic 
Isle, Newfoundland, Magnetic Cape, 
in Corea, and Mount Magnet in West 
Australia. 

Mahe, the largest of the Seychelles, 
whence the group is sometimes called the 
Mah£ Archipelago, was so named by 
Picault, in 1742, in honour of Mah^ de 
Labourdonnaye, Governor of the French 
possessions in India. 

Mahon, or Port Mahon, the capital of 
Minorca, was founded c. 702 B.C. by 
Mag6n, a Carthaginian general, the father 
of Hanno, and grandfather of Hamilcar, 
whence the Roman name Partus Magonis. 
In 1708 Port Mahon was taken by the 
Enghsh under General James Stanhope, 
afterwards created E^l Stanhope and 
Viscount Mahon ; the name of the Car- 
thaginian General being thus curiously 
retained in the title of an English peer 
who lived twenty -four centuries later. 

Mahrattas were the people of the Mah- 
rath (Sanskrit Mahdrdshtra), the ' great 
raj ' or kingdom of Central India. 

Maidenliead is a town in Berkshire, on 
the Thames. According to the local 
legend the name arose from the venera- 
tion paid to the head of a martyred 



British virgin. This legend finds expres- 
sion in the corporation seal, which bears 
a maiden's head. Maidenhead is how- 
*ever a corruption of Maidenhythe^ ap« 
parently signifying the ' maiden's wharf,' 
a meaning so improbable that it has been 
conjectured to be either nuBdu-hytht^ the 
' wharf by the meadow,' or tnidde-hytke^ 
the 'landing-place' mid -way between 
Marlow and Windsor. Another etymo- 
logy is the ' timber wharf,' from the A.S. 
mad^ which, according to a conjecture of 
Professor Leo, meant a tree- trunk. Before 
1297 a timber bridge had been built over 
the Thames, and the Crown granted to 
the town the right to have a tree every 
year from Windsor Forest to keep the 
bridge in repair, tlie name Mcedena-hytke, 
denoting the wharf where these tree- 
trunks were landed, thus replacing the 
older name Aylinton or Elington. 

Maidstone, the county town of Kent, 
takes its name from the Medway, on 
which it stands, as appears from the 
A.S. Toaxaei Medwages-tun, ' Medway tun,' 
which became Medwaston, and finally 
Maidstone. 

Maimatchin, which means 'market 
town* in Chinese, stands on the frontier 
of China opposite to the Russian station of 
Kiakhta or Kiachta (g.v.), where goods 
are exchanged. The word chin, ' a walled 
town,' is a common element in Chinese 
names, as in Chin-Kiang, the ' town on 
the river,' one of the treaty-ports. 

Main, a river joining the Rhine opposite 
Maintz, was the Roman Moenus (Gaulish 
Moinos), a name derived fix>m the root 
met, seen in me-are to 'move' or 'go.' 
The name Maintz has taken its present 
form owing to a very natural popular 
etymology deriving it from the name of 
the River Main. The French form, 
Mayence, is less corrupt, and points to 
the Roman name Mogontiacum, after- 
wards Moguntia, possibly derived either 
from an hypothetical tribe-name Mogun- 
tii, or from a personal name Mogontios, 
• the mighty,' but most probably from a 
deity commemorated in an inscription 
foimd in Wales, Deo Mogonti, who has 
been identified with Belenos, the god of 
light. Castel, a suburb of Maintz, re- 

g resents the Castellum Drusi built by 
►rusus, B.C. 13. 
Maine, an old French province, was the 
territory of the Cenomani. The chief 
town, Le Mans, occupies the site of the 
place called Cenomani in the Notitia. 
The form Maine is derived from Ceno- 
mania, and Le Mans from the dative 



1 84 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



plural Cenomanis, just as Rheims and 
Amiens are from the dative plurals Remis 
and Ambianis. According to Gltick the 
Celtic name means a place or district 
(See Man. ) 

Maine, one of the New England States, 
doubtless repeats the name of the French 
province. In some old Portuguese maps 
it appears as Terra de Bacalhaos, 'the 
land of stock fish ' or dried cod. In 
1603 Henry iv. of France granted it by 
charter to De Monts, a French gentleman, 
who, though there is no evidence of the 
fact, may have given it the name of 
Maine. In 1622 the' territory was 
granted by James I. to Gorges and 
Mason, who proposed, with the approba- 
tion of the Council, to call it the Province 
of Maine, possibly in compliment to 
Henrietta Maria, who was married to 
Charles i. in 1625, and whose dowry was 
charged on the revenues of the French 
Province of Maine. It has also been 
conjectured that the name originated with 
the cod fishers, who called it the mainland 
as distinguished from the neighbouring 
islands. 

Majo, one of the Cape Verd islands, which 
means ' May ' in Portuguese, was dis- 
covered by the Portuguese on May ist, 
1462. 

Majorca, in Spanish Mallorca, the 
larger of the two great Balearic islands, 
is the Roman Balearica Major ; Minorca, 
in Spanish Menorca, the lesser island, 
being Balearica Minor. In the seventh 
century Isidore of Seville has Majorica 
and Minorica, The Arabs made the 
name into Mayurkdh, whence the name 
Majorca, a form introduced on English 
maps at a time when / was pronounced 
as y. The correct Spanish spelling is 
Mallorca, // being pronounced as ly. 
From a manufactory at Ynca, in Mallorca, 
came the Majolica ware. Dante mentions 
the pottery from the island of Maiolica. 

Majungfa, correctly MojangX, the chief 
port on the north-west coast of Mada- 
gascar, was a settlement of Swahili 
Arabs, who called it Mji-angaia, the 
' town of flowers,' from the flowering 
shrubs on the shore. 

Makololo are a South African people. 
Chibitano, a Bantu conqueror, formed an 
army of men of different races and origins, 
who were hence called the kololo or 
' mixed people, 'which, with the prenominal 
prefix usual in Bantu tribe names, became 
Ma-kololo. {See Bantu and Wasu- 
KUMA. ) Manicaland, in like manner, is 
the land of the Nica people or Ma-Nica, 



and Mashonaland that of the Shona 
j)eop\e or Ma- SAona. Mashonaland has 
been exploited by the British Chartered 
Company of South Africa, who have 
named their principal stations Fort 
Victoria, Fort Charter, and Fort 
Salisbury after the Prime Minister 
under whom the charter was granted by 
Queen Victoria. 

Mekong, or Mechong, the great river of 
Cambodia, is believed to mean the ' head 
of the waters.' 

Makronisi, the ' long island,' lying off 
the coast of Attica, was anciently called 
Makris, a name also applied to Eubcea. 

Malabar, in Southern India, is called in 
the eleventh centiuy Tanjore inscription, 
Ma/ai-nadUf 'the mountain country.' 
Malayalam, now the name of the 
language spoken on the Malabar Coast, 
is a corruption of Malaya -ian, which 
means the ' moimtain region,' malaya 
being the Sanskritic form of malai, the 
Dravidian word for a ' mountain.' (See 
Malay. ) Malabar is believed to be an 
Arabic formation, as it first appears in the 
geography of Exlrisi (c. 1150, A.D.), while 
Ibn Batuta has Mtilai-bar. The sumx bar 
is probably the Arabic barr, a 'conti- 
nent ' (whence the Persian loan-word bdr), 
which appears in Zanzibar, the 'country 
of the blacks,' in Hindubar, the Arab 
name of India, and in the Nicobar 
Islands, or, as Lassen thinks, it may be 
a corruption of the Sanskrit vara^ a 
'region,' as in Mar -war or Dhar- 
WAR. Malabar Hill, a favourite site 
for villas on Bombay Island, is believed 
to have acquired its name from the fact 
that the ships of the Malabar pirates, who 
haunted this coast, used to lie behind it. 

MalabriffO Road, an open roadstead 
on the Peruvian Coast, means 'bad 
shelter.' The Spaniards gave the same 
name to an open roadstead near the 
mouth of the Oregon, and a group of 
islands in the North Pacific, east of the 
Bonin Islands, discovered by Villalobos 
in 1542, are called the Malabrigos. 

Malaooa(^^/a>^a)> a town which has given 
its name to the Straits of Malacca, was 
founded, it is said, in 1253 by a king of 
Singapore, and was doubtless so named on 
account of the abundance of the malaka 
tree, Phyllanthus emblica. From the 
town the name spread to the Malay 
peninsula and then to the straits which 
separate the peninsula from Sumatra. 
The natives believe the name is fh)m 
maha-lanka, the 'jp^reat island' or 
peninsula, an obvious folk-etymology. 



GLOSSARY 



i8S 



Malaga, in Spain, anciently Malaca^ is 
believed to be from a Phoenician word 
malak, which means 'salt,' perhaps be- 
cause it was a station where the tminy 
fish were salted for export. 

MalaJcofl^ a hill whose capture decided 
the fate of Sebastopol, bears the name of 
a Russian sailor who established a tavern 
on the hill. It gave the title of duke to 
Marshal Pelissier. (See PiMLlco. ) 

Malay Peninsula is a modem Euro- 
pean name for one of the chief regions 
inhabited by the Malays, so called by 
the Indians because they inhabited the 
Maliala or 'highlands' on the Western 
Coast of Sumatra. They call themselves 
Orang Malayu, ' Malay men ' or ' moun- 
tain men.' We have the Tamil word 
mdlai, ' mountains, ' in the name Malabar 
{q.v.), and of Malwa, a South Indian 
district, which signifies the ' mountainous 
country,' as well as in the Pacha-mXlai 
or ' green mountains,' and the Ana-mXlai 
or ' elephant mountains,' both in Southern 
India. MALAY Road, North Australia, 
was so named by Flinders in 1803 because 
he here encountered six Malay praus 
from Macassar. In Malay Bay, North 
Australia, King, in 1818, found some 
Malay vessels at anchor. 

Maldives are a cluster of coral islets in 
the Indian Ocean. The usual etymology 
' the thousand isles, ' from mal, a ' thou- 
sand,' 2ind diva, 'an island,' is probably 
erroneous. Tliere is some reason for 
supposing that the correct form is Malaya 
diva, the Malay or Mala-bar Islands. The 
oldest form is simply Divas ^ ' the islands.* 
Another old form is Mahal-dib or Dhibat- 
al-McAal,\*ihQ islands of Mahal,' the 
largest of the group being Mahal, now 
called Mall The islands being arranged 
in a chain, like a necklace, it has also been 
suggested that the name may be from the 
Sanskrit mala, * a chaplet ' or ' row.' 

Maldon in Essex, and Malton in 
Yorkshire have both been erroneously 
identified with the Roman Camalodunum, 
the dun or hill of Camalos, a British 
deity. Maldon is called Maeldun in the 
Chronicle, and is supposed to have 
acquired its name from a cross erected on 
the hill (A.S. mesl, a mark, sign, or cross). 
Malton, called Maltun in Domesday, 
is apparently from the A.S. mal, which 
means a 'place of assembly,' and also 
'rent, toll, or tribute,' either from some 
local tenure, or from atoll which may have 
been taken at the ancient bridge which 
here connects the North and East Ridings. 
Malden or Maldon, a Pacific Island, 



west of the Marquesas, discovered in 1825, 
bears the name of an ofiicer of Byron s 
ship the Blonde, 

MSilines, the French name of the dty 
called Mechlin or Mechlen in Flemish, 
was in the eighth century a group of cabins 
surrounding the monastery of St. RombauL 
The name is explained from the O.H.G 
mahal, a ' place of assembly ' or ' place of 
justice.' 

Mallow, in County Cork, is called in 
IrishA/bydrZ/a, a corruption oiMagk-Ealla, 
the 'plain of the River Ealla,' now the 
Allow. The Irish magk frequently be- 
comes moy, as in Fermoy, the land of the 
' men of the plain.' Moyne is from the 
diminutive maighin, the ' little plain.' A 
common derivative of mc^A is magkera 
(mackaire) which we have in Maghera- 
MORE, the 'great plain,' Magheralough, 
the 'plain of the lake,' and Maghera> 
BOY, the ' yellow plain.' In Welsh magh 
becomes ma, as in Mallwyd in Merioneth 
and Denbighshire, which is ma-llwyd, the 
• grey plain.* 

Malmesbury, in Wilts, is the place where 
Mailduf, an Irish monk, dwelt as a hermit 
About 642, with the assistance of St 
Ealdhelm (Aldhelm), the nephew of King 
Ina, a monastery and a stately church 
were erected on the site of Mailduf s cell. 
The name Malmesbury seems to have 
arisen from a confusion between the names 
of the two founders, Mailduf and Eald- 
helm, the early forms Maildulfesburh^ 
Mceldubesberg, and Maldubesburg coming 
from the name of Mailduf, and Ealdelmes" 
byrig from Ealdhelm. Maldumesbumh 
and Mealdumsbyrig, which are found in a 
charter of 675, exhibit a combined form 
from which the name Malmesbury arose. 
Malmesbury in the Cape Colony was 
named from Lord Malmesbury, Secretary 
for Foreign Affairs. 

MalmS, in Sweden, means ' sand island,' 
from malm, ' sand,' a common element in 
Swedish names. 

Malpais, ' bad land,' is a name given in 
Mexico and the Canaries to barren lava 
fields. Malpas on the Welsh border 
takes its name from a Norman castle, 
erected to command the 'bad pass' or 
road. M AUPAS ( Aisne) is a similar name 

Malta, a corruption of the old name 
Melita, has been supposed to mean 
the island of ' honey.' But, as Bochart 
and Gesenius maintain, the name is prob- 
ably Phoenician, meaning the 'refuge,' 
either for fugitives, or on accoimt of its 
excellent harbours, for ships. 



1 86 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Malvasia, in the Morea, whence Malm- 
sey wine was exported, is the Italian 
Napoli de Malvasia, a corruption of the 
Greek name Monembasia, the place with 
a ' single approach ' or entrance. 

Man is an island in St. George's Channel. 
The Welsh name was Maitau, and the 
Irish Manann^ both of which are genitive 
forms. We have the first in the name of 
the Menai Straits, i.e. the Straits of 
Manu, or Anglesea, and the second in 
Clackmannan {q.vX The nominative 
manu (Caesar's Mona) became Maun or 
Mon among the Scandinavians. GlQck 
and Zeuss refer the name to the Cymric 
word man, a ' place' or district,' which we 
have in Maine. The Isle of Man, in 
St. GeoYge's Channel, between New Britain 
and New Ireland, was discovered by 
Carteret in 1767, and named from its 
position. 

Manaos, a town at the confluence of the 
Rio Negro and the Amazon, bears the 
name of the Manaos, a native tribe. 

Mancha is a Spanish word meaning 
'ground covered with weeds.' La 
Mancha, a district in the South of 
Castile, is best known from the title given 
to his hero by Cervantes. 

Manchester, is believed to represent the 
Roman Mancunium or Manutium. The 
variant reading Mamucium is supported 
by the Mameceaster of the Chronicle. 
Baxter's conjecture, made in 17 19, that 
Mancunium represents a Cymric word 
Man-cenion^ the 'place of skins' {i.e. 
tents), has been adopted by several 
subsequent writers. Another etymology 
has been proposed from maen, a. 'stone,' 
which we have in Maen-twrog (q.v.) and 
other names. Most probably man is a 
Celtic word meaning a 'place.' Man- 
CETTERor Manchester in Warwickshire, 
represents the Roman Manduessedum. 

Manoliuria is the European name of 
the region inhabited by the Manchus, a 
Tungusic tribe, who furnished the dynasty 
which has ruled China for the last three 
centuries. According to Prof. Douglas 
Manchu means ' pure,' a name chosen by 
the founder as a suitable designation for 
his family. The Mantzu, a wild race on 
the Upper Kiang, bear a Chinese name 
meaning, according to Colonel Yule, ' sons 
of the barbarians. 

MandaJay or Mandal^, the capital of 
Burma, was founded in i860. The usual 
etymology is from the Pali mandala, a 
* flat plain,' but. according to Colonel Yule, 
the name was that of an isolated conical 
liillf rising high above the alluvial plain 



of the Irawadi, and crowned by a g^It 
Pagoda. The name of the hill represents, 
he thinks, that of the sacred mountain 
called Afandara, which in the Hindu 
mythology served the gods as a churning- 
staff at the churning of the sea. 

Mandan, a place in Dakota, preserves 
the name of the Mandan tribe, who called 
themselves Mi-ah-ta-nes, the ' people on 
the bank,' i.e. of the River Missotu-i. 

Manding'O, a powerful people in Western 
Africa.are the inhabitants [ngo) of Mandin, 
one of the districts they occupy. 

Manfredonia is a town in Southern 
Italy, built in 1265 by Manfred, king of 
Naples. It gives a name to the Gulf of 
Manfredonia. 

Mangfa, which means in Maori the 'branch 
of a river,' is a common prefix in New 
Zealand names, such as Mangwhara 
and Mangarera. 

Manliattan. the island on which New 
York is built, was formerly called the 
Manhattans, or the Manhudoes, probably 
from the Indian tribe which occupied it. 
Boyd explains it as munohan, ' the island.' 
There is a story that it was called Mana- 
hacteneid, ' the place of drunkenness, 
Henry Hudson in 1609 having taken some 
chiefs into his cabin and made them 
drunk. 

Manila, the capital of the Philippines, 
was founded in 1571 by Legaspi on the 
site of a native village of the same name, 
which is derived from a shrub called nila^ 
the prefix being the Tagala verb substan- 
tive ; Manila thus meaning ' Nila is,' or 
•here is Nila.' 

Manipuris anative State between Burma 
and Assam. About 150 years ago the 
Manipuris, a Naga tribe, having accepted 
Hinduism, called their coimtry Mani- 
pur, because in the Mahdbh&rata the hero 
Arjan is said to have travelled eastward 
to a mythical locality called Manipur, 
and to have married a Manipuri princess. 

Manisa, in Asia Minor, is the Galatian 
name Magnesia (whence the words 
magnet and magnetism), supposed to 
contain the Gaulish word magk, a ' plain.' 

Manitoba, the central province of the 
Canadian Dominion, formerly called the 
Red River Settlement, takes its name 
from Lake Manitoba, whose islands were 
believed by the natives to be the habita- 
tion of the Manito or great spirit. In the 
Algonquin language, manito, manitu, or 
manitou means a spirit, a ghost, or any- 
thing supernatural. The last syllable of 
Manito-ba if a fragment of tb^ Cree wor(^ 



GLOSSARY 



187 



waban, a ' strait.* The Manitu Islands 
in Lake Michigan, the Manitoulin 
Islands in Lake Huron, and Lake 
Manitu on the White Sand River were 
also supposed to be the abodes of spirits. 
A town in Wisconsin is called Manitowoc. 

Mannheim, a city on the Rhine, was 
called in 764 Manninheim, evidently from 
a personal name. 

Manning Strait, in the Salomon Group, 
was first traversed in 1792 by Captain 
Manning in the ship Pitt, 

Mansfield, Notts, is a corruption of 
Maunsfeld, the field on a small stream 
called the Maun. 

Mansura» or Mansoorah, a town on 
the Damietta branch of the Nile, is the 
Avdhicmansura, 'victorious.' Mansoura, 
in Algeria, is the same name in the French 
spelling. 

Mantua, in Northern Italy, was an Etrus- 
can town, probably named from Mantu, 
one of the Etruscan deities. 

Manukau is tlie name of the western 
harbour of Auckland, New Zealand. It 
is so called firom the Leptospertnum sco- 
paria, called manuka in Maori, which 
grows abimdantly on the rocks. 

Manzanares, in Spain, means the ' apple 
orchards' (Spicinish tnanzanar, an or- 
chard,' from mansana, an ' apple tree '). 
From the same source comes Las Man- 
zanas, a mission station in the Pata- 
gonian Cordillera, where the Jesuits 
planted many apple trees, which now 
grow wild. 

Maoris is the duplicate plural formation 
by which we designate the New Zealand 
aborigines, who call themselves Tangata 
Maori, ' the native men,' or simply Maori, 
•natives.' 

Mapledurwell in Hants, Mapledur- 
HAM in Oxon, and Mappowder in 
Dorset are from the A.S. mapulder, a 
'maple tree.' 

MaJTacaybO, a town in Venezuela, has 
given a name to the Lake and Gulf of 
Maracaybo. The name is said to be 
that of a Cacique, encountered here by 
Alonzo de Hojeda in 1499. 

Ma*ra6on, the name of the Upper 
Amazon, is believed to be from the native 
name of the edible fruit of the Anacardium 
occidentale, which |[rows abundantly on ils 
banks. Marafion is a Spanish form which 
would become Ma:ranhon (Maranhao) in 
Portuguese, the name which, possibly 
through some confusion, was given to one 
of the mouths of the Ama^n, and then 



extended to the largest island of the Delta, 
and finally to the adjacent province of 
Maranhao. The names may, however, be 
independent, maranha meaning in Portu- 
guese a 'tangled skein,' and thus denot- 
ing the network of streams in the Delta of 
the Amazon. On the island of Maranhao 
the French built a fort which they called 
St. Louis. In 1615 the Portuguese took 
the place, which is now ciUled SAN Luis 
DO MaranhXo. 

Marathona in Attica retains the old 
Phoenician name Marathon, 'abounding 
in fennel,' though the name may have 
been transferred from Marathus, a city in 
Phoenicia. 

Marazion, in Cornwall, is often said to 
be a Phoenician name, a wild theory sup- 
ported by the name Market- Jew, by which 
it is also known. But Market-Jew and 
Marazion are doubtless the Cornish names 
Marchasow and Marchasion, two forms of 
the plural of Marchaz, ' the market.' 

March Harbour, in Fuegia, was entered 
by Captain Fitzroy on March ist, 183a 

Mareng'O, a battlefield near Alessandria, 
in Piedmont, is one of the patronymic 
Lombard names in Northern Italy. 

Mcurgarita, an island off the coast of 
Venezuela, was discovered on August 
13th, 1498 by Columbus, who called it 
Isla Margarita, the ' pearl island,' imagin- 
ing that pearls, which he had recently 
obtained by barter from the natives, 
would here be found. 

Marsrate, in Kent, is a corruption of 
Meregate, either meaning the gale or gap 
leading to the sea, or the passage by 
which a small stream, locally called a 
* mere,' flowed into the sea. 

Mariajsell, in Styria, is a place of pil- 
grimage possessing a miracle-working 
picture of the Virgin Mary. Mariastein 
is a Benedictine Abbey in Canton Solo- 
thurn, standing on the edge of a precipice 
over which, according to the legend, a 
child fell, but was miraculously saved by 
the aid of the Virgin. Marienburg, 
near Dantzig, called in Polish Malborg, 
takes its name from a castle built by the 
Teutonic knights in 1276, and dedicated 
to the Virgin, which formed for a hundred 
and fifty years the residence of the Grand 
Masters of the Teutonic order. Santa 
Maria, one of the Azores, was discovered 
by Cabral on the Feast of the Assumption 
of the Virgin, August 15th, 1432. Santa 
' Maria da Serra is a shoal off the 
Arabian Coast, on which the Governor 
of the Indies, Alfonso d' Albuquerque, 



1 88 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



grounded in his ship the Santa Maria da 
Serra. MARIE Galante, one of the 
French Antilles discovered by Columbus 
on his second voyage, 1493, received from 
him the name of his ship, the Marigalante. 
Marietta, the oldest town in Ohio, was 
founded in 1788 by General Putnam, and 
named in honoiu- of Marie Antoinette. 
Maria Island, on the East Coast of 
Tasmania, was so named byTasman in 
1642, after Maria Van Diemen, daughter 
of the Governor of the Dutch East Indies, 
after whom Maria Bay in Amsterdam 
Island, one of the Friendly Islands, was 
also named by Tasman in 1643. Cape 
Maria Van Diemen, the north-western 
point of New Zealand, and an island in 
the Gulf of Carpentaria are also believed 
to bear the name of the same lady. 
Marianas (or Ladrones), a Pacific group, 
were named in 1668, in honour of Maria 
Anna of Austria, wife of Philip iv. of 
Spain. Magellan, who discovered them, 
wished the name to be Islas de las Velas 
Latinos, because the native boats were 
rigged with lateen sails, but his sailors 
chose to call them Islas de los Ladrones, 
the ' thieves' islands,' because of the 
thievish propensities of the natives. 
Marianna, a Brazilian town, was so 
named in 1745 in honour of the Arch- 
duchess Marianna of Austria, wife of 
John IV. of Portugal. Marien Canal, 
connecting the Volga with the Lake of 
Onega, was constructed by Peter the Great, 
and bears the name of his mother, Maria 
Feodorowna. Mariensk, a Russian town, 
founded in 1853. on the Lower Amoor, 
was named after Mary of Hesse Darm- 
stadt, wife of the Czarevich. 

Mark is a Teutonic word meaning a 
frontier. The Altmark was the 'old 
march ' or military frontier erected by the 
Emperor Henry i. against the Wends. 
The names of the Mittelmark, the 
Ukermark, and the Neumark exhibit 
the successive extensions of the Teutonic 
frontier. (5^^ Denmark.) 

Marlborougrh, Wilts, gave to the 
victor of Blenheim the ducal title from 
which the province of Marlborough in 
New Zealand has been named. Marl- 
borough appears in the Saxon Chronicle 
as Mcerle-beorh, apparent from mar lie, 
• noble,' ' glorious ' or ' lofty,' and beorh, 
a ' hill. ' M ARWELL,Gloucestershire, called 
Mesrwil in a charter, is the 'boundary 
well.' 

Marmora, an island so called from its 
quarries of white marble, has given a 
name to the Sea OF MARMORA, between 
the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles* 



Marne is the modern name of the river 
known to the Romans as the Matrona, 
a name referred to the Celtic goddess 
Matrona, the matron or mother. But our 
use of the term Father Thames, or 
Macaulay's line, 'Oh Father Tiber, to 
whom the Romans pray,' may suggest a 
simpler reason for designating a river by 
a name meaning the mother. Other con- 
jectural etjrmologies are given by Ferguson. 

Maronites, a Christian people in the 
Lebanon, ultimately derive their rame 
from the monastery of M4r M^rdn (St. 
Maron), where the founder of the sect, 
hence called John of Mdr6n, had studied. 

Mdroparasy, ' many fleas,' is a frequent 
and appropnate village name in Mada- 
gascar. 

Marpori, a mountain in Tibet, is so 
called from its 'red* rocks. Marpo 
LuNGBA, also in Tibet, is the * red river.' 

Maxquesas, 'the Marquis Islands,' a 
South Pacific group, sometimes called the 
MendaSa Archipelago (q.v.), were dis- 
covered in 1595 by Alvaro Mendaiia, and 
named by him Marquesas dt Mendoza in 
honour of his uncle the Marques de Men- 
doza, Viceroy of Peru, who had despatched 
the expedition. In 1791 Captain Ingra- 
ham of the American ship Hope called 
them the Washington Islands, and in the 
same year Captain Marchand of the French 
ship Le Solide called them Les Isles de 
la R^olution. Vancouver named them 
Hengist Islands after Lieutenant Hengist 
who had visited them in 1792, but the 
historical name given by the first discoverer 
has fortunately survived all endeavours 
to replace it. 

Marquette is a name given to a city in 
Michigan and other places in the United 
States in order to commemorate the ex- 
plorations of Father Marquette, a Jesuit 
who came to Canada in 1666, and died 
in 1675. After establishing a mission at 
the foot of Lake Superior in 1673 he 
coasted along Lake Michigan in company 
with Joliet, and by way of the Wisconsin 
River reached the Mississippi, which 
he descended as far as the mouth of the 
Arkansas River, discovering on his route 
the mouths of the Missouri and the Ohio. 

Marsala, in Sicily, is the Arabic name of 
Lilybaeum, which is preserved in a frag- 
mentary form by Cape Boeo (q.v. ). The 
Arabs called the harbour Marsa AH, the 
•port of Ali,' which became Marsala 
in Italian. Mers-el-Kebir, ' the great 
port,' in Oran, is the Arabic translation of 
the Partus Magnus of Pliny, 



GLOSSARY 



189 



Marseilles, the English form of the 
French name Marseille, preserves with 
little change the old name Massilia. The 
r is derived from the corrupt Middle Latin 
form Marsilia. 'Ilie etymology is doubt- 
fuL The name has been supposed to be 
Phoenician, but may more probably be 
Ligurian or Numidian, the Massyli being 
the most powerful of the Numidian tribes. 

MaJBh Island, in the Gambler Group, 
was named by Beechey in 1826 after his 
purser, George Marsh. 

Marshall Arohlpela^o or Mar- 
shall Islands, a North Pacific group, 
was discovered in 1529 by Saavedra, and 
called by him Buenos fardines, the ' good 
gardens.' In 1788 two English merchant 
vessels, the Scarborough and the Charlotte, 
commanded by Marshall and Gilbert, fell 
in with them, on a voyage from New 
South Wales to China. Hence the 
northern group has acquired the name of 
the Marshall Archipelago, and the 
southern group that of the Gilbert 
Archipelago, which includes a belt of 
islets called the Scarborough Range. 
In the Marshall Archipelago the Eastern 
Belt is called the Radack Chain, and 
the Western Belt the Ralick Chain, 
which are the native designations. The 
Marshall Islands, a small North 
Pacific group, north-east of the Ladrones, 
not to be confounded with the preceding 
group, which is conveniently distinguished 
as the Marshall Archipelago, were also 
discovered in 1788 by Captain Marshall 
of the ship Scarborough, On some maps 
they erroneously appear as Los fardines, 
a name which properly belonged to the 
Marshall Archipelago. 

Martaban, Q-ulf of, takes its name 
from Martaban, a decayed Burmese town 
whose trade, formerly of great importance, 
has been transferred to Moulmein. Mar- 
taban^ was a Portuguese corruption of the 
Malay name Maritanan. 

Martha's Vineyaxd, an island off the 

coast of Massachusetts, is said by Stith to 
have been so named by Bartholomew 
Gosnold in 1602 from the abundance of 
wild vines, but according to Benson the 
name is probably due to the Dutch 
skipper Adrian Block, who passed it in 
1614 on a voyage from New York to Cape 
Cod, and called it, after a Dutch seaman, 
Martin Wyngaard's Island, a name sub- 
sequently corrupted into Martha's Vine- 
yard. 
Martigrny, in Canton Valais, is usually 
said to bear the name of St. Martin, one 
of the apostles of the Valais, but the form 



Martigniacum, found as eaily as 1210, 
shows that it was merely the estate or 
property of some person bearing the 
common name of Martinus. 

MSiTtin Qa*rciai» an island in the Rio de 
de la Plata, bears the name of Martin 
Garcia, the steersman of Juan Diaz de 
Solis who discovered it. Near this island 
de Solis and eight of his comrades were 
killed by the natives. 

Martinique, one of the French Antilles, 
was discovered by Columbus on June 15th, 
1502. The modern French name Martin- 
ique may be a corruption of Matigno, a 
form found on a map of 1536, which may 
represent the original Carib name. Other 
early forms are Madiana, Mantanino, 
and Matinino, which last is believed to 
have been the name used or given by 
Columbus. 

Maryland, one of the United States, was 
so named in honour of Queen Henrietta 
Maria, being termed Terra Marice in the 
charter given in X632 to Lord Baltimore 
by Charles i. Probably the name was not 
selected without reference to the older 
name of Bahia de Santa Maria, which 
the Spaniards had bestowed on Chesa- 
peake Bay, on whose shores Maryland 
lies. Lord Baltimore, who was a Roman 
Catholic, called the seat of his govern- 
ment St. Mary's. Maryborough was 
constituted the assize town of Queen's 
County, and named after the Queen by an 
Act of the 3rd and 4th of Philip and 
Mary, in whose reign the old Kingdom 
of Ossory was converted into shireland 
in consequence of a rebellion. Mary- 
borough Port and the River Mary, in 
Queensland, were named in memory of 
the tragic death through a carriage 
accident of Lady Mary Fitzroy, the wife 
of Sir Charles Fitzroy, Governor of 
Australia. Marylebone, now a London 
borough, was the parish attached to the 
chapel of St. Mary-le-bourne, so called 
because situated on the bum or brook 
now called the Tyburn. 

Masoarene Islands (historically 

Ilhas Mascarenhas). a group east of 
Madagascar, to which Mauritius and 
Reunion belong, were discovered in 
1502 by Pedro Mascarenhas, a Portu- 
guese seaman. 

Massachusetts, one of the New Eng- 
land States, takes its name from the 
Puritan settlement of Massachusetts Bay, 
on which Boston stands. The old ety- 
mology explains it as the name of a tribe 
called after their chief, who took his name 
from a hillock in Boston Harbour on 



190 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



which he lived. This hillock resembled 
in shape the head of an arrow, and 
hence was called mos-wetuset, from mos, 
an 'arrow head,' and wetuset, * a, hill.' 
But, according to Roger Williams, Massa- 
chusetts meant • the blue hills,' and this 
accords better with the modem philo- 
logical conclusion that Massachusetts is 
an Anglicised plural or possessive mean- 
ing 'at the great hills,' from massa, 
•great,' and adchuash, 'hills,' plural of 
adchu, * a hill,' with the locative suffix -ii 
or -tf/, meaning * at * or ' near. ' It is 
called Mattachusetts Bay in the 
charter of Charles I. given in 1628, and 
Milton calls it Massawachusett The 
final s is apparently superfluous. 

Massaore Bay, New Zealand, is a free 
translation of the Dutch name Afoar- 
dtnaars Bogt, 'murderers bight,' given by 
Tasman, in 1642, to his first anchorage in 
New Zealand, because the natives attacked 
his boat without provocation, and killed 
three sailors. Since the recent discoveries 
of gold it has been renamed Golden Bay, 
the old name being thought inauspicious. 
At the Patagonian Riviere du Massacre 
Beauchesne's sailors in 1699 killed several 
natives in revenge for the murder of their 
comrades. Matanzas, the ' slaughter- 
ings,' an inlet on the coast of Florida, near 
St. Augustine, takes its name fi-om the 
massacre, in 1565, of all but five of the 
150 Huguenot settlers, by the Spanish 
commander, Pedro Menandez de Avilfes, 
whereby the French colony in Florida 
was exterminated. In 1513 Juan Ponce 
de Leon gave the name of I sola de 
Matanza, 'massacre island,' to a small 
island on the coast of Florida, where some 
of his men were killed by the natives. At 
Matanzas, on the north coast of Cuba, 
the crew of a shipwrecked vessel having 
been massacred by the natives in 1511 or 
1 512, the Spaniards found tlie survivors, a 
Spanish woman and her daughter a girl 
of eighteen, both naked, or clad only in 
leaves. 

Massena, a town east of Lake Tchad, is 
said to derive its name from a large 
tamarind tree (mass) growing in the 
market-place. 

Massereene, a castle and two baronies 
near Antrim, giving a title to an Irish 
peer, is a corruption of Masareghna^ the 
'Queen's hill,' the Irish word tnas^ the 
• thigh,' being applied to any long low hill. 

Massowah, properly Medsoua, called 
Matzua by tne Portuguese in 1542, is a 
town built on Base, a coral islet in die Red 
Sea. Medsoua is an Abyssinian word 



meaning 'to shout,' and it is supposed 
that the place was so called because it is 
within hail of the mainland. [See Stral- 
sund.) 

Masulipatam, on the Coromandel 
Coast, was the first factory established by 
the East India Company in 161 1. The 
name is a corruption of Machli-patnam, 
the 'town offish.' 

Matajnoros, in Mexico, at the mouth of 
the Rio Bravo del Norte, was so called 
after a priest named Matainoros. 

Matelotes, a group in the Carolines, 
was so named by Villalobos, in 1545, 
because the natives came out in canoes, 
crying buenos dias, matelotes/ ' Good-day,, 
sailors,' a proof of an earlier discovery by 
some Spanish ship. 

Mathem, near Chepstow, is from the^ 
Welsh merthyTy 'a martyr'; the church, 
having been built in memory of Tudric 
(St. Theodoric), king of Gwent, who died, 
here of wounds received in a battle with, 
the Saxons. ( See Merthyr-Tidvil. ) 

Matterhom. the most precipitous peak 
in the Alps, aerives its lowly name from 
the meadow (matt) at its base, on which 
the village of Zermatt, ' at the meadow,' is- 
situated. The Piedmontese name, Mont 
Cervin, is due to its resemblance to a 
stag's horn. The pass over the main 
chain at the foot of the Matterhom is 
called either the Matterjoch, or the 
Col de St. Theodule, from a legend 
which relates how St. Theodule, Bishop of 
Sion, compelled a devil, whom he had 
exorcised from a possessed person, to 
carry over it a church bell presented to- 
him by the Pope. 

Matto GhrOSSO, a Brazilian province, is- 
the ' great forest. 

Mauna Roa, or Maun a Loa, the 'long 
mountain,' is the native name of a great 
volcano in Hawaii. A second volcano is 
called Mauna Kea, the 'white moim- 
tain.' Maupiti, one of the Society 
Islands, means the 'double mountain.' 
It is also called Mau-rua, the 'long 
mountain.' 

Maurienne, a county in Savoy, traversed 
by the Mont Cenis railway, is the district 
where a body of Moors who had landed 
near Fr^jus, established themselves in the 
ninth century. The chief town is called 
St. Jean de Maurienne. 

Mauritius, one of the Mascarenhas 
Islands, was named in 1598 by the Dutch 
Admiral Van Neck, in honour of Prince 
Maurice of Orange, Stadtholder of the 
United Provinces. When the French 



GLOSSARY 



191 



acquired it in 1741 it was renamed Isle 
DE France. The Dutch also gave the 
name of Mauritius to a settlement in 
Brazil ; to an island and bay in the Straits 
of Magellan ; and to the Hudson River, in 
the State of New York. 

Maury Bay and Maury Channel, in 
the Arctic regions, bear the name of 
Lieutenant Maury, the American hydro* 
grapher. 

May, Cape, in New Jersey, at the 
entrance to Delaware Bay, is also called 
Cape Cornelius, both names being due 
to a Dutch skipper, Cornelius Jacobse 
Mey, who landed here in 1623. 

Maynooth, in County Kildare, is a 
corruption of Magk Nuadkai, the ' plain 
of Nuadha,' a Celtic deity, represented in 
Irish legend as a king of Leinster. 

MayO; an Irish county, takes its name from 
the village of Mayo, where St Colman, 
retiring from Northumbria with a number 
of English monks, after the synod of 
Whitby, erected a monastery at a place 
then called Magh-^o, the * plain of the 
yew trees.' 

Mayor and the Court of Alder- 
men, in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, 
is the name given by Cook in 1769 to 
a large island surrounded by numerous 
islets. 

Mazampaha, 'universal sickness,' is the 
native name of an unhealthy place in 
Brazil. 

Mazanderan, a Persian province, con- 
sisting of the lowlands between the moun- 
tains and the Caspian, means 'within 
the mountains' {maZy 'mountain,' and 
anderun, 'within'). 

Meams, one of the seven old provinces 
of Scotland, representing approximately 
the modem county of Kincardine, is a 
corruption of the Gaelic name Magh- 
girghinn^ the 'plain of Circinn,* one of 
the seven brothers who, according to the 
Pictish legend, ruled the seven provinces 
of Scotland. 

Meath, anciently Midhe, the fifth Irish 
province, formed an appanage for the 
support of the overking of Ireland. The 
kingdom and diocese of Midhe, so called 
because of its 'central' position, com- 
prised the modern counties of Meath, 
Westmeath, and Dublin. 

Meaux, a city in France, preserves the 
tribal name of the Meldi. The name is 
probably derived from Meldis, the dative 
plural. The county of Meaux is called 
Comitatus Meldensis by Gregory of 
Tours. 



Mecklenburgf, now a small village, was 
formerly the capital of the two German 
States to which it has given a name. The 
old Wendish name was Wiligrad, the 
'great casile.' In the tenth century we 
have the form Mekelenborch (O.H.G. 
michel, 'great'), a translation of the 
Slavonic name. 

Medeab, in Algeria, is believed to occupy 
the site of a Roman town called Media or 
Ad Medias, because 'midway' between 
two other towns. 

Medina or El Med/na, 'the city,' is 
also called Medinat Rasiil- Allah, *the 
city of the prophet of Allah,* or Medinat 
al'Nabi, 'the city of the prophet,' 
because it contains the tomb of Mahomet. 
Medinat Habu retains the name of 
Thebes (^.f.), whose site it occupies. 
Medina, ' the city,' is a common Arabic 
element in Spanish names, such as 
Medina Sidonia, 'the city of the 
Sidonians,' believed by the Moors to 
oocupy the site of a Phoenician city; 
Medina del Rio Seco, ' the city of me 
dry river bed' ; Medina de Las Torres, 
' the city of the towers ' ; Medina del 
POMAR, ' the city of the apple orchard ' ; 
or Medina del Campo, ' the city on the 
plain.' 

Mediterranean, the 'midland* sea, 
was called by the Hebrews and Greeks 
simply ' the sea,' or ' the great tea.* The 
Romans called it Mare Internum, or 
Mare nostrum. The term Mare Mediter- 
raneum, of which our name is an adapta- 
tion, is not used by any early classical 
writer, being first found in Solinus, in the 
third century A. D. Isidore of Seville (570- 
636) is the first to use it as a proper name. 
The Germans have translated the name, 
and call it Mittelmeer, an abbreviation 
of Mittellandisches Meer. The Turks and 
modem Greeks call it by names meaning 
the 'White Sea,' as distinguished from 
the Black Sea. 

Med'Way, the chief river of Kent, was 
formerly explained as the ' mid-way,' 
being tiie boundary between East and 
West Kent, an fetymology which is not 
supported by the earliest forms of the 
name. But since the Meduana, now the 
Mayenne. is an old Celtic river name, it is 
possible that this may have also been the 
pre-Teutonic name of the Medway, which 
would be assimilated by the Saxons so as 
to make it intelligible in their own speech. 
Thenornial A. S. spelling A/irfl'«-w^^-f shows 
that it was thought to be the 'mead-wave,' 
the water flowing soft as metheglin, while 
the alternative spellings Med-woege and 



192 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Mede-wage BIG an indication that it was 
also supposed to be the meadow-wave, or 
' river of the meads.' 

Meelhaven, in Novaya Zemlya, is the 
name given by Barents to a bay where he 
foimd six sacks of rye meal. 

Meinin^en, the capital of Saxe-Mein- 
ingen, is the dative plural of a gentile 
name, as is shown by the old form Mein- 
ungun. 

Meissen, a town in Saxony, Ues between 
the Meissa and the Triebach, tributaries 
of the Elbe. The name is usually derived 
from that of the River Meissa, but both 
may be corruptions of the Slavonic 
tnisnit the 'key,' the name of a castle 
built by Henry i. in 930 at this spot, which 
forms the key to the plain of Dresden, 
lying as it does at the gorge of the Elbe. 

Melanesia, the Mslands of the blacks,' 
is a modern name invented to designate 
those South Pacific Islands which are in- 
habited by the Papuan or Negrito race. 

Melbourne, the capital of the Australian 
Colony of Victoria, was founded in 
1837, when Lord Melbourne was Prime 
Minister, and Queen Victoria had just 
ascended the throne. Melbourne 
Island and Mount Melbourne in the 
Antarctic Victoria Land also bear his 
name. Lord Melbourne took his title 
from Melbourne, a village in Derbyshire, 
called in Domesday Mileburn, the ' mill- 
burn,* where, as Domesday records, there 
was a mill of the annual value of three 
shillings. According to Kemble Mel- 
bourne in Cambridgeshire is from a 
proper name. The oldest form is Meldulfs 
burh, which became Meldeburna, and 
finally Melbourne. Several Melbourns 
and most, if not all, of the Meltons and 
MiLTONS are, however, corruptions of 
Middelbum and Midddtun. 

MeluD, a city twenty-five miles south-east 
of Paris, is the Melodunum of Caesar, a 
Celtic name signifying a ' fort ' {dun) on 
a rounded hill {moel). The same name 
recurs at Meldon in Peeblesshire, and 
perhaps at Maldon (g.v.). 

Melville Island, where Parry wintered 
in 1819-20, was named in honour of 
Henry Dundas, Viscount Melville, then 
First Lord of the Admiralty. Cape 
Melville, Melville Lake, Melville 
Range, and Melville Sound, in Arctic 
America, Melville Island and Mel- 
ville Bay on the Australian Coast, and 
Melville Island in the Low Archi- 
pelago, also bear his name. Lord Mel- 
ville took his title from Melville in 



Midlothian, the fief of one of the Normail 
adventurers in the time of David l. It is 
called in Latin documents castellum puel- 
larum, a name which points to the A.S. 
tndg, a ' woman/ or to mcegth, a. ' maid.' 
In the thirteenth century we find Malavilla, 
' bad township,' whence the modem name. 

Memel, a town on the River Memel, 
which divides Russia from Prussia, was 
formerly called Memeiburg, the ' castle on 
the MemeL' 

Memphis, an important town on the 
Mississippi, in the State of Tennessee, 
repeats the name of the ancient capital 
of Lower Egypt, ten miles south of Cairo. 
Memphis was a Greek corruption of an 
old Egyptian name, either Men-nefert^ 
the ' b^utiful site,' or more probably 
Ma-m-phtah, the 'place of Phtah,' the 
chief deity of the Memphite triad. 

Menai Strait is the 'Strait of Mona,' 
or Anglesey. 

Menam, properly Mei-Nam, the great 
Siamese' river, means the 'mother of 
waters ' (Siamese nam, * water '). It is 
also called Menam Kong, * Menam river.' 
There is a place at the mouth of the 
Menam, below Bang-Kok, called Pak- 
NAM, which means * water-mouth,' 

Menda&a Archipelagro, also called 
the Marquesas (^.v.), was discovered by 
Don Alvaro Mendai!a, the nephew of the 
Viceroy of Peru, who in 15^ sent him 
with two ships to explore the South See- 
On this voyage he discovered and named 
various islands in the Salomon Group. In 
1595 MendaHa again sailed from Callao 
with a squadron of foiu* ships, and dis- 
covered the Santa Cruz Group as well as 
the Archipelago which b&urs his name. 

Mendoza, an Argentine city, founded in 
1559, bears the name of Don Garcia 
Hurtado de Mendoza, the Governor of 
Chili. Mendocino, a Californian cape, 
was so named by Ferrelo in 1543, in 
honoiu* of Don Antonio de Mendoza, 
Viceroy of New Spain. 

Mentone (French Menton), a town on 
the Riviera, is a name supposed to refer 
to the ' chin ' or promontory east of the 
town. 

Meon-Stoke, in Hants, preserves the 
name of a people, probably Jutes, called 
the Meanware, or dwellers on the River 
Meon. Baeda mentions the Provincia 
Meanwarorum, which we may recognise 
in the modem hundreds of East and West 
Meon. 

Meran, in the Tyrol, bears a name com- 
memorating the calamity which in the 



GLOSSARY 



193 



ninth centuiy destroyed the Roman town 
on the site. In 1350 it is called auf der 
Meran, ' on the moraine.' 

Mercury Bay, New Zealand, is the 
place where the transit of Mercury was 
observed on November 9th, 1769. In the 
immediate neighbourhood are Mercury 
Point and the Mercury Isles. 

Mercy, Bay Of^ in Banks Land, marks 
the place where M 'Clure's ship the InvesH- 
gator was icdocked in 185 1, and finally 
abandoned in 1853, after the discovery of 
the North-West Passage had been made. 
The Harbour op GtOd's Mercy is a bay 
at the western entrance of the Straits of 
Magellan, where Davis twice took refuge 
from storms in his unfortimate expedi- 
tion of 1592. This harbour seems to be 
that called Puerto de la Misericordia by 
Sarmiento a few years before. It is also 
called Separation HARBOUR,Wallisand 
Carteret having here parted company in 
1766. 

Merida, a Spanish city containing magni- 
ficent Roman remams, represents the 
Roman colony of Augusta Emerita, the 
chief city in Lusitania. It was founded 
in B.C. 23 by Publius Carisius, the legate 
of Augustus, as a colony for emeriti^ or 
'veterans,' belonging to the fifth and 
tenth legions who had served in the Canta> 
brian war, and whose term of service had 
expired. The name has been transferred 
to Merida, the capital of Yucatan, and 
to Merida in Mexico and in Venezuela. 

Merizn is a native word meaning ' little.' 
Lagoa Merim, the 'little lake.' forms 
the boundary between Brazil and Uruguay. 

Merioneth, a Welsh county, bears the 
name of Meirion, a British saint, who, 
according to the Welsh legend, was Uie 
son of Cunedda, the Dux Britanniarum 
at the time of the departure of the Roman 
legions. Keredig, another son of Cun- 
edda, gave his name to Keredigion^ now 
Cardiganshire (q.v.). 

Mermaid's Slrait, Mermaid's Shoal, 
and Mermaid's Reep, in Australia, were 
discovered by the oxiXXst Mermaid in 1818. 

Mersea Island, Essex, also spelt Mer- 
sey, is the A.S. Meres -ig^ the 'sea 
island.' The River Mersey has been 
explained as Meres- ^a, the ' sea water ' or 
river. It seems to be the Mcerse men- 
tioned in a charter of 1004 granting lands 
between ' Maerse and Ribbel.' This form, 
if correct, would imply a prehistoric 
Marusia, a Celtic name meaning ' dead, 
i.e. quiet water/ as contrasted with the 
open sea. 



Merthyr-Tydvil, in South Wales, 
bears the name of the 'Martyr Tudfil,' 
who, according to a Welsh tradition, was 
here slain in a Pagan inroad. She was 
the daughter of Brychan, the Wdsh 
prince who gave his name to the county 
of Brecon. 

Merv, in Central Asia, is the Aniiochia 
Margiana of the Greeks, which stood on 
the River Margus, now the Murgab or 
Merv. Margiana is the province called 
Margu in the cuneiform inscriptions. 
Spiegel connects the Margu of Darius 
with the old Bactrian word meregho, a 
' bird,' and explains the Murgab as the 
' bird water,' in allusion to the numerous 
waterfowl by which it is frequented. 

Meshed means a place of ' martyrdom ' 
or ' witness,' hence the ' shrine ' of a 
Moslem saint. Thus the tomb of Ali at 
Nejef near Kufa is called Meshed-Ali, 
and Meshed Hussein is the place where 
AU's sons were killed. Meshed-Sar, ' the 
tomb of the head,' is where Ibrahim, 
brother of the Im&m Reza, was beheaded. 
Meshed, one of the most important towns 
in Persia, is properly the Meshed of £1- 
Reza, where in the ninth centiu-y the Im&m 
Reza, the eighth of the twelve Imd.ms, 
suffered martyrdom. It is a great place 
of pilgrimage, the Mecca of the Persians. 

Mesopotamia, the Greek name of the 
country ' between the rivers ' Tigris and 
Euphrates, is now known by the nearly 
equivalent Arabic name £l-Gezira, ' the 
island.' The Tigris and Euphrates, 
whose head waters are within five miles 
of each other, unite at their mouths. 

Messina, a town in Sicily, gives a name 
to the straits which separate Sicily from 
the mainland. The old name Messana 
is probably a translation of the earlier 
Siculian name Dankle or Zancle, the 
' sickle,' descriptive of the harbour which 
is formed by a long semi-circular spit of 
land. (See Ancona. ) The legend of the 
foundation of Messana by colonists from 
the Peloponnesian Messene probably grew 
out of the resemblance of the names. 

Meteora is the name of the convents 
perched ' up in the air ' on isolated peaks 
in the peninsula of Mount Athos [q.v.). 

Metz is a corruption of the Celtic name of 
the Matrici^ or Mediomatrici, a Belgic 
tribe, whose territory corresponded to that 
of the old diocese of Metz. Mediomatrici 
probably mtant 'those placed in the 
middle.' 

Mexico (in the modern Spanish spelling 
Mejico) took its name from a temple of 



N 



194 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Mexitl, the Aztec war-god, the suffix -co 
being the Aztec locative postposition. The 
name of the city was extended to the 
whole of Nueva Espdha (New Spain) of 
which it was the capital, and then to the 
great central American gulf. The older 
name of the city of Mexico was Tenoch- 
iitlan, the 'place of the cactus rock,* 
which is explained by the legend that 
when the Aztecs arrived thev found a rock 
in a crevice of which a cactus was ^ow- 
ing. On the rock sat an eagle holding a 
serpent in its mouth. The device of the 
rock and the cactus, with the eagle hold- 
ing a serpent, became the tribal totem of 
the Aztecs, and has been adopted on the 
flag of the present Mexican republic. 

Mexilliones (Mejllliones), which means 
' muscles ' or ' cockles ' in Spanish, is the 
name of a bay in Peru, whose rocks are 
covered with the shells of a univalve, the 
ConchoUpas peruviana. 

Michigran, one of the United States, 
nearly surrounds Lake Michigan, a 
name meaning the ' great sea,' from missi 
[mitshawV 'great,' which appears in the 
names of the Mississippi and Missouri, 
and sagiegan, a 'sea' or 'lake,' which 
we have in Saginaw Bay, the western 
arm of Lake Huron. 

MicllOacan, a Mexican province, is a 
native name meaning 'theland of fisheries.' 

Middlesex, a tribe name which, like 
Essex, Wessex, and Sussex, has acquired 
a territorial significance, is the A.S. Mid- 
del Seaxe or Middel Sexi, ' the middle 
Saxons,' usually found in the dative plural 
MiddelseaxonorMiddelsaexum. Middel- 
BURG, in Holland, is the ' town in the 
middle' of the Island of Walcheren. Mid- 
DELBURG, one of the Friendly Islands, was 
named by Tasraan in 1643 after Middel- 
burg in Holland. It now usually goes by 
the native name Eoa. Middle Island, 
Middle Lake, Middle Mount, Middle 
Point, and the like, common names in 
Australia and elsewhere, need no explana- 
tion. Middleton, a common village 
name in England, has usually become 
Milton or Melton. 

Midi, Pio du, one of the highest summits 
in the Pyrenees, is so called because at 
Pau it is seen due south. A similar name 
is that of the Dent du Midi, which lies 
due south from Vevay and other towns at 
the upper end of the Lake of Geneva. 

Milan, the French and English form of 
the Italian Milano, called Mailand in 
German, is a corruption of the Celto- 
Roman name Mediolanum, the capital 
of the Insubrian Gauls, which signified 



the town in the ' middle of the plain,' 
lanum being the equivalent of the Latin 
planum, 

Milazzo, a fortified town in Sicily, near 
which Garibaldi gained a decisive victory 
in i860, gives a name to a neighbouring 
cape. It was the Milass of the Arabs, a 
corruption of the Greek name Mylas^ ' the 
mills.' 

Milford, a town in Pembrokeshire, which 
gives a name to Milford Haven, is not, 
we are told by Professor Freeman, an Eng- 
glish ford or a Welsh ffardd, but a Scandi- 
navian j^br^f, like Waterford and Wexford. 
This seems to be a mere guess, as the town 
is not named from the Haven, but the 
Haven from the town of Milford, which 
is merely the English translation of the 
Welsh name Rhyd-y-milwr^ the * ford 
over the Milwr,' a small brook fisdling 
into the Haven. 

MilTTaukee, in Wisconsin, is explained 
by Boyd as a native name meaning the 
' good land.' 

Minas Q-eraes, a Brazilian province 
with mines yielding diamonds, gold, silver, 
copper, and iron, means the ' general * or 
* universal mines.' Elmina, ' the mine,' 
or San Jorge da Mina, was a Portu- 
guese fort built on the Gold Coast in 1482, 
but Elmina in Tripoli is an Arabic name 
meaning the ' haven.' 

Mincll, the name of the channel between 
Lewis and the mainland, is a corruption 
of the Gaehc mionaich, the genitive of 
mianack, ' gut ' or ' bowel. ' La Manche, 
the French name for the English Channel, 
ostensibly from manche, a sleeve (Latin 
manica), may be an assimilated form of 
an older Celtic name. 

Minoio. the river which'drains the Lago 
di Garaa, is the Roman Mincius, perhaps 
the ' little ' river. 

Mindanao is one of the Philippines, with 
numerous volcanic craters now filled with 
water, from which, or perhaps from the 
largest of them, comes the Malay name of 
the island, which means 'lake land.' 

Minden or MCnden in Hanover is at 
the confluence (miindung) of the Werra 
and the Fulda, but Minden in Westphalia, 
anciently Mimida^ is seemingly trom a 
personal name. 

Mlnehead, Somerset, called in Domesday 
Man-heved, is probably the Welsh Maen- 
hafod, the summer residence {hafod) on 
the rock. {See Maentwrog.) 

Minerva's Bank, between Australia 
and New Guinea, was discovered in z8i8 
by the ship Minerva, 



GLOSSARY 



195 



llilillgrelia^ a Russian province in the 
Caucasus, is the Turkish Mingreul, the 
land of ' a thousand springs.' So Ming- 
BULAK. a river in Turkistan, means ' the 
thousand sources.' Mingadara, 'more 
than a thousand,' a mountain in Mongolia, 
is so called from its numerous Buddhist 
monasteries. 

IVCinllO, a river in Portugal, was the 
Roman Minius, probably the 'red ' river, 
from minium^ a Latin word of Iberic 
origin, which means ' cinnabar ' or ' ver- 
milion.' 

Minnesota, one of the United Sutes, is 
traversed by the River Minnesota, a 
Dakota name meaning the ' blue water,' 
{minnee, ' water,' and Jo/a, 'sky,' hencesky- 
oolour or ' blue ']. The state capital of 
Minnesota is designated by the barbarous 
hybrid name of Minneapolis. The 
Dakota word minnee appears in many 
names, among them Minnehaha, a river 
in Minnesota, the 'smiling' or 'laughing 
Mrater ' ; Miniska, the ' clear water ' ; 
Minnisni, * the cold water ' ; and 
Minnekata, the * hot water.' 

Minster, in the Isle of Thanet, is the site 
of a monastery built about 670 at Ebbes- 

. fleet, where St. Augustine is suppx)sed to 
have landed in 596. Minster, the M.E. 
form of the A. S. mynster^ a corruption of 
monasterium, appears in many English 
names, such as Westminster, Kidder- 
minster, and Axminster. The old Irish 
form was Mainister, now Monaster, as 
in Monasterevin, formerly Mainister- 
Eimkitiy the 'monastery of St. Eimhin,' 
the reputed author of the Tripartite Life 
of St. Patrick, or Mainister-BuitlUt the 
'monastery of Buithe (Boethius),' a dis- 
ciple of St. Patrick, now Monaster boice 
in Louth. Monasternalea in Galway 
is MainisUr'na-liatha, the ' monastery of 
the grey' (friars). Monasteranenagh 
in Limerick is Mainister-an-aenaigh, the 
' monastery of the assembly place or feir.' 
Moneysterling in Deny is Monaster- 
lynn, the 'monastery of O'Lynn.' In 
German we have MQnster, the name of 
the chief town of Westphalia, and of a 
town in Canton Lucerne. A monastery 
founded by Charlemagne has given a 
name to the town of MI^nster in a 
picturesque valley of the Jura, now called 
the MOnsterthal in German, and Val 
MoOtieks in French, Modtier, Moustier, 
or M6jier being the French corruption of 
monasterium. NoirmoOtier, the ' black 
minster,' is an island off the coast of La 
Vendte,^so called from the chief town.' 
Marmoutier, near Tours, is a corruption 



of Majus Monasterium, Premontr^, in 
the Aisne, the chief seat of the Premon- 
stratensian Order, does not mean the 
' meadow of the monastery,' having been 
foimded by St Norbert in a place 
'pointed out' to him in a vision, locus 
prcemonstratus. Montr EUX, on the Lake 
of Geneva, is a corruption of monasteri- 
oltim, a diminutive of monasterium. Mon- 
aster, the ' monastery,' is the name of a 
town in Macedonia, and of a seaport in 
Tunis. 

Minstrel ShoaJ, Australia, was dis- 
covered in 1820 by the ship Minstrel. 

Miramar, the 'sea view,' is the Spanish 
name of a castle in Mallorca, and of the 
castle of the late Emperor Maximilian 
near Trieste. 

Mischabelhomer, the lofty rugged 

grat west of the Saas Thai, is believed to 
be a corruption of Mist-gabel-komer, the 
'fork peaks.' The word mist-gabel 
means strictly a 'dungfork' or 'mixen 
fork.' 

Mississauga, a fort at the mouth of the 
Niagara River, the Mississauga Strait 
between Cockbum and Manitoulin Islands, 
and the Mississauga River in the district 
of Algoma, preserve the name of the 
Mississauga tribe which lived on the 
banks of the Trent, Kingston, and 
Napanee. The name, which is a corrup- 
tion olminzezageeg, refers to the ' numerous 
streams ' in the territories of the tribe. 

Mississippi, one of the largest rivers of 
the wcM-ld, is not, as frequently stated, the 
' Father of waters,' but the 'great river * 
(Cree missi, massa, masha, 'great,' and 
sepe, • water ' or ' river).' De ^to, who in 
1542 was the first to explore it, correctly 
translated hy Rio Grande the native name, 
which first appears as Mes-sifd, the 
Sioux pronunciation, which was heard 
by Father Allouez, who in 1665 set forth 
from Canada and established a mission 
among the Sioux, returning in 1667. In 
1673 it is called Mescha-sebe, and in 
Joliet's map of 1674 it is Messa-sipi. The 
State, which takes its name from the river, 
was admitted into the Union in 1817. 

Missouri is a French spelling of the 
native name Missuri, the 'gretit muddy' 
river, as contrasted with the Mississippi, 
whose waters are clear. The State of 
Missouri was admitted into the Union in 
1820. MissiNiPi is the native name of 
the Churchill River, so called because 
it enters Hudson Bay at Fort Churchill. 
In Cree nipi means 'water,* and Missi- 
nipi may be translated as ' much water.' 



196 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Mistaken Point, Newfoundland, is so 
called because liable to be mistaken for 
Cape Race, which is further to the East. 
So Mistaken Cape is easily mistaken 
for Cape Hoorn. 

Mitchell, Queensland, was named after a 
local surveyor. 

Mitton or Myton, the name of pjaces 
near the confluences of streams, is probably 
from A.S. in}the, the ' mouth' of a river. 

Mobile is a town in Alabama from 
which Mobile Bay takes its name. 
When, in 1539, Fernando de Soto landed 
in Florida, and made his wonderful 
march to the Mississippi, he had a 
desperate fight with the Creek Indians 
at a palisaded village called Mauvila 
or Maubila (probably the name of the 
tribe), at the junction of the Tombigbee 
and Alabama rivers. From this village 
the united stream acquired the name 
which in French became the River 
Mobile, at whose mouth the town of 
Mobile was built 

Modena, in the Emilia, was the Roman 
Mutinuy probably an Etruscan name. 

Mogador is a town in Morocco, founded 
by Mulai Ishmael in 1760, and called 
SuERAH or Shirvah, 'the beautiful.' 
Mogador is a Eiu-opean corruption of the 
name of a local saint, Sidi Mogodul or 
Mugdul, whose conspicuous shrine lies 
just outside the town. 

Mogrhistan, a district in Persia, at the 
entrance of the Persian Gulf, is ' the land 
of palms.* 

Mohawk River, in the State of New 
York, was named from an Iroquois tribe 
called Mohawks, an Algonquin name 
meaning ' cannibals.' applied to them by 
their enemies on the Lower Hudson. 
The Mohawks called themselves Can- 
iengas, 'people at the flint.' The 
Mohican River in Ohio is so named 
from the Mohegan tribe, a name meaning 
the * wolves ' (Cree maheggun, a ' wolf). 

Moira, in County Down, whence the great 
Marquis of Hastings took the title of Earl, 
is a corruption of Magh-rath, the ' plain 
of the fort.' 

Mokattam, Wadi, the ' valley of in- 
scriptions,' in the peninsula of Sinai, is 
named from the numerous inscriptions 
engraved by pilgrims on the rocks. 
Gebel Mokattam, the limestone range 
south of Cairo, is so called for a similar 
reason. 

Moldavia is the Latinised form used in 
England for the Roumanian Province of 
Mold6va, which is traversed by the River 



Mold6va. The Polish and Bohemian 
name is Multany, which is derived from 
the Wallachian Muntany, a corruption of 
the Latin montani, 'mountaineers.' The 
people gave a name to the province, and 
the province to the river. It is cmious 
that the name of a level plain should be 
derived from a range of mountains. 

Moluccas, also called the Spice 
Islands becatise the native countir of 
the clove, is the English spelling of the 
Portuguese corruption of the Malay form 
of an Arabic name. Ilhas dos Molocos, 
the Portuguese name of the group, may 
be traced back to the Malay-Arabic 
Jazirat-al-Muluk, the ' islands of the 
kings,' so called because each of the five 
islands was ruled by its own petty prince. 

Monaco, a principality on the Riviera, 
takes its name from the town of Monaco, 
built on a headland on which stood the 
Greek temple of Heracles Monoecus. The 
town is called by Roman writers Monosci 
Portzts, or Partus Herculis. 

Monaglian, an Irish county, is so called 
from the county town of Monaghan, a 
corruption of the old name Muineachdn, 
' the little thicket,' a diminutive of muitte, 
a brake or shrubbery. 

Mongolia is the land of the Mongols or 
Mungals, the 'braves* or 'invincibles.* 
This name, originally an honorific title 
of the Black Horde, became general in 
the time of Genghiz Khan, whose father, 
the Khan of the Black Horde, subdued 
the White Horde. Mogul (Mughal) is 
a Perso-Arabic corruption of Mongol. 

Monmouthshire takes its name from 
the county town of Monmouth (Monnow- 
mouth), which stands where the Mynwy 
or Monnow joins the Wye. 

Monroe, a city on Lake Erie, together 
with some 133 counties, towns, or town- 
ships, mostly in Indiana, Iowa, Ohio, and 
Pennsylvania, are named after James 
Monroe, the fifth President of the United 
States, 1817-1825. In his honour the 
capital of Liberia was named Monrovia 
in 1824. Monroe is a territorial surname 
meaning in Gaelic the * red bog. ' 

Montene^O is the Italian name of a 
principality on the Adriatic called Tzer- 
NAGORA or Crnagora in Servian and 
Montenegrin, Karadagh in Turkish, 
and Mal-z^ze in Albanian. These 
names, all of which mean the ' black 
mountain,' refer to the dark pine woods 
which formerly clothed the hills. 

Monterey, the chief town of the Mexican 
Province of Leon, bears the name of 



GLOSSARY 



197 



Caspar de Zuniga, Count of Monterey, 
Viceroy of New Spain, who in 1598 also 
founded the town of Monterey in Cali- 
fornia from which the BAY OF MONTEREY 
takes its name. 

Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay, 
is officially styled San Felipe del 
Puerto de Montevideo. The name, 
which has been the subject of much con- 
troversy, is supposed to be the Spanish 
transformation of a Portuguese entry in 
the log of Ferdinand Magellan, who in 
1520 sailed up the estuary of the Rio de 
la Plata in search of a passage to India. 
On the flat coast near the city there is a 
knoll, shaped like a sombrero. This 
Magellan, a Portuguese, would describe 
in his log as Mont-vi-eu, or in provincial 
Portuguese Mont-vide-eu, 'a mount saw 
I,' a phrase which must have foimd a 
place upon the chart. A Spaniard would 
have written Monte vidi, 'a hill I saw.' 
When the territory became a Spanish 
colony the name Mont-vide-eu would 
become Monte-video. 

Montgomery, a Welsh county, consti- 
tuted in ^533 by Henry vill., was formerly 
a part of Powys land. The district was 
called Sirydd Tre Faldwyn by the Welsh, 
from the castle built in the eleventh cen- 
tury by Baldwin, lieutenant of the marches. 
This castle was taken by the Welsh, and 
then retaken by Roger de Montgomeri, 
so called from bis lordship of Mont- 
gomeri. near Lisieux in Normandy. Roger 
gave his name to the castle, and the name 
of the castle passed to the town which 
rose around it, and which was made the 
county town when the shire was consti- 
tuted by Henry viii. Montgomery, the 
State capital of Alabama, bears the name 
of General Montgomery, an American 
officer who was killed in the attack upon 
Quebec in 1775. 

Montpellier, in the H^rault, called in 
the tenth century Mons pestellariuSy the 
* grinder's hill,' became Mont-feslier in 
the eleventh. Montelimar, a town on 
the Rhone, took its name from the family 
of Adh^mar or Aymar to which it be- 
longed. 

Monte NUOVO, the 'new mountain,' 
near Naples, was suddenly upheaved on 
September 29th, 1538. Monteverde 
Islands, a group in the Carolines, were 
discovered in 1806 by the Spanish Captain 
Don Juan Baptista de Monteverde. 

Montreal. In 1535, Jacques Cartier, on 
his second voyage, ascended the St. Law- 
rence as far as Quebec, where he left his 
ship, and reached an Iroquois village called 



Hochelaga, perched on an eminence, 
which from its splendid position he called 
Mont jRoyal, the ' royal mount,' now 
Montreal. Monreale, a contraction of 
Montereale, is the 'royal mount' near 
Palermo, on which a palace and cathedral 
were built by Roger l. king of Sicily. 

Montrose, in Forfarshire, appears in 
1200 as MunroSt which points to the Gaelic 
fnoine fross, the ' moor on the peninsula.' 

Montserrat, in Spanish Monte Ser- 
RATO (Latin Mons Serratus), is a ser- 
rated or sawlike ridge in Catalonia with 
jagged spires and pinnacles. Here was 
the celebrated convent in which Ignatius 
Loyola dedicated his sword to a black 
image of the Virgin. Montserrat, one 
of the Antilles, was so named by Columbus 
in 1493, on his second voyage, because it 
reminded his chaplain. Father Boil, who 
had been a monk in the Benedictine 
monastery of Montserrat, of his Cata- 
lonian home. The island which he next 
discovered, being shaped like a rounded 
cone, he named Santa Maria Rotunda. 
It now appears on the maps as the island 
of Redonda. 

Montt, or Puerto Montt, a port in 
Chili, bears the name of Don Manuel 
Montt, who in 1859 was President of the 
Republic. 

Monument Bay, in the Lake of the 
Woods, is so called from the monument 
erected to mark the boundary between 
the Canadian Dominion and the United 
States. 

Moore's Islands, Moore Bay, and 
Cape Moore in Arctic America, and 
Moore's Group, Australia, bear the 
name of Sir Graham Moore, a lord of 
the Admiralty. Cape Moore, in South 
Victoria Land, is called after one of the 
officers of the Terror ; and Moore's Bay, 
in Coronation Gulf, after Daniel Moore, 
of Lincoln's Inn. Moor Island, an 
isolated Pacific Island, south-east of 
Japan, bears the name of its discoverer. 

Moravia is our Latinised name for the 
Austrian crownland, which is called in 
German Mahren or Marchfeld, the 
plain of the River Mahr, March, Morava, 
or Mora. 

Moray Firth takes its name from the 
old .Scottish Earldom of Moray (whence 
the surname Murray), which is explained 
as Mur-magh, the ' plain by the sea.' 

Morbihan, a department in Brittany, was 
so named from an inlet called Morbihan, 
' the little sea ' (Armorican mor, ' sea/ 
HAaUt 'small'). 



198 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Morea, the modem name of the Pelo- 
ponnesus, is usually supposed to be due 
to the resemblance of its shape to the leaf 
of the mulberry (morus). The leaflike 
shape, flatani folio similis, was noticed 
by Pliny. Hopf and Hertzberg think the 
name due to a transposition of letters, 
Romaea becoming Moraea, while Fall- 
merayer and Curtius maintain that the 
name is Slavonic, from mort the ' sea. ' 

Morecambe Bay is usually explained 
as a Cymric name denoting 'the 
curved sea-shore.' But Ptolemy says that 
Morikambi was an estuary, probably 
that of the River Leven, or possibly of the 
Lune or the Ken. The name may con- 
sequently be compared with the Welsh 
word tnorgamlas, from tndr^ ' sea,' and 
cam/as, a ' channel.' The name of More- 
cambe Bay, as now used, is a modem 
antiquarian figment, based on a misap- 
prehension of Ptolemy's words. 

Morembala, the ' high watch-tower,' is 
a lofty isolated hill on the River Shire, in 
East Africa. 

Moresby Bangre, Mount Fairfax, 
and the Menai Hills, in Australia, 
commemorate the services of Captain 
Fairfax Moresby of the ship Menai. 

Moreton Bay. Queensland, was called 
Moreton's Bay by Cook in 1770 for an 
unassigned reason, probably in compli- 
ment to some naval officer, places on 
either side of it being thus designated. 

Morgan's Island, in the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, is a name recording the death 
from sunstroke in 1803 of Thomas 
Morgan. 

Morj^es, a town on the Lake of Geneva, 
derives its name from a stony torrent bed, 
locally called morge, which is cognate 
with the obscure word moraine, and the 
Low- Latin murenula^ a ' heap of stones,* 
or bed of river gravel. The word occurs 
in other names, such as La Morge de 
M6RILL and La Morge de Couthey. 

Morning Inlet, Australia, commemo- 
rates the lime of day when it was entered 
by Stokes. 

Morocco, more correctly Marocco, is 
the European name of the North African 
Sultanate called by the x\2i\\yt.% Maghrib el 
Aksa, 'the furthest west,' or El Gharb, 
'the west,' an Arabic word which we 
have also in the Portuguese province of 
Algarve. Hence we have Maghribi, 
* western,' as the name of the Morocco 
dialect and script Morocco, the Euro- 
pean name, is a Spanish corruption derived 
from the city of Maraksh, Marrakesh, or 



Marrakusb, the capital, which means 'the 
adorned' city. In the sixteenth century 
the Inhabitants of Marakcsh were called 
by the Spaniards Maruecos or Marrocos, 
a name afterwards extended to denote the 
whole nation. This being supposed to be 
a plural form, the Italians invented the 
term Marocco as a name for the cotmtry. 

Mortlock Islands, a group in the 
Carolines, were discovered in 1795 by 
James Mortlock, captain of the ship Young 
William, 

Mosambique, a Portuguese territory in 
Eastern Africa, which gives a name to the 
Mosambique Channel between Mada- 
gascar and the mainland, took its name 
from a small coral island on which the 
capital is built, Mosambique being the 
Portuguese corruption of Ma-sam-buco^ 
the native name of the harbour, which 
means literally ' the boats,' properly the 
seamed or sewn boats, like the Greek 
Rhapta, used by the natives. 

Moscow, whence Muscovea or Muscovy, 
our old name for Russia, is called in 
Russian Moskva, from the small River 
Moskva on which it stands. The name 
of the river is probably Finnic, signifying 
a place for washing. In Mordwin, a 
neighbouring Finnic tongue, the stem 
musk means ' to wash clothes,' and in 
Tchermis m^sk means 'to wash,' while 
the suffix has an illative force. The name 
has also been referred to the Slavonic 
mokschow, 'wet.' 

Mosdok is a fort in the Caucasus, built 
in 1763, in a ' thick wood ' on the River 
Terek. 

Moselle, or Mosel River, is the Mosella 
of Tacitus, which is believed to be a 
diminutive of Mosa. Moselle would 
therefore mean the ' little Meuse ' or 
Maas [q.v,). 

Mosquito Coast, Nicaragua, is so 
called from a Sambo tribe, who were 
called MoscaSy the 'flies, 'by the Spaniards, 
Moustics by the buccaneers, and Mos- 
quitos by the English. 

Mossel Bay is the Dutch name of a bay 
in the Cape Colony which abounds in 
mussels. 

Mosul, near the site of Nineveh, has 
given us the word mussolino or muslin, 
which, as Marco Polo records, was here 
first manufactured. The Arabic name 
Al-Mausil means the ' place of connec- 
tion,' the Tigris being here crossed by a 
bridge and ford. 

Mostax, the 'old bridge,' is the chief 
town of the Herzegovina. An ancient 



GLOSSARY 



199 



bridge, probably a Roman work, here 
crosses the River Narenta with a single 
arch of 95 feet span. The words star, 
'old,' and most, 'bridge,' are both com- 
mon components of Slavonic place names. 

Mother and Daughters was the 

name given by Carteret in 1767 to three 
conspicuous mountains in New Britain. 

Moubray Bay, in South Victoria Land, 
was named from an officer of the Terror, 

Moulsey, in Surrey, at the mouth of the 
Mole, was the A.S. MiUeseige {Miilesig), 
• Mole isle. ' 

Mo-T7ssu, ' bad water/ is a caravan 
station in Mongolia. 

Mouzon, in the Ardennes, is a corruption 
of Moso-magus, the field or plain by the 
Meuse. 

Muck, one of the Hebrides, is in Gaelic 
Eilean-nam-Muchad, * the island of the 
pigs,' perhaps porpoises or sea-pigs. So 
Ben-Mac-dhui is ' black boar mountain.' 

Mudg'e, Oape, in Arctic America, and 
Mount Mudge, in Australia, bear the 
name of Colonel Mudge of the Board of 
Longitude. 

Miihlhausen, MUhlheim, Mi^hlen, 
MOhlbach, MOhldorf, from O.H.G. 
mult, a ' mill,' are common German 
names, corresponding to the English 
Melbourne (q,v. ) and to the Irish tnuiUnn 
(pronounced mullen), a 'mill,' asinCLON- 
MULLEN, 'mill-field.' 

Mulgrave, in the North Riding, which 
gives the title of Elarl to the Marquess 
of Normanby, was formerly Grif, which 
means a ravine or a deep narrow valley. 
Mulgrave would therefore be the 'mill 
ravine.' Mulgrave Island, Port 
Mulgrave, and Point Mulgrave were 
named from the first Earl of Mulgrave, 
who was First Lord of the Admiralty. 

Mull, the MalcBus of Ptolemy, the Malea 
of Adamnan, and the O.N. Myl, is from 
the Gaelic maol, a ' bald * or ' bare * hill. 
The Mull of Cantire and the Mull 
OF Galloway are bare headlands. In 
Ireland the word appears in modern 
names as Moyle, as in the common 
name Knockmoyle, the 'bald hill,' or 
Kilmoyle, which denotes a bare or 
dilapidated church. In Wales we have 
the corresponding word moel, as in the 
well-known mountain Moel Siabod. 

Multdll; formerly spelt Mooltan, was 
the capital of ihe Malti, a people who 
were conquered by Alexander. The name 
has also been explained as a corruption of 
Mulasthana, from a temple of Mulasthani, 
a name of P^vati. 



Munich is the English name of the 
capital of Bavaria, which is called 
MUnchen in German. Both forms have 
been independently obtained from the 
old name Munichtn, found in 1058, which 
is from O.H.G. munich, 'a monk,' the 
town having been built on lands belonging 
to the monks of the convent of Schaftlarn. 
From monachus, 'a monk,' we have the 
Gaelic manach, the source of numerous 
names, such as Knock - na - managh, 
•monks' hill,' or Kil-na-managh, 'the 
monks' church,' in Ireland, and AucH- 
MANnoch, 'the monks' field,' or MiL- 
MANOCH, ' the monks' hill,' in Scotland. 
Monjes, ' the monks,' is a group of four 
islands near the Anchorites, north of 
New Guinea, so named by Maurelle in 
Z781. The M^NCH, one of the highest 
peaks in the Bernese Oberland, 13,044 
feet high, was formerly called the Weiss- 
monch, from its resemblance to the 
shaven head and white robe of the white 
monks, or Premonstratensians. 

Munster, an Irish province, has, like 
Ulster and Leinster, the Danish sufi&x 
-siadr, ' place ' or ' district,' appended to 
the old Irish name Mumhan (pronounced 
Mooan), the genitive of Mumha, the 
meaning of which is unknown. The Irish 
peerages of Ormonde, Desmond, and 
Thomond represented the old sub-king- 
doms of Munster ; Ormonde or Ormimde 
is a corruption of Ur-mumhan, which 
means East Munster ; Thomond, compris- 
ing the present counties of Tipperary, Clare, 
and Limerick, is a corruption of Tuith- 
mumhan, 'North Munster,' tuith (pro- 
nounced tooa) meaning the north, literally 
the left hand ; and Desmond, comprising 
the counties of Kerry, Cork, and Water- 
ford, meaning South Munster, from deas 
(pronounced dass), the south, literally the 
right hand {see Dekkan), whence the 
name of the baronies of Deese in Meath, 
at one time inhabited by the Desi or 
' Southrons,' so called because they dwelt 
south of Tara. Expelled for not paying 
tribute to the overking, the Desi migrated 
further south, giving their name to a 
district, which being divided into two 
baronies acquired an English plural, and 
were called the Decies, whence the title 
of an Irish peerage. So the Scotch names 
Dundas and Fordyce mean 'south 
hill * and ' south land.' 

Murchison Falls, on the Upper Nile, 
Mount Murchison, a peak 15,789 feet 
high, in the Rocky Mountains, and 
several Arctic, Antarctic, and Australian 
names were bestowed in honour of Sir 
Roderick Murchison, the geologist. 



200 



NAMES AND THEIR -HISTORIES 



Murray is the principal river in Australia. 
In 1831 Captain Sturt by following the 
downward course of the Darling arrived 
at its junction with a great river which he 
called the Murray, in compliment to the 
Colonial Secretary, Sir George Murray. 
Its mouth, near Adelaide, is said to have 
been discovered in 1801 by Lieutenant 
John Murray in the brig Lady Nelson. 

Muscat, or Maskat, the chief town in 
Oman, is probably the Moscha of the 
Periplus. 

Musgrave Islands, in the Caroline 
Group, were discovered in 1793 by Captain 
Musgrave of the ship Sugarcane. 

Muskingum, ' moose eye ' or ' elk's eye,' 
the native name of an affluent of the Ohio, 
was so called on account of the clearness 
of its waters. 

Mustagh, 'the ice mountain,' is the 
Turkic name of a range in Central Asia. 

Muttra, or Mathura, is a very ancient 
and holy city on the Jumna, thirty miles 
above Agra. The name is a corruption 
of Mathupuray 'the city of Mathu,' a 
Rdkshasa, who, according to the Indian 
mythology, was here slain by Krishna. 
The magnificent temple to which the 
town owes its name, was converted by 
Aurangzeb into a mosque. The sanctity 
of the name has caused it to be trans- 
ferred to places in Ceylon, Java, Burma, 
and elsewhere. 

Mysore (MXisur), the capital of the 
native state of the same name, is a 
shortened form of Mahesh-Uru, which 
would ostensibly mean ' buffalo town ' ; 
but the name has with some probability 
been explained as mythological, Mahesh- 
'dru being supposed to be a corruption 
of Mahesh-asuray the 'buffalo demon/ 
destroyed by the goddess Durga (Kali). 

Mytilene, the capital of Lesbos, has now 
given its name to the Island. 

Myvatn, in Iceland, means 'midge lake.' 

Naas, the county town of Kildare, was 
the residence of the kings of Leinster. In 
Old Irish nds means a ' fair ' or ' place of 
assembly.' 

Nadejdi Strait, the best passage through 
the Kurile Islands, was discovered by 
Krusenstern in 1805, and named after his 
ship the Nadejdi^ which means ' Hope. ' 

Naga Hills, in Assam, are inhabited by 
a group of uncivilised tribes called Nagas, 
who have been thought to be the Naga 
or • snake ' aborigines, but are more 
probably the 'naked' people (Sanskrit 
nagna, Hmdi nanga, 'naked'). 



Nairn, a Scotch county, is named from 
the county town Nairn, formerly called 
Invernairn or Invernarran, because 
situated at the mouth of the River Nairn, 
supposed to be from amhuinn 'n Baman, 
' the east flowing river,' or more probably 
from amhuinn na' fhearn, the 'alder tree 
river,' the n in both cases being a vestige 
of the prefixed article. 

Nalsoe, ' needle isle,' is one of the Faroes. 
The sea has worn in the rocks a natural 
arch resembling the eye of a gigantic 
needle, through which vessels can pass. 
Several groups of pointed rocks bear the 
name of The Needles, among others, 
three pinnacles of chalk at the western 
end of the Isle of Wight, another group 
at the north end of Great Barrier Island, 
New Zealand, and a third on the Colorado 
River. {See Flamborough. ) 

Namaqualand in the Cape Colony is 
inhabited by a Hottentot tribe called 
Namaqua or Namaga, a plural form mean- 
ing the ' Nama men. 

Namur, in Belgium, is called Namen in 
Flemish, which represents the Namon of 
the Ravenna Geographer, who was pro- 
bably a Goth who lived in the eighth 
century. The form Namur goes back to 
the seventh-century name Namuco, which 
becomes Namurcum in a tract of unknown 
date, called the ' Acts of St. Bertin,' who 
died in 698. The name is probably Celtic, 
signifying a ' temple ' or ' sacred grove.' 

Nancy, in Lorraine, is a corruption of 
the ninth - century name Nanceiacutn 
derived from a hypothetical gentile name 
Nancius or Nantius. 

Nanking or Nankin, the 'southern 
capital,' or 'court of the south,' was the 
name given to the city of Kin-ling-fu 
when it became the capital of the Chinese 
Empire under the two first emperors of the 
Ming dynasty, who reigned from 1368 to 
1410. It is officially designated as Keang- 
Ning, but is still popularly known as Nan- 
King. Thethird Ming Emperor returned 
to Shun-tien, which acquired the name of 
Pe-King, the 'court of the north.' Nan^ 
the 'south,' is a common component of 
Chinese names, as Nan-hai, the * south 
sea,' or Nan-ling, the ' southern moun- 
tains.* Ho-NAN is the province ' south of 
the river,' i.e. the Hoang Ho or Yellow 
River. An-nam is the 'peace of the 
south,' and Yun-nan the 'cloudy south.' 

Nantes, on the Loire, is the town of a 
Gaulish tribe called Namnetes by Caesar. 

Nant-Frangon, 'beaver's valley,' in 
Carnarvonshire, contains the Cymric word 
nanty a valley. In Cornwall we have 



GLOSSARY 



sot 



Pennant, the 'head of the valley,' while 
Nant-y-Gwyddel, in the Black Moun- 
tains above Llanthony, testifies to an 
invasion of the Gael, and Nantwich in 
Cheshire, called in Welsh Halen Gwyn, 

• white salt,' is ih&wych or ' salt-house ' in 
the valley. We have also Nantua in 
Burgundy, and numerous Nants in Savoy 
and Brittany. 

Napier, the capital of the province of 
Hawkes Bay in New Zealand, built on a 
peninsula known as Scinde Island, was 
named after Sir Charles James Napier, 
conqueror of Scinde. 

Naples is a French corruption of the 
Italian Napoli, which preserves, with 
little change, the old Greek name Neapolis, 

• the new city,' which in spite of its name 
is one of the oldest cities in Italy, having 
been founded by colonists from the still 
older settlement at Cumae. Napoli di 
Romania in the Morea is merely a 
Venetian corruption of the Greek name 
Nauplia, the ' haven ' of Argos, which is 
preserved in the modem name of the 
Gulf of Nauplia, while Nauplia has 
become Anapli. Nablous or NablCs 
in Palestine, which occupies the site of 
Shechem, is, like Naples, a corruption of 
Neapolis. 

Naxbonne in the Aube, anciently Narbo 
Mariius, was the earliest Roman colony 
in Gaul. 

Narim, a Siberian town on the Ob, 
founded in 1596, is from the Ostiak 
nerim, 'marshy.' 

Nami, a town north of Rome, was for- 
merly Namia, It stands on a hill above 
the River Nera, formerly the Nar. 

Narraganset Bay, which forms the 

port of Providence, Rhode Island, was so 
named in 1631, by Roger Williams, the 
founder of Providence, from the tribe in- 
habiting Point Judith, whose name Nat- 
ganset, or Naiaganset, means 'at the 
small point,* from naigans* ' a small point 
of land,' and -^t, the locative suflSx, which 
we have in Massachusetts. 

Nassau, till 1866 an independent Duchy, 
takes its name from the town of Nassau, 
written in the tenth century Nassaue, the 
place on the 'wet meadow.' In 1564, 
Count William of Nassau succeeded to 
the principality of Orange, and was after- 
wards elected Stadtholder of Holland, 
whence simdry places named by Dutch 
seamen in honour of the House of Nassau- 
Orange, among them Cape Nassau, in 
the Straits of Magellan, so named in 
1599 by Olivier de Noort, Nassau Hoek, 



a cape in Novaya 2^m1ya, named by 
Barents in 1594, and the Nassau River 
in the Gulf of Carpentaria, discovered by 
the early Dutch explorers of the Australian 
coast. Nassau, the capital of the Ba- 
hamas, commemorates the English occu- 
pation in the reign of William iiL 

Nashville, the State capital of Tennessee, 
bears the name of a Colonel Nash. 

Natal means 'Christmas Day' {diesnatalis) 
in Portuguese. Vasco da Gama reached 
the coast of Natal in South Africa on 
Christmas Day, 1497, and called it Costa 
DO Natal. Cabo do Natal, in Mada- 
gascar, was discovered by Trist&o da 
Cunha on Christmas Day, 1506. The 
Brazilian town of Natal, at the mouth 
of the Rio Grande do Norte, was founded 
by Manuel Mascarenhas on Christmas 
Day, 1597. The corresponding Spanish 
name Navidad usually signifies that a 
place was discovered, or a town founded, 
either on Christmas Day or on June 24th, 
the nativity of St John the Baptist. When 
the Santa Maria was wrecked on December 
25th oflF the coast of Haiti, Columbus 
left forty sailors in a fort which he called 
Navidad, from the day of the shipwreck. 

Natchez, a city in the State of Mississippi, 
bears the name of a tribe which occupied 
the district when it was first explored by 
Europeans. Natchez is the French plural 
of the tribe name Nache or Naktche, from 
Ttaksh, 'a warrior,' literally 'a hurrying 
man,' i.e. a man running to fight 

Natick, a town in Massachusetts, is a 
native name meaning ' our land.' 

Naturallste Channel, and Cape 

Naturaliste, West Australia, were 
named by Baudin in 1801 after the second 
ship of his expedition, the corvette 
Naturaliste. 

Nautilus Shoal, in the Gilbert Archi- 
pelago, was discovered in 1799 by the 
ship Nautilus. 

Navan, near Armagh, takes its name 
from the great palace of the kings of Ulster 
called Eamhuin (Latinised Emania), or, 
with the prefixed article, n- Eamhuin, of 
which Navan is a corruption. A very 
ancient legend connects the name with 
the golden brooch, Eamhuin, of Macha 
of the golden hair, from whom the name 
Ard' Macha, now Armagh, is traditionally 
derived. 

Navarino in the Morea, on the site of 
the Greek Pylos, has been well called a bar- 
barous word which history has immortal- 
ised, since here the battle was fought 
which secured the independence of Greece. 



202 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



The older name, Avarino, is the Byzantine 
Avarinos or Abarinos, which recalls a 
settlement of Avars {Abari) who overran 
Greece in the sixth century. The form 
Navarino is due to a fragment of the 
Greek article prefixed to fiie accusative 
Abarinon. 

Navarra (French Navarre), formerly 
an independent kingdom, is now a Spanish 
province. The Basque word nava, 'a 
plain,* enters into many of the names in 
the north of Spain, such as Nava-Her- 
MOSA, the 'b^utiful plain' ; Nava-de- 
los-Oteros, the ' plain of the heights ' ; 
Paredes-de-Nava, the 'house on the 
plain'; Nava del Rey, 'the plain of 
the King.' Navarra probably means, like 
Navarreux, the 'plain among the hills.' 

Navif^ators. a Polynesian group, now 
usually callea the Samoa Islands, were 
named by Bougainville in 1768 Les lies des 
Navigateurs, because on his arrival his 
ship was surrounded by a fleet of sailing 
pirogues. 

Nazareth in Galilee, now En NAsirah, 
was probably so named from a watch- 
tower (Hebrew nazar^ to 'watch'). 

Neagh, Lough, the largest Irish loch, 
is a corruption of the earlier name Loch-n- 
Echach^ the * lake of Eochy,' a chieftain 
of Irish legendary history. 

Neath, a town in South Wales, takes its 
name from the River Neath on which it 
stands. It is believed to occupy the site 
of the Roman station of Nidum or ad 
Nidum, 'at the Neath.' Neath is supposed 
to mean the whirling or edd3ring river, 
from the Welsh niddu, to turn or twist. 
The NiDDA and the Nidder in Ger- 
many, the Nethy and Nith in Scotland, 
and the NiDD in Yorkshire may be re- 
lated names. 

Nebraska, one of the United States, 
admitted in 1867, is watered by the River 
Nebraska, usually called the Platte, 
which is a French translation of the de- 
scriptive native name Nebraska, ' flat ' or 
* shallow ' water, used by the Omaha and 
Otoe tribes who dwelt on its banks. 

Neckar, a tributary of the Rhine, is be- 
lieved by Forstemann to be a Teutonic 
name meaning the ' crooked ' river. Zeuss 
contends that it is of Celtic origin, from 
an Aryan root meaning ' water,' whence 
the German nix, a water-spirit, the Irish 
Nuada Neckt, a water-god, and Nicor, 
a water-monster, whence the name of 
Old Nick. 

Necker Island, often wrongly spelt 
Neckar Island, is a barren isolated rock 



west of Hawaii, discovered in 1786 by 
La P^rouse, and named He Necker in 
compliment to M. Jacques Necker, the 
French Minister of Finance, after whom 
the Necker Islands off" the coast of 
Oregon were named by La P^ouse in the 
same year. 

Nejd, 'highlands,' is the Arabic name of 
Central Arabia. 

NegraiS, a cape and island at the ex- 
treme south end of Arakan, is believed 
to be a Portuguese corruption of the 
Burmese name, Naga-rit, the * Dragon's 
whirlpool ' ; so called because ships are 
often wrecked by a strong current. 

Negropont, the modem designation of 
the island of Euboea, was the name of a 
Latin Barony which has been extended to 
the whole island, in the same way that 
the name Candia {q.v.) was extended to 
Crete. Negroponte, which would mean 
the 'black bridge,' is an assimilated 
Italian form of the Neo-Greek name 
Nevripo or N^Evripo, ' the Euripus,' the 
old Greek designation of the channel 
between the island and the mainland. 
The initial « is a fragment of the article, 
which has become affixed, as in the case 
of Navarino {g.v.) or of Icaria, now 

NiCARlA. 

Negro, Rio, the 'black river,' is the 
name of an affluent of the Amazon, and of 
a river in Patagonia. Balboa, in 151 1, 
gave the name Rio Negro to an affluent 
of the Rio Atrato, which flows into the 
Gulf of Darien. Pedras Negros, the 
• black rocks,' is a Portuguese name in 
Angola, and Piedras Negras is the 
Spanish name of a place on the Mexican 
side of the Rio Bravo del Norte. Cerro 
Negro, the ' black range,' is the name of 
a chain of hills in the Argentine Province 
of Catamarca. 

Neill'S Harbour, in Prince Regent's 
Inlet, was so named in 1825 from Dr. 
Samuel Neill, thfe surgeon of the Hecla. 

Nellore, a town and district north of 
Madras, is explained by Hunter as 
Nellitlru, ' the town of the nelli tree ' 
( Phyllanthus emblica ). Burnell prefers the 
Tamil Nall-Hr, 'good town.' The local 
interpretation is 'rice town,' from the 
Dravidian nel, ' paddy,' an explanation 
supported by local records in which the 
place is called by the translated Sanskrit 
name Dhdnya-puram, which means 'rice 
town.' ^ 

Nelson, a town and province in New 
Zealand, is a companion name to those 
of Wellington, Napier, and Marlborough. 



GLOSSARY 



203 



Nelson's name is also borne by Port 
Nelson in De Witt's Land, and by Cape 
Nelson in the Australian colony of Vic- 
toria. Thomas Button, who in the Reso- 
lution followed up Hudson's discoveries, 
wintered in 1612 at a place on the west 
coast of Hudson's Bay, which he called 
Port Nelson after one of his officers who 
died there. The name has been extended 
to a large river, now called the Nelson, 
which here enters Hudson's Bay, and to 
Lake Nelson which forms one of its 
sources. • 

Nemi, a lake in the Alban Hills, preserves 
the name of the ' grove ' of Diana, Nemus 
DiaruB. 

ITemourS, in Algeria, bears the name of 
the second son of Louis Philippe, who 
took the title of Due de Nemours from a 
town in the department of the Seine-et- 
Mame. (5« Nimes. ) 

ITenagll, in Tipperary, where a great fair 
is still held, is a corruption of n-AenacA, 
'the assembly' or 'fair,' the initial n 
being the prefixed article which, as in 
other cases, has been incorporated into 
the name. The old name was Aenach- 
Urmunhant 'the assembly place of 
Ormonde.' 

Nennortalik, 'bear island,' is the 
Eskimo name of an island in Greenland, 
whose southern point is known as Cape 
Farewell. 

Nepal, an independent State in the Hima- 
layas, bears a name nearly equivalent to 
Piedmont, nifa meaning in Sanskrit ' at 
the foot ' or base of a mountain, and dlaya, 
'seat' or 'place.' 

Nepean Bay, South Australia, was 
named by Flmders, in 1802, after Sir 
Evan Nepean, Secretary to the Admiralty, 
whose name is also borne by Point 
Nepean at the entrance of Port Phillip, 
Cape Nepean in the Salomon Islands, 
and by Nepean Island in Bass Strait. 

Neptune Isles, at the entrance to 
Spencer's Gulf, Australia, is a far-fetched 
name given by Flinders, in 1802, because 
• they seemed to be inaccessible to men.' 

Nertchinsk, a town in Siberia, was 
founded in 1658 on the River Nertcha. 

Ness, or Naze (O.N. nes), a 'nose,' 
hence a cape, is a common element in 
Norse names. Holderness is the south- 
eastern point of Yorkshire, and Caith- 
ness is the northern point of Scotland. 
Walton-on-the-Naze stands on the 
Essex foreland called the Naze. Sten- 
Nis, the ' stone ness,' in Orkney, takes its 
name from a great circle of standing | 



stones. Trotternish, in Skye,was called 
Trauter-nes in 1309. Cape Grisnez, 
near Calais, with its cliffs of grey 
chalk, is the ' grey nose,' and Cape 
Blancnez, hard by, is the ' white nose.* 
LiNDESNiES, • Linden-ness,' the southern 
point of Norway, is called the Naze by 
English sailors. The Ness, at the 
mouth of which stands the town of 
Inverness, is the river draining Loch 
Ness, which is called in Gaelic Loch an 
Eas, the ' lake of the waterfall,' from the 
well-known Falls of Foyers, the inital «, 
as in Navan, Newry, Neagh and other 
Gaelic names, being a fragment of the 
prefixed article. 

Netherlands, which means the 'low 
lands,' is the English name of the Dutch 
Kingdom at the mouth of the Rhine 
which the French call Les Pays Bas. 
Koningrijk der Nederlanden is the official 
Dutch name of the Kingdom as consti- 
tuted after the war of 1830, when the 
Belgians acquired their independence. 
Netherland Island, in the Ellice 
Group, was discovered in 1825 by two 
Dutch ships. 

Netley, the name of places on the borders 
of the New Forest, one of which is Natan- 
Uah in an A.S. charter, may be explained 
as the ' wet pasturage.' {See Nassau. ) 

Neufchatel, or NeuchAtel, one of the 
Swiss Cantons, is a French translation of 
the older German name Neuenburg, 
anciently Nvvanburch, given to the 
Novum castrum or ' Newcastle,' erected 
in the fifth century. From the castle the 
name passed to the town, then to the 
Lake on whose shores it stood, and finally 
to the Canton. Naumburg in Prussian 
Saxony, Nienburg near Bremen, and 
Neuburg in Bavaria are dialectic forms 
of the same name. 

Neu'Wied, a town on the Rhine near 
Coblentz, was the ' New Wied,' founded 
in 1683 by Count Frederick of Wied near 
the site of the old village of Wied, which 
was destroyed during the thirty years' 
war. Old Wied stood on the Wied- 
bach, anciently the Wida (O.H.G. wida, 
' withy ' or ' willow'). There are in Ger- 
many between 4000 and 5000 places with 
the prefix neu-^ of which there are more 
than 400 called either Neuiiof, Neuen- 
hof, or Neuhofen, 70 called Neustadt, 
30 called Neumarkt, while 160 bear the 
name of Neudorf, Neuendorf, Neun- 
DORF, or Niendorf, equivalents of our 
numerous English Newtons. Neusatz, 
Neuhaus, Neusohl, and similar forms 
are common ; Neunkirchsn does not 



204 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



mean ' Nine churches ' but ' New church,' 
as is shown by the older forms Niuunchir^ 
icha and Niuioenchirgun. 

Nevada, one of the United States, ad- 
mitted into the Union in 1864, but consti- 
tuted as a territory and named in 1861, 
was originally a part of the Utah territory, 
which had been called Washoe from a 
native tribe. The new name was derived 
from the Sierra Nevada, the Spanish 
name bestowed on the ' snowy range ' of 
California by an expedition despatched in 
1542 by Mendoza, Viceroy of New Spain. 
This, as well as the Sierra Nevada in 
Mexico, were names adopted from the 
Sierra Nevada of Granada, whose 
snowy outline is such a conspicuous 
object to travellers vo3^ging eastwards 
from Gibraltar. {See Sierra. ) 

Nevis, one of the Antilles, was passed by 
Columbus on his second voyage. It is not 
mentioned in his journal, but was doubt- 
less entered on his chart, perhaps as 
Nuestra Senora de las Nieves, ' Our Lady 
of the snows.' It has been conjectured 
that the name was suggested either by the 
snow-white shore or by a cloud of steam 
floating, as is usually the case, from the 
summit of the conspicuous volcanic peak. 

Nevrark - upon - Trent, in Notting- 
hamshire, from its position called the 
• key of the north,' was the ' new work ' or 
castle, rebuilt in Z125 by Alexander, 
Bishop of Lincoln, to replace a much 
earlier fortress, erected probably by 
Egbert, at a time when the Trent formed 
the boundary between the northern and 
southern provinces. Newark, the prin- 
cipal city in the State of New Jersey, was 
settled in 1666, the pastor being Abraham 
Pierson, from Newark-upon-Trent. 

Newoastle-upon-Tyne, the county 

town of Northumberland, owes its name 
to the Castellum novum, the ' new castle ' 
or precinct built in 1080 by Robert 
Courthose, Duke of Normandy, to replace 
that which had been destroyed by his 
father William the Conqueror. The 
rectangular Norman keep or turris was 
added to the precinct or castellum by 
Henry ii. between 1172 and 1177. When 
coals had been discovered at Kingstown, 
on Port Hunter, in New South Wales, 
the name was changed to Newcastle, 
since it was found that they could be 
shipped as readily as at Newcastle-upon- 
T)me. Newcastle-under-Lyme owes 
its name to the new castle under the 
forest of L)niie, rebuilt in the reign of 
Henry i. by Ranulf, Earl of Chester. 
Newcastle Bat, near Cape York, Aus- 



tralia, discovered by Captain Cook in 
1770, is believed to have been named 
after the fj-st Duke of Newcastle-under- 
Lyme of the Pelham creation, prime 
minister from 1754 to 1762. Newcastle 
Water, in Australia, discovered in 1861, 
was named after the fifth Duke, who was 
Secretary for the Colonies. 

Newfoundland was the earliest of the 
colonial possessions of Great Britain. The 
name originally applied to the regions 
discovered by the two Cabots, extending 
from lat. 67^° to sB**, thus including a 
great portion of the North American 
coast. The island to which the name is 
now restricted, is believed to have been 
the Island of St. John, so called because 
discovered by John Cabot on St. John's 
Day, June 24th, 1497. In an old Bristol 
record we read, ' In the year 1497, June 
24th, on St. John's Day, was Newfound- 
land found by Bristol men in a ship called 
the Matthew.' In the privy purse ex- 
penses of Henry Vll. for 1498, we have 
the entry, * 10/. to him that foxmd the new 
isle.' In 1503, it is called • Newfound- 
land Isle,' and in an act of Parliament 
passed in 1540, it is called Newland. 
Portugal Cove and Conception Bay 
in Newfoundland were discovered and 
named in 1500 by the Portuguese sailor, 
Caspar de Cortereal. [See Labrador. ) 

Ne"W Q-uinea, discovered in 1526 by the 
Portuguese Jorge de Menezes, was so 
named in 1545 by Ortez de Rey, because 
of the resemblance of the Papuans, who 
are of Negroid type, to the Negroes of 
Guinea in West Africa. [See Papua. ) 

New Hampshire, one of the New 

England States, was granted in 1629 by 
a patent of Charles l. to Captain John 
Mason, who named it from the county in 
which as Governor of Portsmouth he had 
been resident. It was afterwards included 
in Massachusetts, but in 1679 the old 
name was revived, the four towns of 
Hampton, Portsmouth, Exeter, and Dor- 
chester being taken from Massachusetts 
by Charles IL , and made into the royal 
province of New Hampshire, on the 
ground that they were not within the 
boundaries of the original Massachusetts 
charter. 

Ne"Wliaven, in Sussex, was formerly 
called Meeching. In the reign of Eliza- 
beth the outlet of the Ouse was at Seaford, 
but the sea broke through the shingle 
barrier during a great storm, and formed 
what is now called the Old Harbour, which 
was enlarged and called The New Haven 
under an Act passed in 1713. Newhaven 



GLOSSARY 



205 



in Connecticut was founded in 1638 
by John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton, 
and others ac Quinipiac, 'the land of 
the long water,* to which they gave the 
name of New Haven. The similar name 
of Newport was given to the settlement 
founded in Rhode Island in 1639 by 
William Coddington and others. New- 
port in Monmouthshire is called Novus 
Burgus by Giraldus Cambrensis, to dis- 
tinguish it from Caerleon, the old Roman 
city, three miles distant. Niewport in 
Belgium is the Flemish equivalent of 
Newport. Newport in Salop was 
founded by Henry i. and called in the 
charter Novo Burgo, translated as New- 
port and Newborough, the word port 
being nearly a synonym of borough, as is 
shown by the titie of portreeve. There 
are several inland Newports. 

New Hebrides, so named by Cook in 
1774, from the resemblance of the pre- 
cipitous coasts to those of the Hebrides, 
were discovered in 1606 by Quiros and 
Torres, who supposing they had found 
the great Antarctic Continent, the Terra 
Australis Incognita of the old geo- 
graphers, gave the land the name of 
Tierra Austral del Espiritu Santo, the 
' Southern Holy Ghost land,' whence the 
name Espiritu Santo, which is still re- 
tained by an island in the group. In 
171 8 Bougainville proved that the sup- 
posed continent consisted of a number of 
islands, to which he gave the somewhat 
fantastic name of Archipel des Grandes 
Cyclades. 

New Jersey, one of the United States, 
is a part of the territory granted in 1664 
to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George 
Carteret by the Duke of York ; and named 
in the conveyance Nova Ccesarea (New 
Jersey) as a compliment to Sir George 
Carteret, who had defended the island of 
Jersey against the Long Parliament. 

Newmarket, on the borders of Suffolk 
and Cambridgeshire, was so called from 
the • new market,' established in 1227, in 
lieu of the older market at Exning, a 
village two miles distant. 

Newmilister, in Northumberland, was 
a monastery established in 1138 by Cis- 
tercian monks from Fountains Abbey. 

New River is the name of the aqueduct 
constructed in the reign of James i. by 
Sir Hugh Myddleton to supply London 
with pure water. 

Newry, a town in Coimty Down, which 
gives a second title to Lord Kilmorey, is 
a name which means ' the yew.* It was 
anciently called lubkar-cinn-tragha, the 



• yew at the head of the strand,' from a yew 
tree said to have been planted by St. 
Patrick when he founded the monastery. 
This was shortened to lubhar, which with 
the prefixed article became an-Iubhar, 

• the yew,' finally anglicised as Newry. 

New South "Wales was the name 
selected by Cook on August 21st, 1770, 
for the whole eastern coast of Australia, 
from Cape Howe to Cape York, on account 
of its supposed resemblance to the coast 
of South Wales. The western shore of 
Hudson's Bay, explored in 1631 by Cap- 
tain James, was called by him New 
South Wales, in honour of the Prince 
of Wales, afterwards Charles 11. who was 
bom in the preceding year ; the contiguous 
district, to the nonh-west of Hudson's 
Bay, being styled New North Wales. 
These names have now disappeared from 
the map. 

New1;on, the commonest of English 
village names, is generally represented 
by Niwantune in A.S. charters, ni- 
wan being the locative of niwe, 'new.* 
In some cases Niwantune has become 
Newington, or more rarely Newnton. 
Niwanham as a rule becomes Newnham. 
Some Newtons are of more recent origin ; 
thus Newton Stewart, Wigtownshire, 
was founded in 1677 by the Stewarts, Earls 
of Galloway, and Newton Stewart in 
County Tyrone was built on the lands 
granted by Charles L to Sir William 
Stewart 

New Year's Harbour and New 
Year's Islands in Tierra del Fuego, 
were discovered by Cook on January ist, 
1775. New Year's Isles, in Bass 
Strait, were discovered by John Black, 
commander of the brig Harbinger, on 
January ist, 1801. The day of discovery 
also explains the names of New Year's 
Islands on the north coast of Australia, 
and New Year's Range and New 
Year's Creek on the Upper Darling 
River. 

New York, one of the United States, 
was a Dutch colony called the New Nether- 
lands. In 1664 Charles' il. granted the 
territory to his brother James, Duke ot 
York and Albany, and when Nieuw Am- 
sterdam had been surrendered by Stuy- 
vesant to a squadron under the Duke's 
deputy governor, the name of the Dutch 
town was changed to New York, while 
the Dutch outpost of Fort Orange on the 
Hudson became Albany, now the State 
capital, the New Netherlands forming the 
nucleus of Uie colony, and ultimately of 
the State of New York. 



206 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



New SSealand was discovered by the 
Dutchman Abel Tasman on December 
13th, 1642, and called by him Staaten 
Land, as it was supposed to be a portion 
of the Antarctic continent, continuous with 
the Staaten Land (now Staten Island, 
Fuegia) which had been discovered and 
named by Le Maire and Schouten in 1616, 
in honour of the Dutch States-General. 
When the error was discovered, the name 
was changed to NiEUW Zeeland, after 
the Dutch province of. Zeeland. The 
Maori name of the North Island is TV 
Ika a Maui, ' the fish of the (god) Maui,' 
while the South Island is Te Wahi 
Panamu, ' the land of greenstone,' i.e. 
of the nephrite, out of which the stone 
axes of the Maoris were made. 

Niagara is supposed to be an Iroquois 
name, O-ni-aw-ga-rah, or Nee-agg-arah, 
said to mean ' the thunder of the waters. ' 
Boyd affirms that the Senecas called the 
falls Date-car-ska-sa-sa t ' the highest falls,' 
and that Niagara is an Iroquois word 
meaning the ' neck,' applied not to the 
fall, but to the river connecting Lakes 
Erie and Ontario, as the neck connects 
the head with the body. 

Nias Islands, and Point Nias, in 
Arctic America, bear the name of Joseph 
Nias, one of Parry's officers. 

Nicaragua, a city in Central America, 
was built on the spot where Nicaragua, a 
powerful native chief, received Gil Gron- 
cales Davila in March 1523. The name 
has been extended to the State, and to 
the great lake called Cocibolca by the 
natives, and Laguna de Nicaragua by the 
Spaniards. 

Nice, a town on the Riviera, is the French 
form of the Italian NizzA, both corrup- 
tions of the old name Niccea, a town built 
by the Phocaean colonists of Massilia to 
commemorate a ' victory ' over the Ligu- 
rians. Nic<Ba in Anatolia, where the 
Council of Nice was held, is now Isnik 
[q.v.). NicoPOLi in Bulgaria represents 
Nicopolis, the ' city of victory,' founded 
by Trajan after his victory over the 
Dacians. N leosiA, the capital of Cyprus, 
is apparently a shortened form of the old 
name Kallinikesia,m!^\iencQ6. by assonance 
witli Lefkosia, the modern Greek form of 
Leukosia, also an ancient name of the 
place. NiKOLAiEVSH, a Russian port at 
the mouth of the Amur, was so named in 
1851 in honour of the Czar Nicholas. 

Nicholson Reef, east of the Friendly 
Islands, was discovered in 1818 by a 
Captain Nicholson. 

Nicobar Islands, a group north of 



Sumatra, called Necuvaram by Marco 
Polo, appear in the great Tanjore inscrip- 
tion (c, 1050 A.D.) as Nakka-varam, a 
name probably referring to the nudity of 
the people {nanga or nagna, * naked,' 
and varam, ' country '). An Arab his- 
torian writing in 1300 informs us that the 
men went entirely naked, while the women 
wore only a girdle of cocoa-nut leaves. 
The Nicobars are probably the Nalo- 
kiUhchen {^Narikela-dvipat 'cocoa-nut 
islands') of the Chinese pilgrim Hwen 
T'hsang, and the Nesoi Baraussai of 
Ptolemy. 

Nicoya, a gulf on the Pacific coast of 
Costa Rica, was named from Nicoya, a 
native village, where in 1522 Gil Gron9ales 
landed to obtain provisions on his ex- 
pedition to Nicaragua. 

Niemesk, in Brandenburg, Niemeczyn 
in Russia, and numerous village names in 
Eastern Europe, contain the word nemec 
or niemiec, the Slavonic designation of 
the Grermans, literally 'the dumb,' 'those 
who cannot speak.' Nemche, the Turkish 
name of Germany, affords a curious proof 
that the Turks first acquired their Imow- 
ledge of that country through a Slavonic 
channel. 

Nijgrer, the European name of the great 
river, 2000 miles m length, which traverses 
the Western Soudan, is not as is usually 
asserted the ' black river,' or the ' river of 
the negroes,' but a corruption of the Ber- 
ber name N-eghirreu, derived from ghir, 
a 'river.' The native name of the lower 
part of the Niger is Quorr A {^Koiuara, or 
Kuara), a Yoruba word meaning ' river ' 
or 'water.' In its upper course, above 
Timbuktu, it bears the Mandingo name 
JOLIBA, 'the great stream.' The Song- 
hay people call it IsAi or YssA, and the 
Fulbe call it Mayo, names meaning 
simply 'the river.' 

Night Island, York Peninsula, is where 
King anchored for a night in 1819. 

Nile was called in Old Egyptian either Hapi 
or P-iero, ' the river, ' of which Nehar 
Misraim, ' the river of Egypt,' or siimply 
Nahal, 'the valley' or 'stream,' were 
Semitic translations. The Greek name 
Nilus was probably a corruption of the 
Phoenician name Nahal. The Arabs now 
call it Bahr, ' the sea,' the two Niles 
being distinguished as Bahr-el-Azrak, 
' the turbid,' or Blue Nile, and Bahr-el- 
Abyad, the • clear ' or White Nile. The 
Nile was also called Sihor, the ' blue ' or 
'dark' river, of which Nilus might con- 
ceivably be an Aryan translation, like the 
NiLAB or ' blue water ' in the Punjab, 



GLOSSARY 



207 



Nilgherries (NfLCiRi) is the modem 
name of a mountain spur at the southern 
end of the Mysore tableland, now much 
frequented as the Sanatorium of the 
Madras Presidency. The native name is 
Malai-nddu, the 'hill country.* The 
Sanskrit name Nilagiri, the ' blue 
moimtain,' appears in the Hindu Cosmo- 
gony, and was applied to the Ootaca- 
mund range about 1820 by some ingenious 
European scholar. In the Punjab we 
have the NfLA Koh, or 'blue moun- 
tains.' The Blue Mountains in New 
South Wales are so named from their 
colour, as seen from Sydney at a distance 
of fifty miles. 

Nixues, in Provence, is the Roman 
Nemausus, so called from the ' sacred 
grove' in which the Volcae Arecomici 
held their assemblies. The Old Celtic 
word nenutum^ which we have in 
Augttsto-nemetum, now Clermont, meant 
a • temple,* and Fortunatus tells us that 
Ver-nemetis meant the ' great temple.' 

NinST-po means the ' repose of the waves ' 
(Chinese ning, * rest,' and po, a ' wave '). 

NiO, an island in the -^gean, is the ancient 
Jos, with a fragment of the prefixed article. 

Nipixuenan Sepesis, an afiluent of 

the Qu'appelle River, means ' little cran- 
berry river,' from the Cree words Nipi- 
menan, 'summer berries * {i.e. cranberries), 
sis, ' Uttle,' and sepe, ' water,' which we 
have in Mississippi. 

Nipissing and Nipigon, two lakes in the 
province of Ontario, are explained as ' the 
waters,' from nippeash and nippeog, the 
two forms of the plural of nippe, ' water.' 

Nipon, or Nippon, the largest of the 
Japanese Islands, means the Orient or 
'land of the sunrise,' from the Japanese 
ni, ' fire,' ' sun,' and port, ' land.' Nipon 
is also called Hondo, the 'mainland.' 
Japan {q.v.) is a Chinese equivalent of 
Nipon. 

Nissa, or NiSCH, in Servia, is the Greek 
Naisos, afterwards Naisopolis, so called 
from having been the ' birthplace ' of the 
Emperor Constantine. 

Nogoa, a river in Australia, was found 
dry by Leichardt, who called it the ' No 
go,' adding a final a, so as to give the 
name a sort of geographical respectability. 

Nomansland is a district of CafiGraria, 

south of the colony of Natal. 
Nonnenwerth, the ' nun's island,' is a 

picturesque island in the Rhine above 

Bonn, with a convent founded in 1122 

(O.H.G. warid, an 'island'). 

Noogrsoak, ' great nose,' is the Eskimo 



name of a cape in Greenland on which a 
Danish colony was planted in 1758. 

Nootka Sound is a large bay on the 
west coast of Vancouver's Island, dis- 
covered in 1774 Dy Juan Perez. Owing 
to some misconception the native word 
nutchi, a 'mountain,' has been transferred 
to the bay. It was called King George's 
Sound by Cook, who visited it in 1778. 

Nore, a sandbank in the estuary of the 
Thames, where the channel narrows, is 
the O.N. word ndr (pronounced nore), 
an * inlet ' or ' sea loch,* which we have 
in the inlets called Mon's Nor and 
FALSTElt Nor in Schleswi^:. The River 
Nore in Ireland, a tributary of the 
Barrow, is called in 1645 '^^® Oure or 
Nore.' The initial n is an abraded relic 
of the definite article, Avon n'Ore repre- 
senting the Old Irish Avon An-Fheoir^ 
' the grey river.' Nore, a hill name in 
Hants, Kent, and Surrey, is probably for 
Knore (M.E. knor, Old Dutch knorre, 
German knorretC), ' a knob, himch, or 
protuberance.' 

Norfolk, in A.S. North/olc, and after- 
wards Norfolc, signifying the northern 
division of the E^t Ajiglian folk, was at 
first, like Essex or Dorset, the name of 
the people, and not of the land they dwelt 
in. Norfolk Island, between New 
Zealand and New Caledonia, was dis- 
covered by Cook in 1774, and named in 
honour of the ninth Duke of Norfolk. 
Norfolk Bay and Mount Norfolk 
in Tasmania, discovered by Flinders in 
1798, bear the name of his sloop the 
Norfolk. 

Normandy, called Normandie in French, 
is the province occupied early in the tenth 
century by the Northmen, whose name 
on French soil gradually changed to Nor- 
mans. The earliest form is Terra North- 
mannorum, followed by Northmannia, 
Normannia, Normendie, and Norman- 
die. 

Normanton, Queensland, bears the 
name of Captain Norman, a Government 
Surveyor. Normanton, in Yorkshire, 
appears as Norman-tone in Domesday, 
indicating that it was the tun of some 
northman. 

Noronlia bears the name of a Portuguese 
seaman, Fernando de Noronha (^.'^). 

Norrbotten, in Sweden, means North 
Bothnia. (5^^ Bothnia.) NorrkOping, 
the 'north market,' is two miles north 
of S0derk<5ping, the ' south market.' 
Nordhausen, ' at the north houses,' is 
now an important town in Prussian Saxony. 



2o8 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Norte means the north in Spanish and 
Portuguese. In Brazil we have the Rio 
Grande do Norte, or 'great river of 
the North,' so called with reference to the 
Rio Grande do Sul, the ' great river of 
the South,' or to the neighbouring Rio 
Pequeno, the ' little river.' Rio Grande 
DEL Norte, the Spanish name of the 
river dividing Mexico from Texas, is also 
called Rio Bravo del Norte, 'the 
fierce river of the North, ' from its violent 
summer floods. In its middle course it 
goes by the name of Rio Puerco, the 
' dirty river,' from its muddy waters. 

Northallerton in Yorkshire, which gives 
a name to the district conventionally 
called AUertonshire, has received the 
distinctive prefix to distinguish it from 
AUerton Mauleverer. NoRTHWiCH, in 
Cheshire, is the northern wych^ or salt- 
house. 

Northampton is a name as to which 
nothing very definite can be said, since we 
have no early mention of the town or of 
the shire. In a forged or doubtful copy 
of a charter, professing to be dated in 664 
A.D., but which cannot be earlier than the 
twelfth century (c. d. No. 984), we have 
villa de Norhamtonnt. In a late and 
doubtful copy of a charter of 948 (c.D. 
Np. 420) we have Northamtonshire ; and 
Norhamtun in an undated charter (c.D. 
No. 1367). In the Saxon Chronicle, A. D. 
917, we have Hantun, and North-hamtun 
in A.D. 1087. In Domesday the name 
appears as North An tone, and the forms 
Hantone and Amtune are also found. 
The name is probably to be explained in 
the same way as Southampton {q.v.), 
but it has been conjectured that the Nene 
on which it stands may be the misread 
Antona of Tacitus, in which case the town 
might have derived its name from the river. 

North Gape is naturally a common 
name. The North Cape, on the Nor- 
wegian island of Mageroe, was so named 
by Chancellor, who rounded it in 1553. 
Somewhat farther to the east is the Nord 
Kyn in Finmark, the northernmost point 
of continental Europe. North Cape, 
New Zealand, Cape North in Eastern 
Siberia, and in South Georgia, were 
named by Cook in the years 1769, 1778, 
and 1775. Cape North in South Vic- 
toria was named by James Ross in 1841. 

North Sea is the English form of a name 
due to the Dutch mariners, who spoke 
of the Noord Zee as distinguished from 
the ZuiDER Zee or ' southern sea.' The 
Dutch name has been adopted by the 
Germans, while the Danes ceUI it Vester- 



havet, the 'west sea.' In England, fol- 
lowing the classical usage, we generally 
call it the German Ocean, a translation 
of the Roman name Oceanus Germanicus. 

Northumberland, originally the • land 
north of the H umber,* was in the ninth 
century, at the time of its greatest ex- 
tension, a kingdom stretching from the 
Humber to the Forth. The present county, 
between the Tees and the Tweed, is what 
remained after the shire of York, the 
Palatinate of Durham, and the Scotch 
earldoms of the Lothians had been carved 
out of it. It never included Cumberland 
or Westmoreland, which were no part of 
England, belonging to the Welsh king- 
dom of Strathclyde. Northumberland 
Reef in the Moluccas was discovered in 
1796 by Captain Rees of the ship North- 
umberland. Northumberland Sound, 
in the Parry Islands, was named by 
Belcher in 1852 after the Duke of North- 
umberland, First Lord of the Admiralty. 
In Australia we have the Northumber- 
land Isles discovered by Cook in 1770, 
and Cape Northumberland named by 
Grant in 1800. 

Norton Sound, Alaska, was named by 
Cook in 1778 • in honour of Sir Fletcher 
Norton,' Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons, who in 1782 was created Lord 
Grantley. Norton (North-tun) is one of 
the commonest of English village names, 
north, except before a vowel, frequently 
becoming nor, as in Norfolk, Norwich, 
Norbury, Norcott. 

Norway is the A.S. A^<!>ritff^ (frequently 
used in the dative plural, Norwegum), and 
the O.N. Norvegr or Noregr, which signi- 
fied the • Northern way or route of the 
Swedish Vikings, as distinguished from 
the Vesturvegr or ' Western route ' across 
the German Ocean, and from the Austr- 
vegr or Elastern route by the Baltic. The 
A.S. Northriga means a man of Norway. 
Norway House, on Lake Winnipeg, was 
so called because s^me Norwegians from 
Manitoba settled there. 

Norwich is the county town of Norfolk. 
It is difficult to believe that there is no 
connection between the names of the city 
and the county, especially as there is no 
Southwick; but, as the name Northwic 
does not occur in the Chronicle before 
1004, there may have been some earlier 
form of the name which would explain the 
difficulty, which is not diminished by the 
fact that Sudbury was formerly a chief 
town of Suffolk, as is shown by its being 
the seat of one of the two Suffolk Arch- 
deaconries. Norwich is the ' North wic/ 



GLOSSARY 



209 



where laic probably does not mean a ' bay ' 
or the ' reach ' of a river, as is sometimes 
the case, but a ' village ' or town, and 
may denote a considerable place, as is 
shown by London being called Lunden- 
wtc in the Chronicle. 

No^y means island in Malagasy. Thus 
n6si-b6, the 'great island,' lies ofif the 
coast of Madagascar. The word is also 
used for rising ground standing up in 
rice fields, as Nosi-Vato, • rocky island ' ; 
N6si-Zato, the ' hundred isles ' ; Nosi- 
Arivo, the 'thousand isles.' The old 
native name of Madagascar was Ndsin- 
ddmbo, the ' island of wild boars.* 

ITottingham, the county town of Not- 
tinghamshire, is called in the Chronicle 
SnotingahAm, the ' ham ' of the Snot- 
ingas, who are supposed, though without 
any direct evidence, to be the 'cavern- 
dwellers,' who inhabited the caves in the 
castle rock. Asser tells us that the British 
name was Tigguocobauc , signifying spe- 
luncarum domus. Tigguocobauc means 
a 'cave dwelling,' tiggu being an earlier 
form of the Welsh //, a ' 1 ouse' or dwel- 
ling, while ogof, a cave, gives the adjec- 
tive ogofawg, cavernous. 

Nova Scotia, or 'New Scotland,' was 
the pedantic name given by James I. to 
the French colony of Acadia, when he 
granted it by patent to Sir William Alex- 
ander, a Scotchman, on the pretext of its 
having been discovered by Cabot in the 
reign of Henry vii. In Cape Breton, 
which forms a part of the province of 
Nova Scotia, there are a large number 
of colonists from the Highlands and the 
Hebrides, nearly 30,000 emigrants having 
come out at the time of the clearances in 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
Gaelic is still spoken in the district around 
the places bearing the Scotch names of 
Mull, Skye, Glen, and Glendale, which 
formed the centres of the Highland colony. 

Novaya Zemlya, the 'new land.' is 
the Russian name of a great island in the 
Arctic Ocean, already known to the Nov- 
gorod hunters in the eleventh century, and 
rediscovered in 1553 by Sir Hugh Wil- 
loughby, and hence at one time appearing 
on English maps as Willoughby's Land. 
Zemlya being feminine, the adjective 
novaya agrees with it. We have the 
masculine in Novgorod, the 'new town,' 
a name which occurs several times in 
Russia. Novgorod on Lake Ilmen was 
called Holmgardr by the Northmen. 
Novgorod on the Volga is distinguished 
as NijNi Novgorod, or Lower Nov- 
gorod. Novi-Bazar, the * New Market,' 



in Bosnia, is a Slavonic translation of the 
Turkish name Yenibazar. Nykoping in 
Sweden also means 'new market,' and 
Nyborg in Denmark is the ' new burg.' 
New is naturally the commonest adjectival 
component of local names. For Greek, 
Celtic, German, and French examples, 
see Naples, Noyon, Neuwied, and 
NeufchAtel. 

Noyon in the department of the Oise, and 
Nyon on the Lake of Geneva are cor- 
ruptions of the Celto- Roman name Novio- 
dunum, the ' new dun ' or fort. Nevers 
was the Noviodunum ^dttorum of Caesar. 
In the Antonine Itinerary it appears as 
Nevimum, of which Nevers is a corrup- 
tion, evidently so named from its position 
on the little river Nifevre which here joins 
the Loire. Neumagen near Trier, and 
Nimeguen in Holland, called Nijmegen 
in Dutch, are corruptions of the Celto- 
Latin name Noviomagus or Noviomagumt 
the 'new field.' 

Nubia is from the Old £g3rptian »«^, 
'gold,' being the land from which that 
metal was procured. 

Nun, or NoNj a cape on the west coast of 
Africa opposite the Canaries, is a corrup- 
tion of the Portuguese name Cabo de Ndo 
(Naon) which became Cabo Non, popu- 
larly explained as *Cape Nay,' because 
early in the fifteenth century it was the 
Cabo non plus ultra which they were un- 
able to pass, sa3ring No ! to the wistful 
mariner. The Portuguese proverb ran 
Quern passar o Cabo de Ndo ou voltarra 
ou ndo. ' Whoever passes Cape Non will 
return ornot.' Nun was the native name. 

Nunez, a West African river, north of 
Sierra Leone, formerly and more cor- 
rectly called Rio do Nuno, was discovered 
in 1446 by Nuno Tristio, a Portuguese 
mariner who was killed here. 

Nuremberg^ in Bavaria, the English form 
of the German NUrnberg, represents the 
older name which appears as Nurinberg 
in a document of 1050. It is usually said 
to have been a settlement of the Norici, 
who, flying from the Huns are supposed to 
have established themselves in this region 
in the middle of the fifth century, it is 
more probably from a personal name 
belonging to the same Celtic stem as the 
names of the Norici and the Noric Alps. 

Nurska, a district, and Nureff a river, 
in Podolia, are believed to be derived 
from the name of the Neuri of Herodotus. 

Nusa KflrTT^bfl.-ngfl.ti, an island south 
of Java, is a Malay name meaning the 
• island of flowers,' the flowers growing 



2IO 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



on it being gathered only at the coronation 
of the kings of Surakerta. 

Nuyts Land, Nuyts Archipelago. 
Point Nuyts, and Cape Nuyts, on the 
southern coast of Australia, bear the name 
of the Dutch sailor Pieter Nuyts, who in 
the Guide Zeepaard discovered this por- 
tion of the Australian coast in January 
1627. 

Nyanza, Nyassa, and Nyanja are dia- 
lectic forms of the Bantu word for a great 
lake or 'sea.' 

OCkkley, Hampshire; Ockley, Surrey; 
and ACLEY, Kent, all called in A.S. 
documents Aclea, * oak pasture,' have 
given rise to numerous surnames, one of 
which, borne by an officer of the Erebus^ 
has been transferred to Cape Oakley in 
South Victoria. Oakhampton, in Devon, 
is the tUn on the River Okement 

Ob or Oby, a great Siberian river, is 
usually explained as an Ostiak name, 
meaning ' the two,' two great branches, 
one milky and the other clear, uniting to 
form the main stream, and flowing for 
a considerable distance without inter- 
mingling. But it is possible that the 
name may be Z)rrianian, in which case 
it might mean the ' grandmother ' \pb) of 
waters, 

Oban, the name of several places in the 
Western Highlands, is a diminutive of 
the Gaelic ob, a ' bay.' 

Oberland, the name of several Swiss 
districts, means the 'high land.' The 
best known, the Bernese Oberland, is the 
mountainous part of Canton Bern. 

Observation, Mount, in Banks Land, 

is a hill whence, in 1850, M'Clure, coming 
from the Pacific, discerned across Banks 
Strait the shores of Melville Island, where 
Parry had wintered thirty years before, 
thus ascertaining the actual existence of a 
North -West Passage. Never, he says, 
' from the lips of man burst a more fer- 
vent "Thank God I*' than now from 
those of that little company.' 

Ocean Islands, a group in the Mar- 
shall Archipelago, were discovered by the 
ship Ocean in 1804. 

Ochil Hills^ Perthshire, bear a C3anric 
name, explamed by the Welsh uchel, 
' high. ' So Ochiltree may be uchel-tre, 
the • high house,' and Ogilvie the * high 
hilL' 

Ocotal, a town in Nicaragua, takes its 
name from the ocotl^ a local species of 
pine. 

Oder, the Viadus of Ptolemy, afterwards 



called the Odora, Oddara^ or Adora^ is 
probably the Lithuanian audra^ a ' flood,' 
or ' flow,' cognate with the Sanskrit udra^ 
'water,' in sam-udra, the *sea.' The 
Wear in Durham, the Vedra of 
Ptolemy, is referred by Pott to the same 
Aryan root 

Odinse, the capital of the Danish Isle of 
Fiinen, formerly called Odins oe, ' Odin's 
island,' was a great heathen sanctuary, 
which became an episcopal see after the 
conversion of the Danes. 

Odessa, a Russian port on the Black Sea, 
founded in 1796, was so named because 
it was built on a site then supposed to 
be that of Odessos, Odyssos, or Odesopolis 
(now Varna), a colony of Miletus con- 
nected by popular etymology with the 
Homeric hero. 

Offa'S Dyke bears the name of Offa, the 
great Mercian king, who constructed a 
vast earthwork, second only in magnitude 
to Hadrian's wall, to protect his dominions 
from the plundering inroads of the Welsh. 
The dyke, which in many places is still 
called either Offa's Dyke, or in Welsh 
Clawdd Offa, ran in a nearly straight 
line from the mouth of the Wye to the 
estuary of the Dee, passing by Oswestry 
and Mold. Offley, in Herefordshire, has 
b^n supposed to be the place where OfTa 
died in 796. 

Ogdensburgr, a city on the St. Law- 
rence, in the State of New York, was 
incorporated in 1817 and named after 
the proprietor, Samuel Ogden. Ogden 
City, in Utah, bears the name of Major 
Edmund A. Ogden. 

Obio, one of the United States, is so 
called from the River Ohio, an Iroquois 
name, known to the early French colonists 
by the translated name la Belle RivUre. 

Ohlsen, a cape in Smith Sound, was 
named in memory of Christian Ohlsen, 
who took part in Kane's expedition, and 
died here in 1855. 

Oil City, on Oil Creek, is in the petro- 
leum district of Pennsylvania. 

Okak, in Labrador, is situated in Okak 
Bay, which is protected by two tongues 
of land (Eskimo ^^^, a ' tongue'). 

Okhotsk, Sea of, between Kam- 
tchatka and SagaUen, takes its name from 
Okhotsk, a town founded in 1639 on 
the river called Okhota, which is a 
Russian corruption of okat, a Tungusic 
word meaning a ' river.' 

Oldenburg, a North German Grand 
Duchy, takes its name from the town 
of Oldenburg, formerly Aldenburg^ the 



GLOSSARY 



9IX 



'old castle.' According to a popular 
tradition, the castle was built by Walbert, 
grandson of Wittekind, and named after 
his wife, Altburga. 

Olenek, in Siberia, is the 'reindeer river.' 
Ol^ron, near Pau, anciently Iluro, and 
the Isle of OMron, anciently Uliarus, at 
the mouth of the Charente, are believed 
to be from the Basque ilia, a. ' place ' or 
* town,' and ura, ' water. ' {See ASTURIA. ) 

Olifant's Mountains, Olifant's 
RiviER, and Olifant's Vlei, all in the 
Cape Colony, were so called from the 
elephants by which they . were formerly 
frequented! 

Olmlitz, in Moravia, the German form of 
the Slavonic name 0/omouc, Holomauc, 
or Hoiomauce, is believed to have been 
founded by the Emperor Julius Maximus, 
and CdXl^ Julii Mons at Julimofttium, of 
which the name is said to be a corruption, 
but is more probably Slavonic, meaning 
'bare rocks.' 

Olney, an island in the Severn, where 
Canute met Edmund in 1016 to divide 
the kingdom, is the A.S. Olanig, possibly 
for HoUnig, ' holly isle.' There are also 
places called Olney in Bucks and North- 
ants. 

Olten, in Canton Solothiirn, represents 
the Roman Ultinum. 

Olyntorsk, a town on the River Olyn- 
tora, in Kamtchatka, gives its name to a 
neighbouring cape and bay. 

Omaha, the state capital of Nebraska, 
perpetuates the name of a Dahcota tribe, 
explained by Boyd as those who live ' up 
stream.' 

O-mei, the ' golden summit,' a great place 
of pilgrimage, is a mountain in Western 
China covered with Buddhist temples. 

Ometepeo, the ' double mountain,' is the 
native name of a volcano in the Lake of 
Nicaragua. 

Omsk, a town in Siberia, stands on the 
River Om. 

Onega is the name of a river which falls 
into the Gulf of Onega in the White 
Sea, and also of the great lake which 
discharges itself into Lake Ladoga. The 
name is doubtless Finnic, probably signi- 
fying the 'rough' or perhaps the 'noisy 
water. ' 

Oneida, the name of a lake, a river, and 
a count^ in the State of New York, is a 
corruption of Onayoteka, an Iroquois tribe- 
name, meaning, according to F. Mliller, 
the 'granite people.' Cuoq derives the 
name from a certain 'standing stone.' 



To another Iroquois tribe, the Onundaga, 
or ' hill people,' we owe the name Onon- 
daga which has been given to a lake and 
county in New York State. 

Ontario, one of the great North American 
lakes, which gives its name to a Canadian 
province, is a native name meaning ' the 
beautiful lake.' It was originally called 
Lac Frontenac, from Count Frontenac, 
the French viceroy. On Joliet's map of 
1673 it is called Lac Frontenac ou Ontario. 

Ootacamiind (Utakamand), a sana- 
torium in the Neilgherries, and the summer 
residence of the Governor of Madras, is 
from Hotta-ga-mand, 'stone house,' the 
Badaga name given to the first European 
bungalow erected in these hills. 

OpelOUSas, in Louisiana, preserves the 
name of the tribe of the Appalousa or 
' black heads. ' 

Oporto, the Roman Portus CaU, should 
be written in Portuguese fashion either 
O Porto, ' the Port,' or simply Porto, 
without the prefixed article which has 
been dropped in the derived name of 
Portugal {q.v.) and also in that of the 
• Port ' wine shipped from O Porto. 

Oj^loe, formerly Ooslo, a Norwegian 
town near Christiania, stands at the 
' mouth,' 005 1 of a small river called the 
Lo. 

Oran, in Algeria, is the European form of 
the Arabic name IVaArdn, the ' ravine.' 

Orange, a town in Provence with exten- 
sive Roman remains, anciently called 
Arausio or Arausion, stands at the con- 
fluence of the River Araise and the Rhone. 
The principality of Orange, through the 
marriage of an heiress with a Count of 
Nassau, gave a title to the princes of the 
Orange-Nassau family u ho became Stadt- 
holders of Holland, after whom, in 1777, 
the Dutch colonists at the Cape of Crood 
Hope gave the name of Orange River 
to the Garief, a Hottentot word which 
means the 'rusher' or 'rushing* river. 
The Orange Free State lies between 
the Orange River and the Vaal. The well- 
known orange tree on the postage stamps 
of the Orange Free State is a punning 
cognisance, our orange being a corruption 
of naranj, the Persian name. The rivalry 
of the Dutch and Portuguese in South 
America is marked by Fort Orange, 
erected by the Dutch in 1631 on the 
Brazilian island of Itamarca, and by 
Cape Orange, the northernmost point 
on the Brazilian coast. From the Orange- 
Nassau Princes we have Orange Cay in 
the Bahamas ; the Orange Islands at 



213 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



the north-east corner of Novaya Zeralya, 
discovered by the Dutchman Barents in 
1594; and Fort Orange, the original 
Dutch name of Albany, now the State 
capital of New York. {See NASSAU. ) 

Oraninore in Galway. whence the title 
of an Irish peer, is a corruption of Uaran- 
mar, the ' great spring.' At Oranmore 
in Roscommon, the uaran or ' spring ' is 
a holy well still frequented by pilgrims. 

Oransay, one of the Hebrides, is the 
island of St Odhran, a sixth century 
Irish missionary. 

Ord, a word not uncommon in Scotch 
names, as Ord of Caithness, Muir of 
Ord, Ordhead, or Ordiquhill, is 
explained by Stokes from the Irish ord 
(Breton orz), a mallet or hammer. In 
modern Gaehc ord means a steep rounded 
height. 

Oregron, one of the United States, is 
bounded on the north by the Oregon or 
Columbia River. The name formerly 
denoted the much larger territory which 
lies north of the parallel of 42°. It is 
uncertain whether the river was named 
from the territory or the territory from the 
river. In the former case it has been con- 
jectured that the name is derived either 
from the Spanish word oregano, 'wild 
marjoram' or 'wild sage {artemisia), 
which grows abundantly in the region, or 
from the tribe - name Orejones, ' large 
eared,' applied by the Spaniards to the 
races which artificially enlarge the lobes 
of the ears. On the other hand the name 
Oregon is first mentioned by Carver, who 
started from Canada in 1766 to reach 
the Pacific, and returned in 1768. In 
his travels, published in 1778, he speaks 
of 'the Oregon or River of the West.' 
He can only have obtained the name from 
the Sioux, on the eastern side of the Rocky 
Moimtains, who were hardly likely to 
have been acquainted with any Spanish 
name. It is therefore urged that Carver 
considered ' River of the West ' to be a 
translation of the native name Oregon, 
The Flatheads call the river Jakaill 
Uimakl, the 'great river. ' (See Columbia. ) 

Orellajia, a name of the Upper Amazon, 
commemorates the exploit of Francesco 
de Orellana, who, starting from Peru, 
descended the whole course of the Amazon 
{q.v.). 

Orenburgr is a Russian town and pro- 
vince. In 1738 a military post was estab- 
lished at the confluence of the River Ural 
with the Or. Four years later the post 
was moved some 150 miles lower down 
-the Ural River, the old same being re- 



tained, which has therefore only an his- 
torical connection with the name of the 
Or. The town of Orsk now occupies 
the former site of Orenburg. 

Orgran Mountains, in Portuguese 
Serra dos Organos, resemble organ pipes 
when seen from Rio. 

Oliel was an Irish kingdom comprising 
the modem counties of Armagh, Mona- 
ghan, and Louth. A legend explains the 
name as the ' golden hostages,' Oir-ghilla, 
because of the stipulation that hostages 
should only be fettered with chains of 
gold. Oriel included two baronies called 
Orior, which is known to be a corrup- 
tion of Oirtheara, the ' Easterns,' i.e. the 
Eastern people. 

Orinoco is a corruption of the Tamanak 
word orinucu, the 'river,' a name ob- 
tained from the natives in 1531 by Diego 
de Ordaz. 

Orissa, in Bengal, represents the ancient 
kingdom of Odhra-desa^ ' the ' land of the 
Odhra' tribes. 

Orizaba, an active Mexican volcano, 
i8,ao5 feet high, is locally called Pico de 
Orizaba, from the neighbouring town of 
Orizaba. The native name of the vol- 
cano is Citlaltepetl, ' the mountain of the 
star ' (Aztec citalitt, ' a star,' and tepetl^ a. 
'mountain'), so called because the sum- 
mit shines at night like a bright star. 

Orkney Islands are the Orcadce of 
Tacitus, and the Orcades of Ptolemy and 
Mela. The name is usually explained as 
the ' porpoise ' or ' whale ' islands, from a 
cetacean called orca by Pliny, which is 
probably the Delphintts orca of Linnaeus. 
The Irish ore, a ' porpoise ' or ' sea-pig ' 
(whence the Latin loan word orca), is 
regarded by Stokes as a word cognate 
with the Latin porcus. The form Orkney 
is due to the Scandinavians, the suffix -ey 
meaning ' island ' and orkn signifying in 
O. N. a kind of seal On the other hand 
Ptolemy calls Duncansbay Head, the 
extreme cap)e of Scotland, by the name 
of Orcas, which has been referred to the 
Celtic orch, 'extreme* or 'limit,' and 
hence the Orcades might be the islands 
ofif the Orcas Cape. 

Orleans on the Loire was the Celtic 
Genabum. It is called Civitas Aurelian- 
orum in the Notitia. The Roman walls, 
of which traces remain, have been assigned 
to the Emperor Aurelian, to whom the 
name is supposed to refer. In the sixth 
century the name had become Aureliani, 
Orl^ns being a corruption of an oblique 
cue Aurelianos or Aureliams, which 



GLOSSARY 



«i3 



we find in Gregory of Tours. New 
Orleans in Louisiana was named in 
1718 by Bienville, the French Governor, 
after Philip, Duke of Orleans, Regent of 
France during the minority of Louis XV. , 
from whom the French Canadians gave 
the name of Ile d'OrljSans to an island 
on the St Lawrence, below Quebec, which 
had been called by Cartier lie de Bacchus, 
on account of the wild vines by which it 
was overgrown. 

Orxnuz, a Portuguese city on an island at 
the mouth of the Persian Gulf, acquired the 
name of an older city on the mainland, the 
Harmuza of Ptolemy. It was captured 
by Albuquerque in 1507, and became an 
emporium second only to Goa in import- 
ance till it was taken by the English East 
India Company in 1622, when Baffin was 
killed in the siege. Since Moghistan 
(anciently Harmozia) means ' the region 
of date palms ' it has been conjectured 
that Moghistan was a translation of Har- 
mozia, which may have been derived 
from khurma, 'a date.' The Straits 
OF Ormuz acquired their name at the 
time when Ormuz was a great centre of 
Portuguese trade. Formosa, the name 
used by Marco Polo for the plain near 
Ormuz, is believed to be merely a corrupt 
form of Harmuza or Harmozeia. 

Orotavei, in Teneriffe, is a corruption of 
Taora, the Guanche name. 

Orrery, a barony in County Cork, has 
given a name to an astronomical toy pur- 
chased by an Earl of Orrery. The old 
tribal name of the barony was Orb-raige, 
meaning the descendants (raige) of Orbh. 
Orbraige was pronounced Orvery, and 
then softened to Orrery. 

Orta, which means the 'garden,' is a 
village on the Lago D'Orta, to which it 
has given a name. Huerta, the Spanish 
form of hortus, is the designation of the 
fertile plains near Valencia and Murcia. 

Ortega, a river in Guadalcanar, one of 
the Salomon Islands, bears the name of 
Pedro de Ortega, who discovered it in 
1567. 

Ortler Spitz, a mountain in the T)n-ol, 
is from the Romansch word ortle, a ' point ' 
or 'needle.' 

Orvieto in Italy, the Urbiventum of 
Procopius, is the corruption of an oblique 
case of urbs vetus, the ' old city.' 

Orwell, a river in Suffolk, is called in the 
Chronicle Arewe or Arwe, which, if not 
pre-English, is apparently from arewe, 
an 'arrow,' doubtless from its swiftness. 
Tbe name Orwel} was probably formed 



from the earlier name, and being a tidal 
river, the last syllable may be compared 
with the name of the Welland, into 
which the tide ' wells ' or flows. 

Osa^e, a tributary of the Missouri, is so 
called from the Osage tribe, whose name 
means 'those on a mountain.' OsA- 
watomie in Kansas, the residence of 
John Brown, the anti-slavery mart3rr, is a 
barbarous compound formed by jumbling 
together the names of the Osage and the 
Pottowatomie tribes. 

Osborne, in the Isle of Wight, was an 
estate bought in 1848 by Queen Victoria 
from Lady Isabella Blachford. It was 
originally known as Oysterbourne, a name 
changed by the Blachfords to Osborne, as 
being a more aristocratic and dignified 
designation. 

Osbom Island, on the south coast of 
Australia, was so named by King in 
18 19 after Sir John Osbom, a Lord of 
the Admiralty. 

Osnaburgh. is an English mis-spelling 
of Osnabrtick, a city in Hanover on the 
River Hase. The oldest form is Asen- 
bruggi, connected by Zeuss, Grimm, and 
Forstemann with ans, ' deus,' but is pro- 
bably 'the bridge over the Hase.' 
Frederick, Duke of York, second son of 
George ill. , was made lay bishop of the 
weal&y See of Osnabrtick, and after him 
were named Osnaburgh Island in the 
Low Archipelago, discovered by Carteret 
in 1767, and Osnaburgh ISLAND(Maitea), 
one of the Society Islands, discovered by 
Wallis in the same year. 

Ossian, Strath, in Perthshire, is pro- 
bably Srath Oisin, 'fawn valley,' and not 
from the proper name Ossian, which sig- 
nifies the ' fawn.' 

Ostende, in Belgium, called Ostenda in 
the tenth century, is at the ' East End,' 
and Westende at the West End of a 
sandbank about ten miles in length, which 
stretches along the coast from the mouth 
of the Yser as far as the Bruges and Ostende 
canal. Ostende is a cape at the ' East 
End ' of the Danish island of St. Thomas, 
in the West Indies. 

Ostia is the port at the ' mouth ' of the 
Tiber. 

OstiakS, a Finnic people on the Obi, who 
call themselves Ass-yakh, ' people of the 
Obi,' are called by the Tartars uschtak, 
•foreigners' or 'strangers,' of which Ostiak 
is the Russian corruption. 

Os'Wegro, N.Y., a river which forms the 
outlet of several lakes, means, according 
to Boyd, the • flowing out,' 



214 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Oswestry, in Shropshire, takes its name, 
according to an ancient legend, from 
a cross or 'tree' erected on the spot 
where in 642 St. Oswald, the Christian 
king of the Northumbrians, fell in a 
battle with Penda, the heathen king of 
the Mercians. The Welsh called the 
place Croes Oswallt, 'Oswald's cross,' 
and the English by the equivalent name 
Oswaldslre, and the town gathered round 
a monastery which was erected on the 
spot. But the identification of Oswestry 
with Maserfeld, where the battle was 
fought, has not been established, and may 
have been merely a guess suggested b^ 
the name Oswaldsire. There is no evi- 
dence that the Oswald of the cross was 
the same person as King Oswald. 

Otaheite is Cook's spelling of the island 
now called Tahiti (q.v. ). 

OtrantO, a town in Calabria, is the 
ancient Hydrunium on the River Hydrtis, 
now the Idro. From the town the 
Straits of Otranto, leading from the 
Mediterranean into the Adriatic, take 
their name. 

Ottawa, the capital of the Canadian 
Dominion, stands on the River Ottawa, 
which preserver the name of the Ottawa 
or Otaua tribe, an Algonquin term mean- 
ing ' traders,' literally ' he trades.' 

Ottoman Empire, the official title of 

the realm subject to the Sultan, takes 
its name from Othraan, the Emir under 
whom the Turks first advanced into 
Europe. Othman is the Tartar word 
ataman^ which we have in the title of the 
Hetman of the Don Cossacks, and means 
a ' commander of horse ' (at, a horse). 

Otway, Port, on the west coast of 
Patagonia, bears the name of Admiral 
Sir Robert Waller Otway, commander-in- 
chief ( 1828) on the South American station. 
Cape Otway, in the Australian colony 
of Victoria, was discovered and named 
by Grant in 1800. 

Ouchy, on the Lake of Geneva, is the 
port of Lausanne. In charters it appears 
as Ochie and Oschie, explained by the 
O.H.G. ezzesc, N.H.G, esch, Latinised as 
oscha or oschia, which denotes an ' unen- 
closed field ' or ' open pasture land.' The 
Dent d'Ochk, a mountain in Savoy, and 
Chateau d'Oex, in the Simmenthal, are 
from the same source. 

Oudb. (Awadh), often spelt Oude, an 
Indian kingdom annexed in 1856, takes 
its name from the ancient sacred city 
called in Sanskrit A-yodhya, 'the invin- 
cible,' literally ' not to be warred against' 
It was the capital of Rdma, and its mag- 



nificence is described in the opening 
chapters of the Rdmdyana. 

Ouro Preto, officially called Villa 
Rica de Ouro Preto, the 'rich town 
of black gold,' now the capital of the 
Brazilian province of Minas Geraes {q.v.)y 
was founded by Albuquerque in 171 1, de- 
riving its name from the black colour of 
the iron mica in which the gold is found. 
Ouro Fino, 'fine gold,* in the same pro- 
vince, is so called because the gold is 
found.only as minute specks of gold dust 
A chain of auriferous hills in the Brazilian 
province of Goyaz bears the name of 
Serra Dourada, the 'gilded range.' 

Ovens River, in Victoria, a tributary 
of the Murray, bears the name of Major 
Ovens, an Australian explorer. 

Ovidiopol, the 'city of Ovid,' at the 
mouth of the Dniester, was founded and 
named in 1792 by the Empress Catherine 
II. , because of an ancient tomb assigned 
to the poet Ovid, on the ground that it 
contained a bust which, it was conjec- 
tured, might be that of Julia, daughter of 
Augustus. 

Owen Lake, Boothia Felix, and Mount 
Owen, in Australia, bear the name of 
Sir Richard Owen, the palaeontologist 
Owen's Islands, on the west coast of 
Patagonia, were named after Sir Edward 
Owen, R.N. Owen Stanley Moun- 
tain, New Guinea, which rises to a 
height of 13,205 feet, bears the name of 
Capt. Owen Stanley, R.N., who in the 
Rattlesnake surveyed Torres Straits in 
1849-50. 

Oxford, AS. Oxnaford, the 'ford of the 
oxen,' is a name of the same class as Shef- 
ford, the ' sheep ford,' Hertford and Swin- 
ford in England, or Ochsenfurt and 
Schweinfurt in Germany. Oxford is 
not mentioned by Baeda, the first historical 
notice occurring in the Saxon Chronicle 
in the reign of Edward the Elder (a.d. 
912), when it was already a city ot im- 
portance, being coupled with London. 
In later A.S. charters we have the forms 
Oxanaford, Oxoneford, and Oxneford, In 
the ninth century, on coins of Alfred, we 
have Oksnaforda and Orsnaforda. The 
Welsh n2>.TQ&Rhyd'ychain is not primitive, 
but merely the English name translated. 

Oxley Town, Queensland, was named 
after Lieutenant Oxley, a Government 
Surveyor. 

Paarl, a town and district in the Cape 
Colony, takes its name from a huge 
rounded block of granite called t^e 



GLOSSARY 



215 



Pearl ; a neighbouring angular block 
being called the Diamond. 

PachtuSSOV, an island east of Novaya 
Zeml^a, was discovered in 1835 by the 
Russian officer whose name it bears. 

Paoifio Ocean is the English transla- 
tion of Mar Facifico or Oceano Pacifico, 
the somewhat inappropriate name be- 
stowed by Magellan m 1521 on the great 
ocean which he was the first to traverse. 
After battling with terrific tempests which 
had beset him in the straits which bear his 
name, he was so forttmate as to cross 
it without encountering a storm. The 
Pacific was at first known as the South 
Sea, a name even now not wholly obso- 
lete, which, inappropriate as it may seem, 
is noteworthy as commemorating the 
opening of the new chapter in the his- 
tory of exploration which dates from the 
day when Vasco Nunez de Balboa, 
gazed from a 'peak in Darien,' on the 
waters of an unknown ocean spread out 
before him. At Darien he had heard, 
from a chief named Ponquiaco, of a 
mountain range, now known as the 
Sierra di Quarequa, from which 
another ocean could be seen. On Septem- 
ber ist, 1513, he left Santa Maria del 
Antigua with 190 Spaniards, 600 native 
porters, and nine canoes, and hewed his 
way through the matted forest which 
covered the Cordillera. On September 
25th the native guides pointed to a ridge 
from which they said the ocean was 
visible. Balboa ordered his men to halt, 
and climbing the peak alone, gazed on the 
wide waters, and, falling on his knees, 
thanked God for His grace in permitting 
him to make such a discovery. On 
September 29th he reached an arm of the 
sea, into which he waded, taking posses- 
sion of it in the names of King Fer- 
dinand and Queen Juana. This gulf, 
from the day of the discovery, he named 
San Miguel. The isthmus approxi- 
mately trends from east to west, and 
hence he called the ocean in front of him 
the South Sea, Mar del Sur, the Atlantic 
side being called Mar del Norte. In 

■ January 1514 he recrossed the isthmus 
and sent &e news to Spain, whence he 
received a patent creating him Adelan- 
tado of the South Sea. Three years 
afterwards, at the age of forty, he was 
beheaded on a false accusation by order 
of Espinosa. Pacific City is a town 
founded in 1850 at the mouth of the 
Columbia or Oregon River, in the ex- 
pectation, not yet fulfilled, that it would 
become the emporimn of the Pacific^ 



Paderbom, in Westphalia, anciently 
PadrabrunnOf derives its name from 
numerous springs which rise in, or near 
the town, forming the sources of the 
River Pader, 

Padre 6 HijO, • Father and Son,' was 
the name given by Columbus in 1493 ^o 
a cape on the north coast of Haiti, dis- 
tinguished by two great rocky needles, 
one larger than the other. 

Padron (Portuguese Padrao) is a cape at 
the mouth of the Congo, so called from 
the stone pillar (padr&o) erected in 1485 
by Diogo Cam (Cfto), in obedience to an 
order of King John ll. of Portugal, that in 
future, instead of the usual wooden crosses, 
stone pillars, twice the height of a man, 
carved with the arms of Portugal, and in- 
scribed with the names of the king and 
the discoverer, should be erected by ex- 
plorers in conspicuous places. Diogo 
Cfto erected the first of these pillars, which 
he called St. George, at the mouth of the 
Congo, which consequently appears in 
some maps as the Rio de Padrao. The 
second pillar was erected in lat. 13° S. at 
Cape St. Augustine, and a third near 
Walfish Bay, in lat. 22" S. , at a cape which 
he called Cabo do Padr&o. Pontal de 
Santo Antonio, a spit in Brazil, was 
formerly called Pontal do Padr&o from 
the stone pillar erected in 1531 by Martin 
Afibnso de Souza. 

Padua, a city in Venetia, called Padova 
in Italian, was the Roman Patavium, 

Pae-choi, a range of hills forming the 
northern continuation of the Urals, de- 
rive their name from the Samoyed choi^ 
'a ridge,' and pae or bae, a 'rock,' two 
common elements in Samoyedic names. 

PaestTim. near Salerno, is a corruption, 
as old as the time of Ptolemy, of the Greek 
name Poseidonia, the town of Poseidon, 
whose magnificent temple is still standing. 

Pag'Oda Islcmd, the European name of 
an island off the coast of the Chinese pro- 
vince of Fo-kien, is so called from a con- 
spicuous pagoda, a word believed to be 
a Portuguese corruption of the Persian 
but-kadak, * idol habitation.* 

Painted Cation, on the Colorado 
River, and the Painted Mountains in 
North Carolina, were named from the 
variegated coIoiuts of the rocks. 

Palaveram {Palldvaram), a town and 
cantonment near Madras, is a name ex- 
plained as Palla-puram, ' the town of the 
Pallas,' a caste claiming descent from the 
Pallavas who rqled at Con^everam, 



2l6 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Palencia, the capital of the Spanish pro- 
vince of the same name, is the Pallantia 
of Strabo and Ptolemy. 

Palermo, in Sicily, is an Italian corrap- 
tion of the Greek Panormos, the ' universal 
haven,' so called because the old har- 
bours, now filled up, afforded shelter from 
all winds. 

Palestine is the Greek Palcestina, a 
name proving that the Greek mariners 
first knew Canaan as the land of the 
Philistines inhabiting the coast, who 
arrived, probably from Cyprus, after the 
Hebrew conquest and before the time of 
Rameses iii., on whose monuments they 
appear as Pulista. They are not men- 
tioned on the monuments of Rameses ii. , 
some seventy years earlier. They are the 
Pilisti or Palastu of the Ass)rrian annals. 
The early Greek knowledge of Palestine 
has recently been explained by an inscrip- 
tion of Sargon ii., from which we learn 
that in 711 B.C., during the reign of Heze- 
kiah, a Greek prince, probably from 
Cyprus, was king of Ashdod, a Philis- 
tine city. 

Palestrina. in Central Italy, is a corrup- 
tion of the old name Praneste. 

Palk strait and Palk Bay, between 
Ceylon and India, names sometimes ex- 
plained from the Singalese vford palk, a 
'whirlpool,' were named from Robert 
Palk, Governor of Madras (1763-7). 

Palliser'S Isles, in the Low or Danger- 
ous Archipelago, Cape Palliser, the 
southern point of the North Island of New 
Zealand, and Port Palliser, in Ker- 
guelen's Land, all discovered by Cook 
in the years 1774, 1770, and 1776, were 
named by him after his ' worthy friend,' 
Sir Hugh Palliser, Comptroller of the 
Nav^. Cape Palliser in Carteret's 
Straits, was discovered by Carteret in 1767. 

Palma, the name of the chief town in the 
Balearic Islands, is explained by the palm 
branch on coins of the Roman period. 
There are towns of the same name in 
Italy, Sicily, and Spain. One of the 
Canary Islands is called Palma ; and 
Las Palm as, ' the palms,' is the chief 
town in Great Canary. Cape Palmas, 
a West African headland, was named 
Cubo dos Palmas, ' cape of the palms,' by 
the Portuguese in the fifteenth century. 
The Rio de Palmas in Mexico, dis- 
covered and named by Pineda in 15 19, is 
probably to be identified with the modern 
Rio de Santander, and not with the 
modern Rio de Palmas, further south. 
Wilson's ' Isle of Palms,' if it has any 
objective existence on the map, may be 



the Isla de las Palmas, south-east of 
the Philippines. The Palm Isles, at the 
entrance to Halifax Bay, Queensland, 
were discovered and named by Cook in 
1770. 
Palmerston, near Dublin, gave a title 
to Viscount Palmerston, a lord of the 
Admiralty, from whom Cape Palmer- 
ston in Queensland, and Palmerston 
Island in Cook's Group, discovered by 
Cook in 1770 and 1774, were named. He 
was the father of Lord Palmerston, the 
Prime Minister, whose name is borne 
by Palmerston in New Zealand, and 
by two Arctic capes. Palmerville, 
Queensland, was named in compliment to 
Sir Arthur Palmer, a Prime Minister of 
Queensland. TwoArctic names, Palmer 
Bay and Palmer Point, commemorate 
the services of Charles Palmer, an officer 
of the Hecla. 

Palmyra, a Polynesian island, south of 
the Sandwich Group, was discovered in 
1802 by the American ship Palmyra. 
The name of Palmyra in Syria is a 
Greek translation of the Semitic name 
Tadmor (palms). It is now locally called 
TCdmir or TiDMiR, the older name 
having outlived the Greek translation. 
Palmyra Point is a cape in Ceylon, on 
which grow conspicuously some lofty fan 
palms, called in Portuguese palmeira, of 
which palmyra is the English form. A 
headland on the Orissa coast, whose fan 
palms form an important landmark for 
ships bound from the South for the mouth 
of the Hugli, is also called Point Pal- 
myras. False Point, twenty-four miles 
to the south-west, is so called from its 
liability to be mistaken for Point Palm3n:as, 

Pamir, a lofty plateau in Central Asia, is 
locally called Bam-i-Dunya, * the roof of 
the world,* a term recently invented. 

Pampas, in Spanish La Pampa, is the 
name of the great South American tree- 
less plain, 200,000 square miles in extent, 
between the Parana and the Colorado. 
Pampa is a Quichua word meaning an 
'open plain.' 

Pampeluna (in Spanish Pamplona), in 
the province of Navarra, is the ancient 
Pompeiopolis or Pampelon, so called be- 
cause rebuilt by Pompey in 68 B.C. after 
the defeat of Sertorius. The name has 
been transferred to Pamplona in the 
United States of Columbia. 

Panama was the native name of a vil- 
lage on the Pacific coast of the Gulf and 
Isthmus of Panama. Here, in 1518, 
Davila founded the oldest existing city 
in America. Panama is believed to be 



GLOSSARY 



217 



a Guarani word meaning a 'butterfly,' 
and also, according to Wullerstorf, signi- 
fying a 'mudfish,' perhaps because the 
flaps of the mudfish resemble the wings of 
a butterfly. From the town of Panama 
the name was extended to the Isthmus 
and Gulf. 

Pandora Entrance, leading through 

the Great Barrier Reef to Torres Strait, 
was first traversed in 1791 by the ship 
Pandora, which in the same year dis- 
covered the Pandora Reef, north-east 
of the New Hebrides. 

Panmure and Panbride, in Forfarshire, 
seem to be Pictish equivalents of Llan- 
mure and Llanbride, the 'great church' 
and the ' church of St. Bridget.' 

Papeiti, the capital of Tahiti, stands on 
a brook of the same name, which means 
the ' small water.' The word papa, mean- 
ing in Maori a 'plain' or 'flat,' appears 
in such New Zealand names as Paparoa, 
Papanui, or Papakura. 

Papua, usually supposed to be the native 
name of New Guinea, is merely a Malay 
adjective, papuwah, meaning 'crisped,' 
'woolly,' or 'frizzled,' applied by Malay 
sailors to the woolly-haired Melanesian 
Negritos, and specifically to the people of 
New Guinea, where they form the chief 
race. 

Para, 'water,' enters into numerous South 
American names. Para is a Brazilian 
province, which takes its name from the 
town of Para or Belem {q.v.), built on 
one of the mouths of the Amazon, called 
the Para. Parahiba, a seaport which 
gives its name to another Brazilian pro- 
vince, is built on the River Parahiba, 
or 'bad water.' Another river called 
Paracatu means the 'good water.' 
Parana, which means ' river,' is a 
stream which gives a name to a third 
province in Brazil A town in the Argen- 
tine Republic is also called Parana. 
The native name of the Rio de la Plata is 
Parana-guaqu, the 'great river,' whence 
the name of the GuACOS who live on its 
banks. The River Paraguay, which 
bounds the republic of Paraguay, is 
either the ' great water,' or possibly from 
a waterfowl called S^OR^aragua, Parana- 
Assu is the 'great river, and Parana- 
MiRUN the 'small river.' Paramaribo, 
the ' dwelling near the water,' the capital 
of Dutch Guiana, was formerly a native 
village. The Parime is a tributary of 
the Rio Negro, Parati is a Brazilian sea- 
port, and in Venezuela we have the great 
Gulf of Paria. 



Pardo, a river in Brazil, is the 'brown* 

river. 
Parenzo, a city in Istria, was the Roman 

Parentium, 

Paris, the Lutetia Parisiorum of the 
Romans, preserves the name of the Celtic 
tribe of the Parisii. ' I have,' wrote the 
Emperor Julian, ' spent a winter (357-358) 
in dear Lutetia (for so the Gauls term the 
little town of the Parisii), a small island 
lying in the river, and walled all about.' 
According to a Jjrobable conjecture of 
Stokes, the reading Lutetia in Julian's 
letter, supposed to mean * muddy,' should 
be corrected to Lucetia, the ' bright ' city, 
a name which might refer to the white 
stone used in building. This emendation 
is confirmed by Ptolemy's form. Lukotckia^ 
which might mean the 'place of white 
houses. ' The rise of Paris from being a 
'little town' to her pre-eminent rank 
among the cities of Gaul was earned by 
her successful resistance to the Northmen 
in the great siege of 885-6; the gallant 
defence of the Count of Paris making him 
chief among the princes of the Franks, 
and raising his city to ducal and then to 
royal rank. 

Parker River, Massachusetts, bears the 
name of Thomas Parker, the first Puritan 
pastor of Newbury. From Admiral Sir 
William Parker, a Lord of the Admiralty, 
an Arctic and an Antarctic Mount Parker 
have been named. 

Parma, a city in Nortli Italy, preserves 
unchanged its ancient name. 

Parry Islands, an Arctic group, of 
which Melville Island is the chief, were 
reached in 18 19 by Captain Parry, whose 
services in the cause of Arctic exploration 
are also commemorated by Cape Parry, 
Parry's Bay, and other Arctic and Ant- 
arctic names. 

Parsonstown, in King's County, was 
built on lands at Birr, granted in 1620 
by James I. to Sir Lawrence Parsons. 

Pasooal, a mountain near Porto Seguro, 
marks and dates Cabral's accidental dis- 
covery of Brazil {q.v.) on April 22nd, 1500, 
which was Easter Day, called paschoal in 
Portuguese. 

Passamaquoddy, the native name of 
a bay between Maine and New Brunswick, 
refers to the productive ' pollack fishery.' 

Passau "was the station of a Batavian 
cohort, and hence called by the Romans 
Castrum Batavum, and then Patavium, 
(5<?tf Batavia.) 

Patagonia is the country named by 
Magellan in 1520 Tierra de Patagones^ 



2l8 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



While in winter quarters at St. Julian, foot- 
marks in the snow, resembling those made 
by animals, attracted the notice of the 
sailors, who foimd that they were due to 
huge brogues, made of the skins of the 
guanaco, which were worn by the natives, 
who hence got the nickname oiPatagones, 
the word patagon (from pata^ the foot and 
leg of a beast) meaning in Spanish a large 
clumsy foot. 

Patience Bay and Cape Patience, in 
the Island of Saghali^n, are the English 
equivalents of the Dutch names given by 
de Vries in 1643 on account of his long 
detention by contrary winds. 

Patino, an ^gean island, preserves the 
old name of Patmos, 

Patnd, in Bengal, was formerly Pdtali- 
putra, a name which has been identified 
with the Palibothra of Megasthenes, which 
is supposed to mean the son [putra) of 
Bali,- the 'mighty one,* while Pitaliputra 
means ostensibly the child {i.e. the town) 
of the pdtuli- or bignonia flower. The 
modem name Patna, seemingly a sort of 
echo of the older name, is merely a cor- 
rupted form of the Sanskrit patana, ' the 
town.' 

Patos Bay, Patagonia, was named by 
Magellan in 1520 Bahia de los Patos, 
'duck bay,' because some waterfowl 
were here killed by his sailors. Isla de 
LOS Patos in the Gulf of California 
means 'duck island,' and Lagoa DOS 
Patos in Brazil is ' duck lake.' 

Patras, a town at the entrance to the 
Gulf of Corinth, hence called the Gulf 
of Patras, is an oblique case of the old 
Greek name Patrce^ a Semitic loan-name 
referring to a local oracle. 

Pau, formerly the capital of B^arn, was the 
birthplace of Henry iv. The name was 
derived from the 'pale' or 'palisade,' 
called paii in the langue d'oc, which sur- 
rounded the castle. 

Pa via was anciently called Ticinum, 
because situated at the junction of the 
Ticinus (now the Ticino) with the Po. 
When admitted as a Roman ntunicipium 
the citizens were enrolled in the Papian 
tribe, and hence it was called Civitas 
Papia. After the seventh century it ap- 
pears under the name Papia, which ulti- 
mately became Pavia. 

Peabody, in Massachusetts, formerly 
called South Dan vers, was renamed in 1868 
in compliment to George Peabody, a native 
of the town, after whom Peabody Bay, 
in Kane Sea, was named in recognition of 
his munificent donation of ;£"io,ooo to the 
FrankUn search expedition. 



Peace River is the English translation of 
the native name of a river flowing into 
Lake Athabasca. On its banks the Cree 
and Beaver tribes were accustomed to 
meet in order to settle their disputes. LA 
Paz, a town in Bolivia, was foimded in 
1548 by Alonzo de Mendoza under the 
name of Pueblo Nuevo de Nuestra Sehora 
de la Paz, the ' new town of Our Lady 
of Peace,' in memory of the peace which 
succeeded the bloody struggle between the 
partisans of Pizarro and Almagro. 

Peakirk) in Northants, called Pegecyrce, 
Peykirk, Peiekyrke, and Peichirche in 
early charters, bears the qame of St 
Pega, who in 714 took up her abode in a 
cell afterwards converted into a monastery 
by Edmund Atheling. 

Peard Island in the Gambler Group 
and Peard Bay in Arctic America bear 
the name of George Peard, Beechey's first 
lieutenant. 

Pearl Islands, in the Gulf of Panama, 
were called Islas de las Perlas by the 
Spaniards in 15 15, a basket of pearls 
valued at 1200 ducats having been ob- 
tained from the cazique. On the Pearl 
AND Hermes Reef, west of the Sand- 
wich Islands, two English whalers, the 
Pearl and the Hermes, were wrecked. 

Pe-Ohi-Iji, a Chinese province which 
gives a name to the great Gulf of Pechili, 
appears on many maps simply as Chi-Li, 
the 'province of the court,' so called be- 
cause it contains Pe-King the ' northern 
capital.' The name Pe-Chili, 'northern 
court province,' was given to distinguish 
it from Nan-Chili, the 'southern court 
province,' in which Nanking the ' southern 
capital ' is situated. Pe-Ling is the pro- 
vince 'north of the mountains,' and Hu- 
Peh the province ' north of the lakes,' 
Hu-nan being that ' south of the lakes.' 

Peebles, the county town of Peebles-shire, 
is explained from the Cymric pebyll 
(plural oipabell), the ' tents.' 

Peel, which means a ' towei* ' or ' keep/ is 
a name used to designate the small border 
strongholds on the Scottish march. Else- 
where we have Peel in the Isle of Man, 
Peal Hill, and the Pile of Foudrey, 
or PiEL-A-FouDRY, a rocky island in 
Furness where the Abbots of Furness built 
a castle, from which comes the name of 
the neighbouring Pile or Peel Harbour. 
The Welsh////, a 'stronghold,' is believed 
to be borrowed from the English and 
French pile, which is the Latin pila, a 
' pillar ' or ' pile ' of stone. Ftom one of 
these ' peels ' is derived the territorial sur- 
name of the English statesman which has 



GLOSSARY 



219 



been given to the Peel River in New 
South Wales, and to Peel Point, Peel 
Inlet, and Peel River in Arctic America. 
Peel, a town in West Australia, bears 
the name of an early colonist who obtained 
large grants of land. 

Pegu, a city and province in the Delta of the 
Irawadi, is one of the names which came 
through the Portuguese from the Mala3rs, 
who call it Pai-gil, The Burmese name 
is Bag<f or Pagd, a Talaing word of un- 
known etymology, but meaning, accord- 
ing to the local legend, ' conquered by 
stratagem.' 

Pekin or Peking, in Chinese Peh-king, 
the 'north court' or 'northern capital,' 
has been so called since 1421, when the 
third Ming Emperor transferred hither 
the residence of the court from Nanking, 
the * southern court' Marco Polo calls it 
Cambaluc, in which we may recognise the 
Mongolian name Khan-baligh, th^ 'city 
of the Khan.' King-Ching, * court 
town,' is the part inhabited by the Man- 
chus, Tsu-King-Ching, 'red court town,' 
by the Emperor, while Wai-Ching, 
* outer town,' is the Chinese quarter. The 
Chandu or Xandu of Marco Polo, which 
is the Xanadu of Coleridge's poem of 
Kubla Khan, is the Chinese Shangtu^ 
' Upper Court.' 

Pellew Islands, a group in the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, were named by Flinders in 
1802 in compliment to Sir Edward Pellew, 
R.N., afterwards Lord Exmouth. In 
some maps they appear as Sir Edward 
Pellew's Islands, in order to distinguish 
them from the Pelew Islands east of 
the Philippines, so called because inhabited 
by the Pelews, an English corruption of 
the Spanish name Palaos, which was 
derived from the native name Pan log or 
Panloque, which means the 'islands.' 
The name Pelew Islands, which we find 
on the maps, means therefore the ' islands 
of the islanders.' 

Pellegrino, Monte, the conspicuous 

hill overlooking Palermo, acquired the 
name of ' Pilgrim Mountain ' from the 
pilgrimages to a cave near the summit, in 
which Santa Rosalia is said to have hved 
and died. 

Pelly Islands, at the mouth of the 
Mackenzie River, and Lake Pelly, an 
expansion of the Great Fish River, bear 
the name of a Governor of the Hudson 
Bay Company. 

Pelon, Oerro, the 'bald mountain,' in 
Costa Rica, was so called because it is 
treeless. 

Pelsa^ert Islands, a West Australian 



group, bear the name of the captain of 
the Batavia, a Dutch ship wrecked on 
them in 1629. A neighbounng anchorage 
is called Batavia Road. 

Pembroke, the county town of Pembroke- 
shire, is from fen-bro (Old Welsh fen- 
brog), the end or * head of the land.' 

Pendulum Islands, on the East coast 

of Greenland, were selected in 1823 by 
General Sabine for experiments with the 
pendulum, in order to determine the figure 
of the earth. Sabine Island is the largest 
of the group. 

Penedo, the 'rock,' is the Portuguese 
name of a Brazilian town built on a sand- 
stone clifif on the Rio San Francisco. 
From the Portuguese pena or penedo, and 
the Spanish pe^a or peflasco, a 'rock,' we 
have numerous names, such as Penafiel 
in Portugal, the Gulf of PeSas in Pata 
gonia, and the Val de PeFIas, or ' valley 
of rocks,' which gives a name to a delicate 
Spanish wine. 

Pengruin Islands, south of Newfound- 
land, were so called in 1536 by the English 
colonists from the multitude of penguins. 

Penk, a river in Staffordshire, is a ghost- 
name invented by antiquarians to explain 
the name of the town of Penkridge, 
which is the Celto-Latin Penno-crucium 
(Cymric Pen-y-crug), the 'head of the 
mount.' 

Pennsylvania is the name of the im- 
mense territory granted in 1681 by Charles 
II. to William Penn, the Quaker, in dis- 
charge of a loan of ;f 16,000. Penn wished 
it to be styled New Wales, but the king in- 
sisted that it should bear Penn's name, 
and the province being beautifully diver- 
sified with wood, it was called Penn- 
sylvania, 'Penn's Woodland.' It is believed 
that the name was given in honour not of 
William Penn, but of Admiral Penn, his 
father. 

Pennygown, in Mull, is the 'smith's 
pennyland,' i.e. land held at the rent of a 
silver penny, and Pennyghael in Argyle 
is the ' Gael's pennyland.' Leffenbeg, 
' the little halfpenny land,' Leffin- 
donald, ' Donald's halfpenny land,' and 
Lefnol, ' Olaf s halfpenny land,' are from 
the Gaelic Leth-pheghin, a halfpenny. 

Penrith, in Cumberland, is a Cymric name 
meaning the 'red hill' {pen-rhudd), or 
perhaps the 'head of the ford,' from 
rhyd, a ' ford,' which we have in Augusto- 
ritum, the 'ford of Augustus,' the Celto- 
Roman name of Limoges, or in Cam- 
boritum, the skew or ' crooked ford,' the 
Roman nanoe of Cambridge. 



220 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Penryn, in Cornwall, and Penrhyn in 
Carnarvonshire are Cymric names mean- 
ing the ' head of the spit ' or promontory. 
The Penrhyn Islands, west of the 
Marquesas, were discovered in 1788 by 
the ship Penrhyn, 

Pensacola, a bay and seaport in 
Florida, preserve the name of the tribe 
called Pansfia-okla, 'hairy people,' hter- 
ally 'hair people.' 

Pentland Firth is a curious and valu- 
able name, testifjdng to the extent of the 
old Pictish kingdom.' It is a corruption 
of the O.N. name Pettaland fjorik or 
Petlands fiord \ the Scandinavians calling 
Caithness and Sutherland by the name of 
Pettaland or Petland, the land of the 
Pechts, Pehts, or Picts. The Pentland 
Hills may perhaps mark the southern 
extent of the Pictish realm, but no forms 
of the name have been preserved of 
sufficiently early date to make it possible 
to determine whether the name is from 
Peithland [Pethla/id), or, as is more pro- 
bable, from Pen-Hand, where pen means 
a 'hill,' and Hand is the word which we 
have in the name of the Landes {q.v.). 
The name Picti has been supposed to 
be a Latin translation of the native name 
Cruithnigh or Cruithne, the tattooed or 
painted men, but since it can hardly be 
separated from the names of the Pictones 
and Pictavia (whence PoiCTiERS and 
PoiTOu) which are pre-Roman, the Latin 
Picti is probably only an adaptation of 
the name of the Pechts, which is derived 
by Stokes from the root *qvik, to carve, 
hence to tattoo. Pytchley [q.v.), in 
Northants, may mark the southern hmits 
of an inroad of the Picts, and Spike 
Island in Cork Harbour is a corruption 
of Inis Pichht, the * Picts' Island.' 

Penzance, in Cornwall, means ' Saint's 
head' or 'holy head,' from a chapel 
dedicated to St. Anthony, whose head is 
represented on the seal of the corporation. 

Peoria, Illinois, preserves the name of a 
native tribe now extinct. 

Pepandayan, the 'smithy' or 'forge,' 
is an active volcano in Java. Other 
Javanese volcanoes are called Sundara, 
the 'beautiful,' Sumbing, the 'notched,' 
MXrapi, the 'volcano,' MXrbabu, the 
'nurse,' Batak, the 'bald.' 

Pera, a suburb of Constantinople, bears a 
Greek name signifying that it lies 'be- 
yond' the Golden Horn. Pera Head, 
m Arnhem Land, North Australia, pre- 
serves the name of the Dutch ship Pera, 
the consort of the Arnhem^ the first to 
yisi^ this coast, 



Percy Isles, an outlying group of the 
Northumberland Islands, Queens- 
land, were so named by Flinders in 1802 
in compliment to Hugh Percy, second 
Duke of Northumberland. Mount 
Percy, South Shetland, was named in 
1842 after Admiral Josceline Percy, naval 
commander at the Cape. 

Perevosnaia Nos, ' Passage Cape,' is 
the point in the island of Waigatz nearest 
to the mainland. It gives a name to the 
neighbouring Perevosnaia Gulp. 

Pdrigord, an old French province, and 
its capital, Perigueux, preserve the name 
of the Petr9corii, a. tribe whose territory is 
represented by the diocese of Perigueux. 

Perm, a town and government of Russia, 
is the Biarmaland of Othere, the land of 
the Biarmi or Permian Finns. 

Pemambuoo, a Brazilian city, is built 
on a bay into which two rivers flow, 
whence the etymology, from mbuco, an 
' arm ' or ' branch,' and/aramz, a ' river.' 

P^ron Island and Cape P6ron, in 
West Australia, bear the name of the 
naturalist of the Geographe, one of Bau- 
din's ships. 

Perouse, or La P^rouse, the name of the 
strait between the islands of Yesso and 
Saghalien, commemorates the services of 
the brave but unfortunate French navi- 
gator La Perouse, who first traversed it in 
1787. His fate remained a mystery till 
1825, when some wreckage from his ships 
was discovered on the reefs of Vanikoro, 
an island north of the* New Hebrides. 

Perpetua, a cape in Oregon, was dis- 
covered by Cook on St. Perpetua's Day, 
March 7th, 1778. 

Persia, the European name of the country 
called Irdn by its inhabitants, is the Latin 
form of the Greek name Persis, which 
originally denoted the small district of 
Pdrsa, now Fars or Pars, the cradle of 
the Persian monarchy. The name of the 
Aryan Persians who gave their name to 
the district of Pirsa, where they settled 
about 600 B.C., does not occur in the 
Zend Avesta, and has not been explained 
from Aryan sources. It is probably a 
Semitic term meaning 'horsemen,' and 
connected with the Arabic farts, ' a 
horse.' Persian and Parthian are beUeved 
to be ultimately identical names. The 
Persian Gulf is the Sinus Persicus of 
Pliny, and the Mar Parsto of the early 
Portuguese -navigators. 

Perth, the county town of Perthshire, 
is explained by Stokes from the Welsh 
perth^ 'bramble.' 



GLOSSARY 



221 



Peru, a South American republic, is a 
name with a curious history. In 1515 
Caspar de Morales was sent to explore 
the coast of the Gulf of San Miguel. The 
Spaniards retreated after a fight with a 
warlike chief whom they called Birii, 
whose territory lay on the banks of a small 
river called the Birii or Pirii, which 
enters the Pacific near the Punta de Pinas 
in 7* 30' N. lat, at the mouth of the Gulf 
of Pansuna. Hence the whole region 
south of the Gulf came to be called the 
Bird or Pini country, and here in 1522 Pas- 
cuel de Andagoga first heard tidings of the 
empire of the Incas which was reached by 
Pizarro in 1526. The River Pird is 700 or 
800 miles from the northern boundary of 
the modem republic of Peru. 

Perugia^ in Italy, preserves the Etruscan 
name Perusia, 

Peshdwar, a city on the Indian frontier, 
bears a name attributed to Akbar, who is 
supposed to have changed the old name 
Parashdwara or Parshdwar^ of which he 
did not know the meaning, to PeshAwar, 
the 'frontier town.' 

Pesth, ste BuDA. 

Fetohora, a river in Russia, is so named 
from the 'caves' in the cliffs near its 
mouth. In like manner PetChori, a 
monastery and town in Western Russia, 
takes its name from the ' caves ' formerly 
inhabited by the monks. 

Peterborough is an Episcopal See in 
Northamptonshire. We read in the 
Saxon Chronicle* that in 655, Penda, 
king of the Mercians and Oswiu came 
together and agreed to erect a monas- 
tery at Medehamstede to the glory of 
Christ and the honour of St. Peter. From 
a later entry we learn that Abbot 
Kenulf in 963 built a wall rotmd the 
minster, and gave the place the name 
Burh, which was before called Mede- 
hamstede (meadow - homestead). In 
early charters the place is called simply 
Burh, Buruh, or Burch, * the Borough,' 
the name of St. Peter, to whom the 
church was dedicated, being afterwards 
prefixed by popular usage to distinguish 
it from other burhs, especially fi-om Bury 
St. Edmunds, which is also called Burh 
and Burch in early charters. 

Peterhead, a town on a promontory in 
Aberdeenshire, originally called Inverugie, 
acquired its present name from its church, 
dedicated to St. Peter, whence the place 
is called Petri promontorium in an old 
charter. The church at Petersfield, 
Hants, is also dedicated to St Peter, as 
is that at Petersham in Surrey, which, 



however, seems to be only an assimilated 
name. {See Battersea. ) 

Petermann Land, North of Franz 

Josef Land, the most northerly land seen 
by Payer in 1873, wa%^o named by him in 
honour of the great German cartographer, 
Dr. Petermann of Gotha, whose name has 
also been given to Petermann Bay, in 
Grinnell Land, and to Mount Peter- 
mann, in the Southern Alps of New 
Zealand. 

Petersburg, or St. Petersburg, pro- 
perly Peterburg or St. Peterburg, the 
capital of Russia, was founded by Peter 
the Great, who, having in 1702 taken the 
Swedish forts on the Neva, in the follow- 
ing year laid the foundations of a fort 
which he called Peterburg (Fort Peter), 
on an island in the Neva, the nucleus 
and now the most densely populated por- 
tion of the city. On this island, which 
retains the old name of Peierburgskia 
Ostrov (Peterburg Island), he also built 
a cathedral dedicated to St. Peter and 
St. Paul, whence the Russian name Sankt- 
Peterburg, which has replaced the older 
name of Peterburg. Petersburgh, one 
of the older towns in Virginia, is not, as 
might be supposed, a loan -name from 
Europe, but preserves the memory of the 
first settler, a man named Peters. Petro- 
PAULOVSKI, a Russian settlement in Kam- 
tchatka, was foimded in 1740 by Bering, 
and named after his two ships, the Si. 
Peter and the St. Paul. Petropolis, a 
Brazilian town founded in 1844, bears the 
name of the Emperor Pedro li. Peter- 
WARDEIN, called Peterwdrad in Magyar, 
and Petrovaradin in Servian, a place on 
the Danube, north-\vest of Belgrade, is the 
spot where Peter the Hermit marshalled 
his levies for the first crusade. Peter is 
Uable to be confused with similar names, 
as in the case of Battersea {g.v.), or 
of Padstow, in Cornwall, called in the 
Saxon Chronicle Petrocstow, 'the place 
ofStPetroc' 

Petra, the rock-hewn city which gave a 
name to Arabia Petr^ea, is a Greek 
translation of the older Semitic name 
Sela, the ' rock.' 

Peyster Islands^ in the EUice Group, 
bear the name of the Captain of the 
American ship Rebecca, by whom they 
were discovered in 1819. 

Pfaffikon, in Canton Zurich, whence the 
name of the neighbouring Pfaffiker 
See, was the grange or 'hofoi the fathers ' 
of the Abbey of St. Gallen, to which it 
belonged. Pfaffenhausen, Pfaffen- 
HOFEN, and Pfaffendorf, from P/aJe, 



223 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



O.H.G. phafOt a 'monk' (J>apa), are com- 
mon names in Germany, corresponding 
to the numerous Prestons in England. 

Pfalz, often Englished as the Palatinate, 
was the name giv«n to the fief held by the 
Pfalzgraf or Count Palatine, one of the 
ancient hereditaiy dignitaries of the em- 
pire. The two Bavarian provinces now 
known as the Ober- Pfalz and the Rhein- 
Pfalz are fragments of the great fief of 
the Kur-pfalz or Elector Palatine. Pfalz- 
BURG. called Phalsbourg in French, a 
fortress in Lorraine, was erected in 1570 
by the Pfalzgraf George John, Duke of 
Bavaria. 

Pfeffers, or PfXfers, a place with cele- 
brated thermal springs, m Canton St. 
Gallen, was a monastery founded in the 
eighth century. In ancient documents it is 
called Monasterium Fabariense^ Fabaris, 
or Favaris, fi-om a fabaria^ or plantation 
of beans. 

Pfyn is derived from the LsLtin Jfnts or ad 
finem, a term used in the Antonine Itiner- 
ary to denote boundaries. We find also 
ad fine, where y?«^ has become an inde- 
clinable noun. The village of Pfyn, near 
Leuk, in Canton Valais, still divides the 
German-speaking population of the Upper 
Rhone valley from those who speak French. 
In like manner Pfyn, in Canton Thurgau, 
marks the ancient boundary between the 
Celtic and Rhaetian races. 

Philadelphia, the city of 'brotherly 
love,' was founded in 1682 by William 
Penn, the Quaker, as the capital of Penn- 
sylvania, and so named ' in token of the 
feeling which, it was hoped, would pre- 
vail among the inhalxtants.' 

Phil89, an island at the first cataract of the 
Nile, IS a Greek corruption of the Coptic 
pilak, the definite article in the old Egyp- 
tian name p-aa-Uk, 'the frontier,' havmg 
been incorporated. 

Philippines, a Pacific group belonging 
to Spain, were discovered by Magellan on 
the Feast of St. Lazarus, 1521, and hence 
called by him Archipelago de San Lazaro, 
a name changed in 1542 to Islas Filipinas 
in honour of Philip IL , in whose reign the 
Spanish colonisation of the islands was 
begun. 

Phillip iBland and Port Phillip, in 
the Australian colony of Victoria, Phillip 
County in New South Wales, and Cape 
Phillip in the Salomon Islands, bear the 
name of Captain Arthur Phillip, the first 
Governor of New South Wales. Port 
Phillip was discovered in 1801 by Lieu- 
tenant John Murray in the brig Lady 



Nelson, and rediscovered ten weeks later 
by Flinders. Cape Phillips, in South 
victoria, bears the name of an officer of 
the Terror, and Phillips' Island; in 
Arctic America, bears the name of Captain 
Charles Phillips, R.N., the neighbouring 
Phillip's Bay being called after Professor 
Phillip of the Royal Academy. Philips- 
town, in King's County, was named in 
honour of Philip 11. of Spain, husband of 
Queen Mary of England. Philippopoli, 
in Rumeiia, represents Philippopolis, 
founded by Philip of Macedon, from 
whom we have also the name of Feli- 
BEDjiK, in Macedonia, which stands on 
the site of Philippi visited by St. Paul, 
who wrote for his converts the Epistle to 
the Philippians. Philippsburg, in Baden, 
was fortified and renamed by Bishop 
Philip von Sotem in 1618, and Philipps- 
burg, in Lorraine, was built by Count 
Philip of Hanau in 159a Philippeville, 
in Algeria, bears the name of King Louis- 
Philippe. 
PhCBnix Park, Dublin, is a corruption 
of the Irish fionn-uisgf 'clear water,' the 
name of a transparent spring near which, 
in 1745, Lord Chesterfield, then Lord 
Lieutenant, erected a pillar surmounted 
by a Phoenix rising fi-om its ashes. The 
Phcenix Islands are a Pacific group 
discovered by the ship Phoenix. 

Piaoenza. in Lombardy (called Plai- 
SANCE in French), is the Roman Placentia, 
the 'pleasing' or pleasant place. Pla- 
CENTiA, in the Spanish province of Estra- 
madura, retains unaltered the old Roman 
name. Placentia Bay, in Newfound- 
land, is named from the French settle- 
ment of Placentia, foimded in 1626. 

Piasina, a ' woodless ' district in Siberia, 
east of the Yenissei, gives a name to the 
Piasina Lake and River which traverses it. 

Pioardy, in French La Picardije, one 
of the old provinces of France, is a name 
which does not appear before the thirteenth 
century. The etymology is unknown, but 
it has been conjectured that the district 
supplied picards or 'pikemen' to the 
French armies. 

Pickering^ Lsrthe, a wapentake in 
the North Riding, was the lythe or dis- 
trict of the Pikerings, the ' men of the 
Pikes ' or Peaks of the moors, at the foot 
of which lie^ the town of Pickering. 
Dickering Lythe, a wapentake in the 
East Ridinpf, was the district inhabited by 
the Dickenngs, the men whose place of 
assembly was at the great Dyke, now 
called the Danes' Dyke, which defends 
Flamborough Head. 



GLOSSARY 



223 



PickerSgill Harbour, New Zealand ; 
PiCKERSGiLL ISLAND, South Georgia; 
and PICKERSGILL Cove, Tierra del 
Fuego, were named by Cook after one of 
his officers. 

Pioo, properly O Pico, which means ' the 
peak ' in Portuguese, is one of the Azores 
with a conical volcano 7613 feet in height. 
Pico is also the Spanish name of the 
Peak of Tenerife. Pico Ruivo, the * red 
peak,* is the Portuguese name of the 
highest summit in Madeira. 

Piedmont is the French form of the 
Italian name P16 Di Monte or Pie- 
MONTE, the subalpine province at the 
' foot of the mountains.' The name came 
into use at the end of the twelfth century. 

PietenuaritzburgTf the capital of Natal, 
now usually called Maritzburg, was 
founded by two Boer leaders, Pieter Retief 
and Gerrit Maritz, who trekked hither 
from the Cape in 1837. 

Pike's Peak^ in the State of Colorado, is 
one of the loftiest summits of the Rocky 
Mountains, reaching an altitude of 14,216 
feet. It was discovered and ascended in 
1806 by Lieutenant (afterwards General) 
Zebulon Montgomery Pike, a surveying 
officer of the United States. 

Pila^ the 'saw,' is the name of a Siberian 
river which keeps sawing at its banks. 

Pilatus, the mountain facing Lucerne, 
according to the well-known local legend 
derived its name from Pontius Pilate, who 
was believed to have drowned himself in a 
gloomy tarn near the summit The legend 
may be due to popular etymology, in 
which case the original form of the name 
has to be discovered. One conjecture 
explains the name as a corruption of 
piUatus, since when the mountain is 
'capped' with cloud, fine weather is 
usually foretold. But since the Romansch 
name is Frakmont, the 'cleft or broken 
moimtain,' equivalent in meaning to the 
Gespaltenhorn in Canton Bern, it has 
been supposed that the primitive name of 
Pilatus was a derivative of the O.H.G. 
billon, 'to split,' thus meaning the 'frac- 
tured mountain,' a German translation of 
the older Romansch name Frakmont. 
This solution, however, is not free from 
philological difiSculty. 

Pinega, a Russian river, is a corruption 
oi Pint-ga, the 'river of teeth,' so named 
from certain notched rocks. The suffix 
-ga is the Finnic word for a river, which 
we have in Palanga, Wolonga, Onega, 
Ladoga, and other names. 

Pines, Isle of, New Caledonia, was so 



named by Cook because of sundry dark 
patches, at first taken for basalt rocks, 
which proved on nearer approach to be 
pine forests. On the ISLA DE PiNOS, 
south of Cuba, the Pinus occidenialis 
grows abundantly. 

Pinzg'au, on the Salzach, appears in 798 
as Pinuzgaue, meaning the ' rush district.' 
This is believed to be an early Teutonic 
folk-etymology, probably an adaptation 
of Bisont-gaue, derived from the Celtic 
name Bisontium. 

Pioneer River, Queensland, was so 
named from Uie visit of H.M.S. Pioneer 
in 1862. Pioneer Island, in Arctic 
America, bears the name of Belcher's ship, 
the Pioneer. Pioneer Peak in the 
Karakoram Group of the Himalayas, was 
so named by Mr. Conway, being the 
highest altitude {23,600 feet) which has 
hitherto been ascended. 

PirSDUS. the port of Athens, retains its old 
classical name, which implies that at one 
time it was an island to which it was neces- 
sary to ' pass over ' by a ferry. 

Pirahy, an affluent of the Uruguay, is the 
'fish river' (Guarani piro, 'fish,' and hy, 
•river'). The Jacuhy River has the 
same suffix, while the prefix is seen in 
PiRAPORA, 'fish -leap,' the name of a 
cataract on the Rio San Francisco. 

Pisgail, a peak in Equatorial Africa, 4600 
feet above the sea, was so called by H. M. 
Stanley in 1887, 'because after 156 days 
of twilight in the primeval forest we had 
first viewed the desired pasture lands.' 

Pistoja in Tuscany was the Roman Pis- 
toria, which became Pis tola, and then 
Pistoia. A curious proof of the late date 
of the present name is afforded by the 
word pistol, which is the Italian pistolese 
or pistoia, which originally designated a 
small dagger made at Pistoia. 

Pitea. a town in Sweden, is near the 
mouth of the River Pitea. 

Pitlochrie^ Perthshire, is one of the 
names exhibiting the prefix pit or pet, 
meaning a 'croft,' which is confined to 
the Pictish part of Scotland, especially to 
Fife and Perthshire where it is common. 
The old form of ^2/ is pette, which may be 
compared with the Welsh peth and the 
Irish t-a?/, a 'portion.' From the Pictish 
region the Icelanders may have borrowed 
the word petti, which means in O.N. a 
small piece of a field. The Pictish word 
origin^ly denoted a ' portion of land ' and 
then came to mean a homestead, and 
finally a hamlet, being rendered villula in 
Latin documents, and replaced by daile in 



224 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Gaelic. In the Book of Deer the word is 
prefixed to p)ersonal names, as Pette Mac 
Garmait, Pett Mac Gobraig, Pett Mal- 
diub, Pittentaggart, * the portion of the 
priest' (sacerdos) or Pittan-clerac, the 
•portion of the clergy.' Pittenweem, 
Fife, the 'land by the cave' [uatnh), was 
the seat of an ancient monastery, near 
which is the cave, doubtless the habitation 
of a hermit, from which the name arose. 
PiTGARViE is the 'rough land,' Pitglas, 
*Uie grey land,' and PiTFOUR 'the cold 
land.' PiTSLiGO is the 'shelly land,' and 
PiTTENCRiEP the 'land of the tree.' 
PiTCAiRN, Perthshire, near which are two 
caims, is the ' land by the cairn.' Hence 
the surname Pitcaim, given to Pitcairn 
Island in the Low Archipelago, dis- 
covered by Carteret in 1767, which bears 
the name of a midshipman who first 
descried it from his look-out at the mast 
head. Here, in 1790, the ship Bounty 
was burned by the mutineers, who, on 
April 28th, 1789, had taken possession 
of her, turning adrift in the launch her 
Commander, Lieutenant Bligh, and then, 
with native women from Tahiti, settled on 
Pitcaim Island. 

Piton de Neigre, the ' pin of snow,' is 
the highest summit in the Isle of Reunion. 

Pitt Island, in the Santa Cruz Archi- 
pelago, was so named in 1791 from the 
ship Pitt. 

Pittsburg^, Pennsylvania, was originally 
called Fort Du Quesne, after a French 
Governor of Canada, and afterwards, in 
1758, when the French had been driven 
out by Washington, it was renamed Fort 
Pitt, after William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, 
the name Pittsburgh being adopted in 
1769. From the same statesman we have 
the name of the town Pittsfield, in 
Massachusetts, which was incorporated in 
1761. 

Plassy or Plassey, a village in Bengal, 
where Clive gained his decisive victory on 
June 23rd, 1757, is the English corruption 
of the native name Paldsi, probably so 
called from a grove of the palds or dawk 
tree [Butea frondosa). 

Plata, Rio de la, 'river of the silver,' 
often Englished as the River Plate, was 
named by Sebastian Cabot in 1526 by 
reason of a few gold and silver ornaments, 
the earnest of the wealth of Peru, which 
he obtained by barter from the natives, 
and which he hoped were an indication 
of an El Dorado in the interior. It was 
previously called Rio de Soils, from Diaz 
de Solis, who visited it in 1508 and 1515, 
calling it Mar Dolce, the ' freshwater sea.' 



The native names were Parana-gua^, 
the • great river,' and Amara Mayu, the 
' snake river. ' The Argentine Republic 
on its banks is a Latinised formation from 
the Spanish word //aAz, 'silver.' Monte 
DE Plata, the ' mountain of silver,' on the 
north-east coast of Haiti, was so named 
by Columbus in 1493 from the silvery 
clouds resting on its summit The name 
is preserved by the neighbouring town of 
Puerto Plata, 'port silver.' The Rio 
DA Plata, ' river of silver,' is the Portu- 
guese name of a river in the Brazilian 
province of Santa Catharina. 

Platte, the 'flat* or 'shallow' river, is a 
French translation of the native name 
Nebraska {q.v.). When it joins the 
Missouri it is nearly a mile wide, but so 
shallow as to be impassable by boats 
except when in flood. Platte Island, 
in French He Plate, the 'flat isle,' is 
one of the S^chelles. Plattensee, in 
Hungary, is a German translation or cor- 
ruption of Lake Balaton, a Slavonic 
name from blato, 'mud,' 'bog,' 'marsh.' 
Pladda, formerly Flada, in the Firth of 
Clyde, is the ' flat island,' as is Fladay 
in the Hebrides, and Flatholm in the 
Bristol Channel. 

Playgreen Lake in Winnipeg, is an 
English translation of the native name, 
given because certain tribes used to meet 
on an island in the Lake to celebrate 
festivals and sports. 

Pleasant Island, in the Gilbert Archi- 
pelago, was discovered and named in 
1798 by Captain Feam of the ship Hunter. 

Plettenberg Bay, in the Cape Colony, 
perpetuates the name of a Dutch governor. 

Plimlimmon, a mountain in South 
Wales, is from the Welsh pum-lumon, 
the 'five hills,' literally, the 'five chim- 
neys.' 

Plymouth, Devon, is at the mouth of 
the River Flym. From here on September 
6th, 1620, the Mayflower sailed with the 
Pilgrim Fathers, who landed on December 
2ist, and founded the town of Plymouth 
in Massachusetts, the oldest settlement in 
New England. By a curious accident, 
five years earlier, in 1615, Prince Charles, 
afterwards Charles I. , had already named 
the place Pljrmouth on Captain John 
Smith's map of New England. Prince 
Charles may have selected the name 
because by a charter given in 1606 the 
lands from 4^" to 40° N. lat. had been 
granted to the Plymouth Company of 
Adventurers. 

POy the great river of Northern Italy, is a 



GLOSSARY 



22S 



eomiption of Padus, a name said by 
Metrodorus to be Celtic, derived from the 
pine trees on its banks (Celtic padi^ a 
' pine tree '). Pliny tells us that Badincus, 
the older Ligurian name of the river, meant 
' deep ' or ' bottomless.* The Greeks iden- 
tified the Po with the heavenly river of the 
Babylonians, the constellation Eridanus, 
owing, it is supposed, to a geographical 
confusion between the Rhone and the Po, 
and to the resemblance of the names 
Rhodanus and Eridanus. 
'* Poas, a volcano in Costa Rica, is so called 
from the plain at its foot called Poas or 
Puas, which is overgrown with thorns 
(Spanish /«0, a 'thorn' or 'prickle'). 

Podolia. a government in Russia, means 
the 'lowland' (S\siVom.c podolny^ 'low'). 

Pogrorelaia Plita^ a volcanic island in 
the Caspian, bears a Russian name mean- 
ing the ' burnt rock.' 

Poitiers, formerly Potctiers, the capital 
of the old province of PoiTOU or PoiCTOU 
(Pictawa), was the chief town of the tribe 
of the PictoneSt afterwards called the 
Pictavi, a name probably related to that 
of the Pehts or Picts. (See Pentland). 
Poictiers was at first called Civitas Picta- 
varum, but appears on Merovingian coins 
as Pectavis\ Poitou is called Pectavus 
pagus in the ninth century, and le Poictou 
in the fourteenth. Poitevin is a cor- 
ruption of Pictavensis. 

Poland is the English corruption of the 
name of the country called Polen or 
POHLEN in German, Pologne in French, 
and PoLSKA in Polish. The older form, 
Polayn (or Polonia), was used in England 
till the time of Charles i. , when it appears 
as Poleland, the syllable land being an 
assimilated form derived from Polayn. 
Polenland would have been better and 
more correct than Poland. The coimtry, 
which is one vast plain, is named from 
the Slavonic pole, a ' plain,' and the Poles 
(Poliani or Polaki) are the dwellers in the 
plain. To the South Slavonic poljana, a 
' field, ' we may attribute the name of Polla 
in Carinthia, and perhaps of Pola in 
Istria, a doubtful name, usually explained 
as a corruption of Pietas Julia, 

Polioastro, a town on the Calabrian 
coast, whence the name of the large bay 
called the Gulp of Policastro, is an 
Italian corruption of the Byzantine Palceo- 
kastron, the ' old castle.' 

Polk is the name of fifty-seven coimties, 
towns, and townships, mostly in Missouri, 
Iowa, Indiana, and Arkansas, which were 
called after James Knox Polk, eleventh 
President of the United States (i845-7)» 



Polwarth, a county in Victoria, Aus- 
tralia, was named after Lord Polwarth, 
who assisted in passing the Australian 
Land Act of 1847. 

Polynesia was a name invented by Malte 
Brun to designate the 'many-islanded' 
portion of the Pacific. Melanesia is the 
western part, inhabited by the Negrito 
race, and Micronesia is the more nor- 
therly region of coral islands. The name 
Polynesia is now restricted to the islands 
inhabited by the brown race. 

Pomeranla^ the Latinised form of the 
German Pommern, is a name of Slavonic 

, origin signifying 'on the sea' {pOt 'by,' 
SLndmarya, 'sea'). 

Pomona is a ghost-name which since the 
fourteenth centiuy has been applied to the 
Mainland of Orkney, owing to a mistm- 
derstanding by Fordun of a passage in 
Solinus. The O.N. name of the island 
was Hrossey^ ' horse island.' 

Ponafldin, an isolated Pacific island, 
south of Japan, bears the name of a Russian 
lieutenant who discovered it. 

Pond Bay in Fuegia, and Pond's Bay, 
a large inlet on the western side of Baffin 
Bay, were named in honour of John Pond, 
who from iSiz to 1836 was Astronomer- 
Royal. 

Pondiqherry (Pondich^ri), a French 

possession on the Coromandel coast, is 
a corruption of the Tamil pudu-ckiri, 
the ' New Town' {pudu, * new/ and cAeri, 
'a village'). 

Pontchartrain, a large lake north of 
New Orleans, was so named in 1698 after 
de Pontchartrain, the French Minister of 
Finance. 

Pontefraot in Yorkshire, pronotmced 
POMFRET, the town at the ' broken bridge,' 
is a name later than Domesday, where the 
place is cadled Tateshale. According to 
the well-known legend tiie Latin appel- 
lation de ponte fracto^ which has become 
Pontefract, arose fi:om the breaking of the 
bridge over the Aire in 1153, when St. 
Wilham of York returned to his see after 
exUe, but this is disproved by the fact that 
the name is of earlier date, occurring in 
the Gesta Stephani (1137-1140), while it 
would seem that the bridge which broke 
on this occasion was that ovei the Ouse at 
York. Nor is there any reason for sup- 
posing that the ' broken bridge ' by which, 
according to Ordericus, William i. was 
detained in 1069 was the bridge at Ponte- 
fract It has also been suggested that 
the name is due to the fact that from a 
certain position the bridge, which is some- 



226 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



what skew, looks as if one side had been 
broken away. 

Pontoise, the 'bridge over the Oise,' 
translates the Gaulish name Briva Isarce^ 
the ' bridge over the Isara,' now the Oise. 
PoNTE Vkdra, a town in Galicia, is the 
• old bridge.' Ponte Grande, the ' great 
bridge,' is the chief place in the Val 
d'Anzasca. Porentruy or Pruntrut, 
in Canton Bern, is a corruption of Pons 
Ragentrudis, so called probably from a 
bridge built by Ragentrud, wife of Dago- 
bert I. Pont, a loan-word from the Latin, 
appears in nearly fifty Welsh names. Thus 
Pont-y-Pridd, the 'brick bridge,' in 
Glamorganshire, also called Newbridge, 
is named from a bridge spanning the Taff 
with a single arch which was erected by 
"William Edwards, a self-taught artificer. 
PONTYPOOL, in Monmouthshire, is the 
Welsh Pont-y-pwl, the ' bridge at the pool. ' 
Pontfaen, Pembrokeshire, is the ' stone 
bridge,' from maen,2. 'stone.' Pont-y- 
Glyn is the 'bridge in the glen,' and 
Pont-Glas-Lyn, the ' bridge at the grey 
pool.' 

Ponza Islands, off the Gulf of Gaeta, 
also called the Pontian, Pontine, or 
Pontinian Islands (Italian Isole Ponze, 
Latin Insulcs Pont ice), are named from 
the IsoLA Di Ponza, the largest of the 
group, which preserves the Greek name 
Pontia, the ' Ocean' island. On the main- 
land, opposite the Pontine Islands, are 
the Pontine Marshes [Paludes Pomp- 
tincB or Pontine), named either from the 
Islands, or, it is said, from a town called 
Pometia, 'the orchards.* 

Pophajn Bay, on the north coast of 
Australia, was named in 1818 after Ad- 
miral Sir Home Popham. Fort Popham, 
the first English settlement in New Eng- 
land, was foimded in 1607 by George 
Popham, captain of a ship despatched by 
the Plymouth Company, of which Sir 
John Popham, Lord Chief Justice of Eng- 
land, was the master spirit. 

Popocatepetl, the loftiest volcano in 
Mexico, 17,783 feet high, means the 
' smoking mountain ' (Aztec popoca, * he 
smokes,' and tepetl,2i 'mountain'). So 
Nauampatepetl, also in Mexico, is the 
'square-shaped mountain,' and Citlal- 
tepetl is the ' mountain of the star.'* 

Portobello, in Spanish PUERTO Bello, 
' the fair haven,' on the eastern side of the 
Isthmus of Panama, was so named by 
Columbus in 1502 on account of the beauty 
of the densely populated and well culti- 
vated shores. Portobello, a favourite 
watering-place near Edinburgh » was for- 



merly a piece of waste ground on whidi a 
house was built in 1742 by a retired sailor 
who had served under Admiral Vernon at 
the capture of Puerto Bello in 1739. 

Porto Praya, the capital of the Cape 
Verd Islands, where Suffren attacked the 
English fleet in 1 781, is from the Portu- 
guese praia, ' shore ' or ' strand. ' There 
are several Brazilian names from the same 
source. 

Porto Rico, in Spanish Puerto Rico, 
the ' rich port,' one of the Antilles, takes 
its name from its chief harbour, San Juan 
de Puerto Rico, a name which has been 
split, the town being now called San Juan, 
while the island is known as Puerto Rico. 

Port Said, at the northern entrance to 
the Suez Canal, was founded in 1859, and 
named by Lesseps in honour of Said 
Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt, the chief pro- 
moter of the enterprise. The common 
Arabic name Said means ' fortunate.' and 
has no etymological connection with the 
title Sa)ryid, which meant primarily a 
prince, but has come to denote a de- 
scendant of the Prophet. The Cid of 
Spanish romance exhibits the word in its 
original signification of 'prince.' Port 
Jervis, in the State of New York, bears 
the name of John B. Jervis, the engineer 
of the Delaware and Hudson Canal. 

Portsmouth, Hampshire, is the town at 
the mouth of the port called Portsmouth 
Harbour, which was the Portus Magnus 
or ' great port ' of the Romans ; POR- 
chester (A.S. Porteceaster) occupying 
the site of Portus, the Roman station, 
while Ports E A forms a sort of island in 
the great port. Portsmouth, in the 
state of New Hampshire, repeats the name 
of Portsmouth in the English county, and 
there is also a Portsmouth in Virginia, 
and another in Ohio. Portland, Dorset, 
A.S. Portland, is from the A.S. port, a 
'haven,' an early Latin loan word. The 
Isle op Portland, on the New Zealand 
coast, was so named by Cook in 1769 from 
its resemblance to the Isle of Portland in 
Dorset. Cape Portland, in Tasmania, 
and the Portland Isles, New Britain, 
were named in honour of the third Duke 
of Portland. The name of Portland in 
Maine only dates from 1786. The native 
name was Machigonne. In 1658 it was 
called Falmouth, probably because of the 
inlet forming the harbour resembling that 
at Falmouth in Cornwall. From the A.S. 
words port and loca, ' a place shut in,' we 
have PORLOCK or PORTLOCK in Somerset, 
called Portloca in the A.S. Chronicle. 
PORTLOCK's Reef, in Torres' Strait, was 



GLOSSARY 



227 



discovered in 1792 by Lieutenant Nathaniel 
Portlock. PORTRUSH in Antrim is the 
port or landing-place at a basaltic spit 
{ro\), which here runs out into the sea, and 
PORTUMNA, Galwsiy, is the landing-place 
at the oak. Portree, in Skye. is the Gaelic 
pori righe, * harbour of the king.' James V. 
Stockport was once Stockford. 

Portugral is a corruption of Partus Cale, 
the Roman name of Porto, which we call 
Oporto. The fief of the Terra Portu- 
caUnsis or County of Portu-Cale was be- 
stowed in 1094 by Alphonso vi. of Castile 
on Count Henry of Burgundy, who be- 
came the first Count of the district round 
Oporto, which by conquest from the 
Moors gradually grew up into the present 
Kingdom of Portugal 

Posen, now a Prussian province, but for- 
merly the nucleus of the Kingdom of 
Poland, derives its name from the town of 
Posen. a Germanised corruption of the 
Polish name Pozndn. 

Posilipo, a hill near Naples, took its 
name from a Roman villa to which the 
Greek name of Pausilypon, equivalent to 
sans souct, was given by the owner Vedius 
Pollio. Beneath the hill the road to Baiae 
passes through a timnel called the Grotto 

DI POSILIPO. 

Possession Bay, South Georgia, is the 
place where Cook, in 1775, with the usual 
ceremonies, took possession of the country 
in the name of George iii. At Point 
Possession, near the mouth of Cook's 
river, Alaska, Cook took possession in 
1778. On Possession Island, Torres 
Straits, he took possession of the whole 
eastern coast of Australia, ' with all the 
bays, harbours, rivers, and islands situated 
upon it.' On Possession Island James 
Ross took possession of South Victoria 
Land. In Possession Bay, Baffin Bay, 
John Ross took possession of the neighbour- 
mg lands. Rio de la Posesion (now 
called Rio Tinto), in Honduras, is where 
Columbus, in 1502. on his fourth vo3rage, 
took possession, in the name of Ferdinand 
and Isabella, of that part of the continent 
which he had discovered. The usual cere- 
monies consisted in erecting a flagstaff, 
unfurling a flag, and depositing a bottle 
with current coins and records of the pro- 
ceedings, at the foot of the flagstaff, gene- 
rally followed by a salute, and drinking to 
the health of the sovereign. The Spaniards 
erected a wooden cross, the Portuguese a 
stone pillar. (5^« Padron.) 

Potenza, in Southern Italy, represents the 
Roman Potentia, a name of the same class 
as Valentia, Florentia, and Placentia* 



PotOOki'B Islands are a group in the 
Yellow Sea, the existence of which Klap- 
roth prided himself on having discovered, 
without leaving his study, from the writ- 
ings of Chinese authors, and as he boasts, 
'without having exposed himself to the 
tempests and typhoons so frequent in 
the Chinese seas.' He tells us that he 
bestowed * aux lies que j'ai decouvertes,' 
the name Archipel de Jean Potocki. 

Potomao, a river in Vir^nia, is believed 
to bear the name of a native tribe. 

Potosi, in Bolivia, is the Spanish corrup- 
tion of the native name Jatum Potochi. 

Potsoherfstrom, in the Transvaal Re- 
public, is a name manufactured, in the 
objectionable South African fashion, by 
combining syllables from the names of 
three Boer leaders, Potgieter, Scherf, and 
Stockenstrom. The place had previously 
been called Mooi Rivier Dorp, because it 
stood on a tributary of the Vaal called the 
Mooi, a native name meaning the ' fine 
river.* 

Potsdam^ near Berlin, formerly written 
Pozdupimt, is a German corruption of the 
Slavonic name Pod-dubami, 'under the 
oaks.' 

Pottsville, Pennsylvania, bears the 
name of John Pott, who in 1827 here 
erected a smelting furnace. 

Poverty Bay, New Zealand, where 
Cook anchored on October 8th, 1769, was 
so called by him on account of his being 
unable to obtain provisions from the 
natives, a contrast to a neighbouring bay 
which he visited in 1770, and named the 
Bay of Plenty, from the prosperity of 
the natives. 

Pozzuoli, on the Bay of Naples, repre- 
sents PuteoH, ' the wells,' where St Paul 
landed in Italy. Pozoblanco, in the 
Spanish province of Cordova, is the 
'white pool.' 

Pragrue, the capital of Bohemia, is the Eng- 
hsh form of the German Prag, locally 
called Pro ha, which in Czech means the 
' threshold,' referring, it is supposed, to a 
reef of rocks in the bed of the Moldau. 
The suburb of Warsaw on the right bank 
of the Vistula similarly goes by the name 
of Prag A, the ' threshold.' 

Prainha, the 'strand' or 'shore,' is the 
Portuguese name of a town on the Lower 
Amazon, the older settlement Oiteiro 
being on the hill. {See PORTO Pra VA. ) 

Pr&tigfau, a valley in the Canton Grau- 
biinden, is the Germanised form of the 
Romansch name Val Pratens, or Val 
Pratensa, the 'meadow dale.' The 



228 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Bardo at Tunis is believed to be a cor- 
ruption of the Spanish name Prato. 

Predprlate, an island in the Low Archi- 
pelago, was discovered by Kotzebue in 
1824, and named after his ship, the Pred- 
priatie, a Russian name meaning the 
* Enterprise.' 

Presburgr, on the Danube, formerly 
called Bresisburg, is believed to be the 
town of Brazilaus. 

Prestonpa«IlS, near Edinburgh, where 
Prince Charles Edward won a victory in 
1745, was a Preston (priest's tun), dis- 
tinguished from other places of the same 
name by the existence of salt pans. 

Pretoria, the capital of the Transvaal, 
was named in honour of Andries Pretorius, 
a Boer leader whose son became the first 
President of the Republic. 

Pribylov Islands, in the Bering Sea, 
bear the name of a Russian pilot who dis- 
covered them in 1786. 

PriestllOlnie, Anglesea, is now usually 
known by the translated name Puffin 
Island. The Puffin, from its black and 
white plumage, is locally termed the 
priest, and elsewhere the pope. 

Prima Vista, probably Cape Breton, 
was the land ' nrst seen ' by John Cabot in 
1497. 

Prince Edward Island, in the Gulf 

of St. Lawrence, was formerly called St. 
John's Island. In 1798 the local legisla- 
ture passed an Act, confirmed in 1799 by 
the king in Council, chan^ng the name 
to Prince Edward Island, m compliment 
to Prince Edward, afterwards Duke of 
Kent, and father of Queen Victoria, who 
was then commander of the forces in 
British North America. In 1776 Cook 
had given the name of Prince Edward's 
Islands to a group, of which Marion 
Island is the largest, lying south-east of 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

Prince of Wales* Cape, Alaska, was 

the name given by Cook, in 1778, to the 
westernmost point of America, in honour 
of George, Prince of Wales, afterwards 
George iv., from whom Prince of 
Wales' Foreland, in Kcrguelen Land, 
was also named by Cook m 1776. In 
1774 he had given the same name to the 
south-west point of New Caledonia. In 
1770 he called a group in Torres Strait 
FiiN'CE OF Wales' Islands. Prince 
OF Wales' Strait, in the Polar Archi- 
pelago, was named by M'Clure in 1850 
after Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. 

Prison Island, in the Indian Ocean, is 
one of the Keeling or Cocos Group, on 



which Hare, an English adventurer, 
settled in 1823, and built a sort of prison 
for the natives he had enslaved. 

Procida, an island in the Bay of Naples, 
preserves the old Greek name Prochyte, 
given because it appears to be thrown out 
or ' ejected ' from Ischia. 

Prome, in Pegu, is a corruption of Prohm 
or Brun, aTalaingname believed to mean 
the 'city of Brahma.' The Burmese call 
it Pyi or Primyo, the ' city.' 

Promise, Plains of, the name of the 
rich prairie lands south of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, was given by Stokes in 
1841. 

Provence is the Provincia of Caesar, a 
name reminding us that it was the first 
Province acquired by Rome beyond the 
Alps. The Provence rose did not, how- 
ever, come from Provence, but from 
Provins, a town fifty miles from Paris, 
whither the crimson rose of Sharon was 
brought from Palestine by Thibaut, Count 
of Champagne, on his return from the 
fourth Crusade. Edmund of Lancaster 
having married the widow of Thibaut's 
son, the red rose of Provins became the 
cognisance of the House of Lancaster. 

Providence, the capital of Rhode Island, 
was founded by Roger Williams and five 
companions, who in 1636 were expelled 
from Salem on account of their opinions, 
and after wandering for fourteen weeks in 
the wilderness, were hospitably received 
by the Wampanoags at a place he named 
Providence, m recognition of ' God's mer- 
ciful providence to him in his distress.' 
Cape Providence, at the south end of 
Melville Island, was so called by Parry in 
1819, *in humble gratitude' for the pre- 
servation of an exploring party which had 
been for three nights absent from the ship. 
Point Providence, in Banks* Land, was 
so named by M'Clure in 1851 in recogni- 
tion of his providential escape from the ice- 
locked coast. Providence Hill, near 
Treachery Bay, North Australia, marks 
the providendal escape of Stokes in 1839 
from an attack by the natives. Provi- 
dence Isle, north of New Guinea, marks 
Dampier's deliverance from danger in 1700. 
Cape Providence, in Corea, takes its 
name from Broughton's ship the Provi- 
dence. Providential Channel is an 
opening in the Great Barrier Reef which 
enabled Cook in 1770 to resume his survey 
of the Australian coast. Providential 
Cove, New South Wales, is an inlet where 
in 1795 Bass and Flinders in the boat Tom 
Thumb took refuge from a storm* 



GLOSSARY 



219 



thnissia is our Latinised form of the 
German name Preussen, itself a corrup- 
tion of an older Lithuanian name. Old 
Prussia was the Duchy formed in the 
eastern corner of the modern kingdom out 
of the possessions of the Teutonic knights, 
whose mhabitants in the tenth century were 
called Prutheni or Pruzzi, which, accord- 
ing to Zeuss, is a Lettish name meaning 
' neighbours. ' The Latin form Porussia or 
Borussia, which is not foimd before the 
fifteenth century, was probably influenced 
by a popular et3rmology explaining it 
either as Po-Russia, the land 'near Russia/ 
or as the northern or boreal land. Old 
Prussia, being Polish territory, and hence 
beyond the limits of the Holy Roman 
Empire, the Electors of Brandenburg, to 
whom as Dukes of Prussia the sover- 
eignty had fallen, were able, in 1701, to 
taJke from it a royal title, just as the 
Austrian dukes styled themselves kings 
in virtue of their Slavonic possessions. 
Hence Prussia, a non-Teutonic name, has 
been shifted westward so as to include a 
great part of Germany; such an anomalous 
term as Rhenish Pn^ia reminding us of 
the long history which has brought a 
Polish designation from the east of the 
Vistula to the west of the Rhine. 

Puan, 'island,' is common in Brazilian 
names, as Parana-puan, 'river island.' 

IPueblCb, a Mexican province, takes its 
name from a mission founded in 1531 by 
a Frandscan monk, and called Puebla de 
los Angeles, the ' town of the angels,' from 
the popular belief that two angels assisted 
in the building of the church, adding every 
night to the walls as much as the work- 
men had accomplished during the preced- 
ing day. The name was shortened to 
Puebla, the 'town,' and this became the 
designation of the province of which it was 
the capital. 

Puisortok, ' the place where something 
shoots up/ is the Eskimo name of a 
dangerous calving glacier on the east 
coast of Greenland, for which the natives 
entertain the greatest dread and venera- 
tion, believing that large masses of ice 
may suddenly dart up out of the depth of 
the sea and annihilate a boat and her crew. 

Pulioat, on the Madras coast, once an 
important Dutch factory, is usually ex- 
plained as a corruption of Paliydverkddu, 
the 'jungle of old mimosa trees,' but 
according to Bumell the old form was 
Pala-velkddu, ' old Velkadu." 

Pulo Penanffi correctly Pulo Pinang, in 
the Straits of Malacca, is a Malay name 
meaning the ' island of the areca ' (betel 



nut), probably because the shape of the 
island resembles the shape of the nut It 
is often ignorantly called Penang, the 
'betel nut,' just as Brazil, the name of 
a dyewood, is used instead of tfie cor- 
rect term Terra do Brazil. The official 
name is Prince of Wales' Island, 
given in honour of the Prince of Wales, 
afterwards George iv., when the island 
was ceded in 1786. Pulo, 'island,' is 
common in Malay names, as Pulo 
Rekata, 'crab island,' in the Straits of 
Sunda ; or Pulo Condore, ' gourd island,' 
at the mouth of the Mekong River. Six 
islands in the Malay Archipelago have 
acquired the name of Pulo Pisang, 
'banana island/ and several are called 
Pulo Panjang, or ' long island.' Laut 
Pulo off Borneo is 'ocean island,' Pulo 
Way is 'water island,' Pulo Gaia, be- 
tween Singapore and Borneo, means 
'elephant island,' and Pulo Caballe, 
one of the Moluccas, is ' pot island,' earth- 
enware being obtamed from it for a great 
distance around. 

Punjab (Panj-Xb) is the district of the 
'five rivers,' the Sutlej, the Beds, the 
R4vi, the Chdndb, and the Jhflam. all 
affluents of the Indus, which is not usually 
reckoned among the five, though it some- 
times takes the place of the Sutlej in the 
enumeration. 

Putney, in A.S. Puttan-ig, in Domesday 
Puteleit afterwards Puttenheth and Pot- 
ten heth, was originally ' the isle of Putta,' 
a personal name, subsequent corruptions 
bemg due to popular etymology. 

Puy-de-D6nie, a French department, 
bears the name of an extinct volcano in 
Auvergne, 4800 feet high, with a dome- 
shaped summit. The post-classical Latin 
loan word podium, an 'elevation/ from 
which Puy is derived, originally denoted 
the foot rail which surrounded the arena 
in an amphitheatre, and has been the 
source of numerous names in the South of 
France, as PucH, La Poua, Puget, and 
PuiTS - Hault {podium altum). Puy 
appears in Catalan as PuiG, a 'hill,' as 
PuiG DE Cebolla, 'onion hill,' near 
Valencia. 

PylstCWliJ, an island south-west of the 
Friendly Group, was so named by Tasman 
from the abundance of ' divers,' a sea fowl 
called pijlstaart in Dutch. 

Pyrenees, the chain separating France 
from Spain, is the Mons Pyrenteus of the 
Greek and Roman geographers. The 
name first appears in Herodotus, who 
supposed Pyrene was the name of the 
place whence the Danube flowed. The 



53© 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



etymology is unknown, being probably 
pre-Aiyan. Many guesses have been 
made, from Basque, Celtic, and Greek 
sources, explaining the name as the ' hi^h,' 

* steep,' ' pmeclad,' or * burnt ' mountains. 
The most probable derivation is from 
Hren or pyren, a local B^amais word, 
doubtless ultimately Basque or Iberian, 
which signifies a ' summit ' or ' ridge.' 

Pytohley,or PiTCHLEV.in Northampton- 
shire, well known from the kennels of a 
favourite pack of foxhounds, is believed 
to be a name marking the southern limit 
of an inroad of the Picts. In an A.S. 
charter we have the form Pihtfsled, which 
implies that Pytchley was the led or field 
of a Peht or Pict. Henry of Huntingdon 
records an incursion of the Picts as far 
as Northamptonshire, and their bloody 
repulse at a place in the neighbourhood 
of Stamford, which is about twenty miles 
from Pytchley. At Pytchley quantities of 
bones have been turned up, indicating that 
it was an early battlefield. In the church- 
yard rude kistvaens or stone coflins have 
been found at a great depth, and there is 
a large funeral barrow near the church. 

Quail Island, in Clarence Strait, North 
Australia, was so called because quails 
incubated here in immense numbers. At 
Porto Quaglio, near Cape Matapan in 
Greece, the quails congregate in prepara- 
tion for their flight to Crete or Tripoli 
(Italian quaglia, a ' quail '). 

QuaJben, ' whale island,' near Hammer- 
fest, was so called because frequented by 
the rorqual, or fin whale. 

Qu'appelle is a Canadian town and 
district on the River Qu'appelle, a French 
translation of the Cree name Katapaywie 
Sepe, from sepe, 'river,' and katapaywie 

* who calls,' the cry of the native navigat- 
ing its winding coiu*se in his canoe, hear- 
ing a distant hail, and shouting in reply, 

* Who calls.' 

Quatre BraJS, a Belgian hamlet, gives a 
name to the battle fought on June i6th, 
1815, at the ' four arms ' formed by the 
intersection of the road from Nivelles to 
Namur with that from Brussels to Char- 
leroi. In the centre of the city of Oxford 
we have the similar name Carfax, a 
corruption of Quatrevoies, the place where 
four roads meet 

Quebec, the former capital of Canada, 
arose round a stockhouse built by Cham- 
plain in 1608. In his book, published in 
1613, there is a view of this solitary house, 
which is labelled Abitation de Quebecq. 
li^ x535> Jacques Cartier had visited the 



site, where he found a small collection of 
native wigwams called Stadacoma. It 
is often asserted that Champlain's name 
Quebecq was transferred from a village in 
Brittany, but there is no such village-name 
in France, and Champlain distinctly asserts 
tliat it was the native name. In the first 
edition of Les Voyages du Sieur de CAam- 
plainliSi^), he says, that advancing up the 
river from the Isle d'Orleans ' je cherchay 
lieu propre pour nostre habitation, mais 
je n'en peu trouver de plus commode, n'y 
mieux si(u6 que la pointe de Quebecq, 
ainsi appell^ des sauvages, laquellc estoit 
remplie de noyers.' In the edition of 
1633 we read 'trouvant un lieu le plus 
estroit de la riviere, que les habitans du 
pays appelent Quebec, j'y fis bastir et 
edifier une habitation.' The name Quebec 
is believed to refer to the ' narrowing ' of 
the river at this point, to which Champlain 
alludes. 
Quedda, a town on the west coast of the 
Malay peninsula, which has ^ven its name 
to the kingdom of which it is the capital, 
is the Portuguese form of the Malay 
kddah (Indian kheda), an 'elephant trap.' 

Queenborougrlli ^^ the Isle of Sheppey, 
was the A.S. Cyningburh, which meant 
' Kingsborough,' the name being changed 
to Queenborough by Edward iii. in 
honour of Queen Philippa. Queenstown 
was the new name given to the Cove of 
Cork in honour of the visit of Queen 

• Victoria in 1849. Queensferry is the 
place where Margaret of England, Queen of 
Malcplm III., embarked to cross the Firth 
of Forth on her way* to Dunfermline. 
Queenhithe, Middlesex, is the A.S. 
CwMhytkt the 'woman's wharf.' 

Queensland, in Australia, was consti- 
tuted as a separate colony in 1859. I'he 
name Cooksland, from Captain James 
Cook, who had surveyed the coast, was 
at first proposed, but it was finally decided 
to name it after Queen Victoria. Queen's 
County, formerly called Ossory, was 
made shire-ground by Act of Parliament 
(3rd and 4th of Philip and Mary), the 
assize town being called Maryborough. 
The adjacent territory of the O'More's 
was at the same time called King's 
County {q.v.). Queen Charlotte 
Islands, l3ring off the coast of British 
Columbia, were so named by Captain 
Dixon, who visited them in 1787 in the 
ship Queen Charlotte. 

Quemoy, an island at the eastern open- 
ing to the harbour of Amoy, is a corrup- 
tion oikin-man or kin-mm{n), the ' golden 
door.' 



GLOSSARY 



«3i 



Querfurt, in Prussian Saxony, is the ford 
on the QuERNE, or ' mill stream.' 

QuilimaJli, a town on the River Quili- 
mani. one of the mouths of the Zambesi, 
is a Portuguese corruption of the native 
name, of which the first portion is the 
Bantu word kilifna, a 'hill,' which we 
have in Kilima-njaro (q.v.) and other 
mountain names, while the last syllable is 
probably ny^ 'water' or * river,' the town 
taking its name from the Kilima-Ny or 
'hill river.' According to another ex- 
planation the river took its name from the 
town Kilima-ni, signifiring a place ' on a 
hiH.' 

QllillebCBUf, in Normandy, is doubtless 
a Scandinavian name. Depping and 
Cocheris affirm that the old form was 
Kilbai, which would correspond to the 
English Kilby, as Criquebceup corre- 
sponds to Kirkby, Daubceuf to Danby, 
while Marbceuf would be the 'horse 
village.' Brachet however explains the 
suffix -basuf in these names as equivalent 
to both or bothie in English names. 

Quilon, a town in Travancore, is the 
Portuguese form of Kaulaniy an Arab cor- 
ruption of the Tamil Kollam, believed to 
signify ' Palace ' or Royal residence. 

Quimper in Brittany, the cajSital of the 
department of Finist^rre, at Uie ' conflu- 
ence * of the rivers Odet and Steir, as well 
as QuiMPERL^, at the 'confluence' of 
the Isole and the E116, are from the 
Breton kem-ber, a ' confluence ' (Gaelic 
comar), a Celtic word which, in the form 
of cumber or cumper, occurs in several 
Scotch and Irish names, as Cumber- 
trees or Ballycumber. 

QuisisaJia, which means in the Nea- 
politan dialect ' here one is well,' is the 
name of a residence of the late king of 
Naples near Sorrento. 

Quito, the capital of Ecuador, was 
founded about 1439 by the Inca Tupac 
Pachacutec, the great hero of Peruvian his- 
tory, in the country of tJie Quitus, a tribe 
whose territory he had conquered. Pacha- 
cutec means ' he who changes the world.' 

RadLama Islands, north-west of Mada- 
gascar, were so named in 1824 by Captain 
Owen in compliment to Radama, king 
of Madagascar. 

Radepont (Eure) is explained by de 
Jubainville as a hybrid Celto-Latin name 
meaning ' ford bridge.' The Celtic name 
was Ritumagus, the field or ' plain of the 
ford,' which became Radepont when the 
ford was replaced by a bridge. 



Hadnorshire, made into shire -land by 
Henry viii., takes its name from New 
Radnor, formerly the capital of the 
county. The name was transferred from 
the neiji^hbouring village of Old Radnor, 
partly in Herefordshire, which was burnt 
by King John in 12 16. It is probably the 
Readanora^ ' red shore,' of a charter. 

Radolfzell, on the Lake of Constance, 
called RatoltesceUa in the ninth century, 
was a cell or church built by Ratold, 
bishop of Verona. 

Raffles Bay, North Australia, was so 
named by King in 1818 in compliment to 
Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. 

Rafti, a port in Attica, is so called from a 
colossal statue on a rock at the entrance, 
which resembles a 'tailor' {rapteSt pro- 
nounced rafti) sitting at his work. 

Ragratz, in Canton St Gallen, is from 
Regenzo, a personal name. 

RagfUSa, a Dalmatian port, is called 
Dvbrorunik in Slavonic, and Paprovnik in 
Turkish. The older forms of the name, 
Labuda, Labusadum, Lavusa, Raugia, 
Rausium, Raousion, and Ra^usium vary 
so greatly that no certain etymology can 
be given. The huge carracks of Ragusa, 
a town known in England in the sixteenth 
century as Aragouse or Arragosa, have 
given us the word argosy, 

R^putdna is a great territorial circle, 
including twenty autonomous states, which 
formed the refuge after the Moslem con- 
quest of the pure blooded Hindus, and 
is named from the Rdjputs (Sanskrit ^i/a- 
putra, a ' king's son'), the honorific title of 
the great warrior caste. 

Rakiura, the Maori name of Stewart 
Island, New Zealand, means ' dry 
weather* island, the southerl)r winds 
which blow from it usually bringing clear 
skies. 

Raleigrlly ^^ State capital of North 
Carolina, has been appropriately named 
after Sir Walter Raleigh, the jjrojector of 
the colony. The ill-fated colonists he sent 
out settled at Raleigh Bay in North 
Carolina. Mount Raleigh and the 
neighbouring Cape Walsingham in 
Davis Strait were discovered by Davis in 
1585, and named after his friends Raleigh 
and Wsdsingham. Raleigh is a territorial 
surname (found in Somerset and Devon) 
supposed to mean the ' roe's field' (A.S. 
and O.N. rd, a ' roe deer *). 

Rajnos, Isla de, one of the Salomon 
Islands, was discovered in 1567 by Men- 
(fafia on Palm Sunday, which is called in 



2i* 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



Spanish Domingo de ramos, the 'Sunday 
of branches.' 

RamBgrate is the chief town in the Isle 
of Thanet, whose British name, as we 
learn from Asser, was Ruim. In East 
Kent the gaps in the line of cliffs which 
lead to the foreshore are called 'gates,' 
and hence Ramsgate might be the gate 
of Thanet (Ruim) as MARGATE is the 
'mere gate.' According to Dr. Stokes, 
the word rumn, genitive ruimm, is cog- 
nate with the Greek word rumbos or 
rombos, a ' lozenge.' Ruim, the old name 
of Thanet, is usually said to mean a 
'foreland,' but may have been named 
from its shape, as well, possibly, as Rum 
(^.v.), formerly Ruim and Rumn, a 
lozenge-shaped island near Skye. RoM- 
NEY Marsh is also lozenge-shaped. 

BaJlgrer Island, one of the Navigator 
Group, was discovered by the English 
whaler Ranger. It is also called Nassau 
Island, from the American whaler A^<czjjd:«, 
by which it was subsequently visited. 

Bangfitoto is a volcanic island of recent 
formation near Auckland, New Zealand. 
The reflection on the clouds of the red- 
hot lava explains the expressive Maori 
name, which means 'bloody sky.' 

BangfOOn, the chief town and port of 
Pegu, is called in Burmese Ran-kitn, the 
'end of the war,' literally 'enmity ex- 
hausted,' a name given in 1763 by 
Alompra, the founder of the Burmese 
dynasty, who, after the destruction of the 
city of Pegu, established the capital of the 
kingdom near the famous golden pagoda 
called Da-gun, with which Ran-kun may 
probably be connected by assonance. 

Rannocll, the name of a moorland tract 
in Perthshire, in which lies LoCH Ran- 
NOCH, is explained from the Gaelic raith- 
neach, ' bracken * or fern. 

Baphoe, in Donegal, is a corruption of 
Rath-both, the ' fort at the huts.' The 
word rath, 'a fort,' is found in about 
1 100 Irish names, Rathmore, the ' great 
fort,' being the name of more than forty 
townlands. Another common name is 
Rathaspick, the 'fort of the bishop.' 
The second element is frequently a per- 
sonal name, as in Rathkenny, Rath- 
kieran, Rathronan, or Rathbarry. 

BappahanoO is a river in Virginia. In 
the earliest records of the colony the 
Rapahannock and the Susquehannock are 
mentioned in 1603 as the names of two 
native tribes. But, according to Boyd, 
Rappahannoc means ' tidal river,' literally 
the place where the tide ebbs and fk)ws. 



Bapperswyl, in Canton Ziirich, is called 
in a document of 972 Rapprehtswillare, 
' RAtberts dwelling.' 

Bascals' Villagre, a name more ex- 
pressive than elegant, was given in 1793 
by Mackenzie to a settlement on the 
north-west coast of America where he was 
plundered by the natives. 

Bat Island, in the Aleutian Chain, and 
Rat Island in Houtman's Abrolhos, 
West Australia, were, when discovered, 
overrun with rats. 

Batisbon is the French name of the city 
called by the Germans Regensburg 
{Reganesdurg in the eighth century), be- 
cause it stands at the confluence of the 
Regen and the Danube, whence also the 
Roman name Reginum or Castra Regina. 
The German name seems to be uncon- 
nected with the French name Ratisbon, 
which preserves the Celtic name Ratisbona 
or Radespona, 'the embanked town.' Old 
Celtic ratis, Irish ratk^ 'an earth-wall.' 
(See Bonn.) 

Batmanof^an island in Bering Strait, 
and Cape Katmanoff, on the Island 
of Saghalien, bear the name of one of 
Krusenstem's officers. 

Bauparaha, an island in Cook's Strait, 
New Zealand, was the dwelling of Rau- 
paraha, a Maori chief. It is ^o called 
Mayhew's Island, from an American 
who made it a whaling station. 

Beadingr, the county town of Berkshire, 
is a patronymic or c^ name, as is shown 
by the A.S. name Readingas, which 
appears in the dative plural at Readingan 
in the will of Queen i£thelflaed, c. 972. 

Bebecoa Island, in the Ellice Group, 
was discovered in 1819 by the American 
ship Rebecca, 

Beoherohe ArchipeIa,gro, off Nuyts- 
LAND, on the south coast of Australia, 
was discovered by the Dutchman Nuyts 
in 1627, and revisited in 1792 by the 
French Admiral Entrecasteaux in the ships 
La Recherche and LBspirance, (See 
Entrecasteaux.) 

Becife, the 'reef,' is a Brazilian coast 
town. The Ile Xux R6cifs, 'reef 
island,' is one of the S^helles. 

Becord Point, Port Essington, is where 
Captain Bremer, in 1824, deposited in a 
bottle a record of his having taken posses- 
sion of Arnhem Land. 

Beonlver^ Kent, was the Roman Regul- 
bium. This became in A. S. Racul/ceaster, 
Raculff and Raculf, From the dative 



GLOSSARY 



^33 



kaculfe, through the M.K Raculvre, we 
have Reculver. 

Redonda, one of the Lesser Antilles, a 
round dome of rock, was called by Colum- 
bus Santa Maria de Rotunda. ESCOLLO 
Redondo, one of the Galapagos, was also 
named from its shape. 

Red River, a tributary of the Lower 
Mississippi, is so called from its colour, 
due to beds of red clay and sandstone 
over which it flows. The Red River op 
THE North, which gave its name to the 
Red River settlement, nowManitobsi, flows 
into Lake Winnipeg. 

Red Sea translates the unexplained 
classical names Erythraan Sea and Mare 
Ruhrum. To the early Portuguese mari- 
ners the name Mar vermelho seemed to 
be appropriate because of the red streaks 
of water, due probably to floating infus- 
oria. The name Erythrea or Eritrea 
has been revived for the Italian protec- 
torate established in 1890-91 on its western 
coast 

Reftl^re Harbour, in Smith's Sound, 
afforded refuge to Kane in 1853 during a 
thick fog. In Refuge Inlet, near Point 
Barrow, a boat's crew of the Blossom 
found refuge from the pack ice in 1826. 
In the same year Refuge Cove on the 
same coast sheltered Dr. Richardson from 
a storm. 

Regrent's Inlet, or Prince Regent's 
Inlet, a channel leading southwards from 
Lancaster Sound, was discovered by Parry 
in 1819. Prince Regent's Bay, at the 
head of Baflin's Bay was discovered by 
John Ross in 1818. These names, to- 
gether with Regent's Park and Regent 
Street, London, date from the regency 
of George iv., February 6th, 181 1, to 
January 29th, 182a Prince Regent's 
River, Australia, was named by King in 
October 1820, after the Regency had 
ceased, but before the news had reached 
Australia. 

Refifgio, a Calabrian town on the Straits 
of Messina, was the Greek colony of 
Rhegium, founded at the ' rent ' dividing 
Sicily from the mainland. Reggio near 
Parma, on the Via i£milia, was Regium 
Lepidi^ founded by iEmilius Lepidus at 
the time of the construction of the 
iEmilian way. 

Reiohenhall, on the Saale, or 'salt 
river,' in Bavaria, is so called from its 
rich brine springs. (5<0 Halle.) Reich- 
ENBACH, a waterfall in Canton Bern, is 
so named from the copious supply of 
water. Reichenau in Saxony is the 



'rich meadow.' Reichenau, an island 
in the Lake of Constance, is the 'rich 
meadow ' occupied by a wealthy Benedic- 
tine Abbey, founded in 724. 

Reifirate, the 'ridge-gate,' in Surrey, is 
the Anglo-Norman name of a gate or 
passage throuc^h the ridge of the North 
Downs, the Norman castle at Reigate, 
which gave a name to the town, com- 
manding the defile. Above Reigate is 
the disA'anchised borough of Gatton, 
apparentlv the tiin at the gate or opening 
through the chalk cliff. 

Reindeer Island, in the Great Slave 
Lake, was so named by Mackenzie be- 
cause on it seven reindeer were killed, at 
a time when his expedition was in great 
straits for food. Reindeer Hills, near 
the mouth of the Mackenzie River, and 
Reindeer Mountains near the Peace 
River, are translations of the native nanies. 

Reliance, Port, on the Great Slave Lake, 
formed Back's winter quarters, 1833-1835. 
It was so named, he tells us, in token 
of his trust that a merciful Providence 
would protect him in his difficulties 
and dangers. 

Remciigren, a town on the Rhine near 
Bonn, preserves the Celto- Latin name 
Rigimagus or Rigomagus. 

Rembo, the name of a river in the Fan 
country, West Africa, means simply * the 
river.' It is a dialectic form of the word 
for river seen in Limpopo and other 
African river names. 

Rencounter Bay, Newfoundland, was 
the scene of a murderous conflict between 
the natives and the early colonists. 

Rendsburgr, Holstein, was the castle of 
Reinhold, as is shown by the old form 
Reinholdsburg. 

Rennell Island , in the Salomon Group ; 
Cape Rennell and Mount Rennell, 
in Arctic America, bear the name of 
Major Rennell, the eminent hydrographer. 

Rennes, formerly the capital of Brittany, 
is a trit^l name, having been the chiejf 
city of the Redones. It was called Con- 
date Rfudonuni, or simply Condate, the 
'confluence.' 

Rensselaer Harbour, in Kane's Sea, 

bears the name of Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
a promoter of the Gnnnell Expedition. 

Repulse Bay^ in Rowe's Welcome, lies 
beyond Cape Hope, where Middleton in 
1741-42 'hoped' to find a North- West 
Passage, but was 'repulsed* by finding 
the supposed strait was a closed bay. 
Repulse Bay in Queensland, and Re- 
pulse Bay in Kerguelen Land, are bays 



234 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



which Cook explored in the vain expecta- 
tion that they would prove to be navigable 
channels. At Repulse Point, North 
Australia, one of King's officers was 
driven back by a sudden storm. 

Rescue, Cape, in Wellington Channel, 
bears the name of the Rescue, a vessel of 
the first Grinnell Expedition despatched 
for the rescue of Franklin. 

Reshcl, or Resht, a town on the Caspian, 
is explained by Spiegel as a Persian 
name, referring to the material with which 
the houses are washed or daubed. 

Resolution Island, at the entrance to 
Hudson Strait, bears the name of the 
Resolution, one of the ships in Button's 
Expeditionof 1612. RESOLUTION Island, 
New Zealand, Resolution Island in 
the Low Archipelago, and Port Resolu- 
tion in the New Hebrides, discovered in 
1773-74, all bear the name of the Resolu- 
tion, the principal ship in Cook's second 
and third voyages. 

Rest, Bay of. North Australia, is one of 
the places where in 18 18 King's crew 
rested, because they were tired. 

Restoration Island, North Queens- 
land, was discovered by Bligh in 1789, on 
May 29th, the anniversary of the Restora- 
tion of Charles il. 

Return Reef was the most westerly 
point reached by Franklin on his expedi- 
tion down the Mackenzie River to explore 
the coast of the Polar Sea. 

Reunion was the name given in 1793 by 
a decree of the Convention to the Isle de 
Bourbon, between Mauritius and Mada- 
gascar. In 1809 the name was changed to 
Isle Bonaparte. It was taken by the Eng- 
lish in 1810, and restored to France by 
the Treaty of Vienna in 18 15. 

ReuSS, a Thuringian principality, was 
created in the tiiirteenth century by 
Henry the Pious, in favour of his son 
who was nicknamed der Russe (the 
Russian), from his Russian grandmother. 

Revel, a Russian port on the Baltic, was 
founded by the Danes in the thirteenth 
century. The name is explained by the 
Danish rev or revle, Swedish rdfvel, a 
• sandbank ' or • reef.' 

Revilla-Q-igodo Islands, a Pacific 

group west of Mexico, bear the name of a 
Spanish Viceroy of New Spain (1789-94). 
Reyes, a Califomian cape at the entrance 
to the bay of San Francisco, retains the 
old name of the bay, called by the Spaniards 
Puerto de Ins Reyes, because discovered in 
1542 on Twelfth Night, January 6th, the 
festival of the Three Kings. The Rio DOS 



Reys, the • river of the (three) Kings' (also 
called Rio de Cobke, from the copper 
implements obtained from the natives by 
barter), is a river north of Natal which was 
discovered by Vasco da Gama on Twelfth 
Night in 1498. According to a local 
tradition ISLA DEL Rey, the 'island of 
the King,' is the place where Alphonso ill. 
landed when he visited Minorca. 

Reykiavik, 'reek-bay,' and Reykianes, 
* reek-cape,' in Iceland, are so called from 
the steam arising from the hot springs. 

Rlisetio Alps is the name given to a part 
of the main chain which was held by the 
RfuBti, a name explained by Zeuss from 
the Celtic rait, 2l * mountain region.' 

Rhaiadr or Rhayader, a town in Rad- 
norshire, was formerly called Rhaiadyr- 
gwy, the • fall of the Wye,' from a small 
waterfall on the Wye, removed in 1780. 
Rhayadyr or R hinder, a ' cascade,' is a 
common term in Welsh nomenclature. 

Rheims, more correctly Reims, the metro- 
political city of France, is a corruption 
of Remis, dative plural of Retni, a Belgic 
tribe-name equivalent to primi^ and signi- 
fying ' princes ' or ' rulers.' 

Rhenoster, a river in the Orange Free 
State, was so named before the 'rhinoceros* 
was driven to the north. 

Rlline is the English spelling of the Ger- 
man name Rhein, which was the Latin 
Rhenus and the Celtic Renos, a form 
better preserved in the name of the River 
Reno in Cisalpine Gaul, near Bologna. 
The name is explained as a participle 
derived from the verbal root ri, to ' flow ' 
or ' run.' The upper valley of the Rhine 
in Canton Graubiinden is called the 
Rheinwald, a German corruption of the 
Romansch name Rin-val, ' Rhine valley.' 

Rliode Island, the smallest of the United 
States, is not itself an island, but takes its 
name from the nucleus of the colony, a 
small island in Narragan<=ett Bay called 
Aquedfiek, which was purchased from the 
natives by Puritan dissidents from Massa- 
chusetts {see Providence), who first 
settled in the north of the island at a place 
called Pocasset by the natives. The reason 
why Aquednek was renamed Rhode Isl5«nd 
is unknown, the only contemporary state- 
ment being the assertion of Roger Williams 
that it was so named 'by us' in 1636. 
This disposes of the conjecture that Rhode 
Island was a corruption of an older Dutch 
name Roodt Eyiandt, 'red island.' The 
name may have been takei. from the 
iEgean island of Rhodes, or from the 
name of one of the early settlers, but more 



GLOSSARY 



«35 



probably from the excellent anchorage or 
•roadstead' between the island and the 
mainland, an etymology supported by the 
early spelling Road Island, which af5pears 
in 1647 on the title-page of the earliest, or 
one of the earliest, books printed in the 
colony. On the other hand the official 
order, made in 1644, for the change of 
name, decrees that the island shall be 
called 'the Isle of Rhodes or Rhode 
Island,' which favours the theory that the 
name was from that of the -^Egean island, 
if it were not that the change from Rhodes 
to Rhode is left unexplained. 

Rhodes or Rhodis, anciently Rhodes, is 
an island in the ^gean. The rose, which 
appears on early local coins, shows the sig- 
nification attached by the inhabitants to 
the name, which is very old, the Rhodians 
appearing in the Ethnological Table in 
Genesis as Rodanim((srTOiiGOXis\y Dodanim 
in the A. v.). 

RllOdesiay the name of a territory on the 
Zambesi, acquired by the Rt. Hon. Cecil 
Rhodes, and administered by the Char- 
tered Company. 

Hhone, the great river known to the 
Romans as the Rhodanus^ is still locally 
known, near its source, as the Rhodan or 
Rotten, According to Zeuss the name 
means violent or rapid stream. 

Itll3rniney, Monmouthshire, bears the 
name of the river on which it stands. 

Ribchester, Lancashire, is shown by 
the Domesday name Ribelcastre to be the 
Chester on the River Ribble. 

Riohardson Bay, Richardson River, 
and other names in Arctic America, com- 
memorate the services of Dr. (afterwards 
Sir John) Richardson, R.N., who shared 
with Franklin the perils and hardships of 
the two overland expeditions to the Arctic 
Ocean in 1819-20 and 1825-26. 

Richborougrlli in Kent, was the Roman 
Rutupia or RitupicB, whence Baeda's 
Repiaceaster. In the twelfth century it is 
called Richeherg by Alured or Alfred of 
Beverley, and Ratesburg by Leland in the 
time of Henry viil. 

Bich Island, on the coast of New 
Guinea, was so named by Dampier in 
1700 after Sir Thomas Rich. Isla Rica, 
the 'rich island,' was the name given by 
Bilboa to the pearl island of Terarequi, on 
the Pacific side of the Isthmus of Darien. 
From its beautiful flowers Caspar Morales 
in 1515 named it Flores, but the Spaniards 
have preferred Bilboa's name. Rica de 
Oro, 'rich in gold.' is the Spanish name 
of a North Pacific island, South of Japan, 



rediscovered in 1788 by Meares, who 
named it Lot's Wife. A neighbouring 
island called Rica de Plata, 'rich in 
silver,' is believed to be identical with 
Crespo Island, discovered in 1801 by 
Captain Crespo of the Spanish ship El 
Rey Carlos, 

Richmond, the 'rich mount,' in York- 
shire, is the Norman-French name of the 
town which grew up undf r the castle built 
in Swaledale by Alan of Brittany, nephew 
of William the Conqueror. Henry vii. 
gave the name of the Yorkshire earldom, 
which he had inherited through John of 
Gaunt, to his Surrey palace at Sheen 
(A.S. Sceon, the 'beautiful place'). The 
name has been transferred to Richmond 
in Virginia, founded in 1737, and to 
numerous towns in Canada, the United 
States, Australia, and the Cape Colony. 

Rideau Canal, which connects Lake 
Ontario with the Ottawa River, is fed by 
the RiDEAU River, so called from a 
cascade which, as the French name im- 
plies, falls like a 'curtain' over a rock 
forty feet in height. 

Riffeli a jagged ridge near Zermatt, is fi-om 
the M.H.G. riffel, a 'saw.' 

Ri^a, a Russian jKjrt on the Baltic which 
has given a name to the Gulf of Riga, 
was founded by merchants from Bremen. 
It stood on one of the mouths of the 
Dwina (or Diina) now silted up, called 
the Ryghe or Rige, probably from the ridge 
of sand, Righ-o, which separated it from 
a neighbouring channel. 

Ri^ a mountain near Lucerne, is locally 
called d^Rigi, a patois form of der rik\ 
' the back,' a term used to denote a steep 
path over a 'ridge.' An early popular 
etjmiology made it the 'mountain queen,* 
the name Regina Mons appearing on a 
map of 1478. 

Riley's Bay and Cape Riley, in Arctic 
America, and Point Riley in Spencer's 
Gulf, South Australia, bear the name of 
Mr. Richard Riley of the Admiralty. 

Rimnik, a cape on the Island of Saghalien, 
was named in commemoration of Suwar- 
row's victory over the Turks at the River 
Rimnik in Wallachia. 

Rio^ the capital of Brazil, means 'river,' 
bemg a colloquial abbreviation of RiO DE 
Janeiro, ' January River,' the name given 
by Amerigo Vespucci to a bay, one of the 
finest in 5ie world, which he entered on 
January ist, 1502, and supposed to be the 
entrance to a great river which has no 
existence. In 1565 a city was founded on 
this bay and called Sao Sehastiao do Rio 



23^ 



NAMES AND tHEIR HISTORIES 



dt Janeiro^ from the name-saint of the 
young King Sebastian of Portugal, grand- 
son of Charles v. , bom in 1554, King in 
'557. killed in 1578. Rio RiCO, the ' rich 
river,' in the Brazilian province of Goyaz, 
was so called because of its auriferous 
sands. Rio Grande, the ' great river,' is 
a common name, occurring in Senegambia, 
Brazil, Mexico, San Salvador, Panama, 
the Mosquito Coast, and Texas. The 
Rio Grande do Norte, the ' great river 
of the North,' and the Rio Grande do 
SUL, the ' great river of the South ' give 
their names to Brazilian provinces. We 
have a Rio Negro, or 'black river' in 
Urug^y and Brazil, a Rio Colorado, 
or * ruddy river ' in Texas and in the 
Argentine Republic, a Rio Branco, or 
'white river' m Brazil, a RiO DULCE, or 
'sweet river' in Guatemala, and a Rio 
TiNTO, the coloured or 'vermilion river,' 
at the Rio Tinto quicksilver mines in 
Spain. Rio de la Plata is the 'river 
' of the silver. ' [See Plata. ) 

Kiom (Puy-de-Ddme) was the Roman 
Ricomagus or Ricomum. [See Remagen. ) 

Ripon, a city in Yorkshire, which stands 
on the banks of the Ure, grew up around 
a monastery, which Baeda tells us was 
founded in 660 tn loco qui dicitur in 
hrypum. In the Chronicle we have to 
Ripum (a.D. 709), abbot in Hripum (a.d. 
785), and <Bt Rypon (a.d. 948). In early 
charters we have Rippon and Rijxjn. The 
name has been supp>osed to be an English 
corruption or assimilated form of the 
Latin designation, Monasterium adripam, 
'the minster on the bank' of the Ure, 
but this is untenable. The date given by 
Baeda cannot be reconciled with a Danish 
etymology, or the name might be ex- 
plained n'om the O.N. ripum, 'at the 
crags,' but a cognate Anglian word may 
have existed, enabling us to explain 
Bseda's name as 'among the clefts' or 
crags. We may compare the name of 
Repton in Derbyshire, which appears 
in the Chronicle and elsewhere as Hreo- 
pandiin, Hreopadtin, Hreopediln, and Hry- 
padiin. 

Ripon Island, at the mouth of the great 
Fish River, was named by Back in 1834 
after the first Earl of Ripon, then Secretary 
for the Colonies. Mount Robinson, in 
Arctic America, was named by Franklin 
in 1826 after Sir F. G. Robinson, Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, afterwards the 
first Earl of Ripon. The Ripon Falls, 
near the exit of the White Nile from the 
Victoria N3ranza, were named by Speke, 
1860-63, after the second Lord Ripon, who 



was President of the Royal Geographical 
Society when his expedition was organised. 

Rivi^era means in Italian ' shore ' or 
'coast land.' The narrow strip of coast 
at the foot of the Maritime Alps, west of 
Genoa, is called the Riviera di jPonente, 
tibe ' west coast ' or ' coast land of the 
setting sun,' while the coast land at the 
foot of the Apennines, between Genoa 
and Spezzia, is called the Riviera di 
Lev ante, the 'east coast' or 'coast 
land of the rising sun.' Ribeira, in the 
Azores and in the Cape Verd Islands, and 
RiBERA in Spain are the Portuguese and 
Spanish equivalents of the Italian Riviera. 
RiVA, a town occupying a small delta at 
the head of Lago di Garda, is the place on 
the • shore.' The Riverina, in Australia, 
is a barbarous term invented to designate 
the fertile lands which border the River 
Darling. 

Rivoli, Venetia, a corruption of Ripula, 
a diminutive of ripa, a ' bank,' well de- 
scribes the steep shore of the Adige, 
where Napoleon gained his victory over 
the Austrians in 1797. Hence the name 
of the Rue de Rivoli in Paris, and of 
RivoLi Bay in 'South Australia which 
was discovered in 1802 by the French 
expedition under Baudin. 

Roanne, a town on the Loire, is the 
Rodomna of Ptolemy. 

Robben Island is the Dutch name of 
an island in Table Bay formerly frequented 
by seals {robben). 

Robbin Passagre, between Tasmania 
and RoBBiN Island, was discovered in 
1804 by Lieutenant Charles Robbin, R.N. , 
in H. M.S. Buffalo. 

RobertSVUle, Liberia, was named after 
Joseph Roberts, a negro born in Virginia, 
who became the first President of the 
Negro Republic. Roberts Island, one 
of the Marquesas, was visited in 1792 by 
Captain Roberts of the American ship 
Jefferson, 

Robertson Bay, South Victoria, bears 
the name of the surgeon of H. M. S. Terror. 

Rocca, 'the rock,' is the name of more 
than fifty places in Italy, and Roche or 
La Roche, from the Low-Latin rupica, 
is nearly as common among French names. 
We have Rochefort, the 'strong rock,* 
both in France and Belgium. Roche- 
SUR-YON, a town in France, is named from 
a castle built on a rock above the River 
Yon. La Rochelle, ' the little rock,' is 
a French seaport, whose name appears in 
the tenth century in the Latinised form 
Rupella. The dialectic form roque is seen 



GLOSSARY 



«37 



in ROQUERONDE, called Rocca rotunda 
in 1135, as weU as in Roquefort, Cape 
La Roque, and other names, but Cabo 
DE San Roque in Brazil was discovered 
by Vespucci in 1501 on August 16th, the 
festival, in the Roman calendar, of St. 
Roch, from whom San Roque, a town 
near Gibraltar, also takes its name. The 
Portuguese form RocA is seen in Cabo 
DA Roc A, 'rock cape,' near Lisbon, the 
extreme western point of the continent of 
Europe, and in As RocAS, ' the rocks,' a 
group of small islands near Fernando de 
Noronha in the South Atlantic. 

HiOOlldale, Lancashire, is in the dale of 
the River Roach or Roche. Rochford, 
Essex, is the ford over the River Roche. 
RocKFORD, Illinois, stands on the llock 
River. 

Rochester, a city in Kent, was, accord- 
ing to Bseda's belief, the Chester of a 
settler called Hrof , an et3rmology supported 
by the oldest A.S. form, Hrofes ceaster, 
which we have in the Saxon Chronicle, 
and in a charter of 673, while in a charter 
of 789 it is Civitas Hrofi, Hence the 
name should be pronounced Ro-chester 
and not Roch-ester, as if it were the Chester 
on a rock. It was the Roman station of 
Durobriva, a Celtic name meaning the 
' bridge over the water ' ; but it must have 
been called simply Briva, ' at the bridge,' 
as appears from the name Hroji-brevi 
which we have in a charter. A new light 
has been thrown on the etymology by the 
Peutinger Tables, in which the Roman 
station appears not as Durobrivce, but as 
Rotibis, seemingly a duplicate name, which 
enables us to dispense with Baeda's Hrof, 
and yet to explain the Hrofes - ceaster, 
Civitas Hrofi, and Hrofi -brevi of the 
charters. High Rochester in Northum- 
berland, occupying the brow of a rugged 
eminence, is on tiie site of Bremenium, 
the strongest of the Roman stations on 
the wall. Like Rocester , near U ttoxeter , 
in Staffordshire (formerly Roc€tter and 
Roucestre), it maybe the 'rock Chester' 
(Cymric rhwg, Gaelic roc, a. 'rock'). 
Rochester, a city in the State of New 
York, with a population of 115,000, derives 
its name from Colonel Nqthanael Roches- 
ter, who projected the settlement in 18 18. 

Rockhaznpton, Queensland, was a 
fancy name given by Commissioner Wise- 
man from a rock at the entrance td the 
River Fitzroy. 

Hockinfirliain Bay, Queensland, was 
named by Cook in 1770 in honour of 
Charles Watson Wentworth, second Mar- 
quess of Rockingham, who became Prime 



Minister in 1765. The title was taken 
from Rockingham in Northamptonshire. 
The A.S. names Rocf^n^akam and Racing, 
though both probably m Kent, suffice to 
show that the NorUiamptonshire name 
may be from a patronymic Hroccin^, 
like Rocking and R^ckinghausen m 
Germany. 

Rocky Mountains has nowsupplanted 
the older name Stony Mountains as the 
designation of the central cliain of North 
America. 

Rocroi, in the Ardennes, was formerly 
Croix-de Rau, which became Rau-Croix, 
and finally RoCROl. 

Rodney, a place in Somerset, gave 
a territorial surname to Sir Edward 
Rodeney, who held the estate of Stoke 
Rodney in the time of Charles i. , to whose 
family Admiral Lord Rodney, also a 
Somerset man, is believed to have be- 
longed. In his honour Cook, in 1769. 
named Point Rodney, in New Zealand, 
and afterwards gave the same name to a 
Cape in the Bering Sea. 

RodOBto, near Adrianople, was the ancient 
Rhadestus. 

Rodri^Tuez, also called Diego Ruy's 
Island, in the Indian Ocean, is a depen- 
dency of Mauritius.- It was discovered by 
the Portuguese in 1645, and doubtless 
named from the discoverer. It appears 
on a map of 1752 as Insula Jacobi Roderici, 
the island of James (Diego) Rodrigo (Ruy). 
It belonged at one time to the French, to 
whom the present form of the name may 
be attributed. 

Roermonde^ ' Roer - mouth,* in the 
Netherlands, is situated at the confluence 
of the River Roer with the Maas. 

Roe's Welcome bears the name of 
the eminent traveller and diplomatist Sir 
Thomas Roe, who in 1631 promoted the 
expedition of Luke Fox (North-west Fox). 
Sir Thomas Roe's Welcome was originally 
a name given either by Fox or Button to 
an island at the mouth of a channel lead- 
ing northwards from Hudson's Bay, the 
name being subsequently transferred to 
the channel in which the island lies. 
Roe's Group, Tasman Land, bears the 
name of Lieutenant Roe, R. N. , and Roe's 
River that of his father, the Rector of 
Newbury. 

Rogers Strait, Tasman Land, was 
named by King after Captain R. H. 
Rogers, R.N. 

Rogg'efeld, 'rye plain,' is an extensive 
upland district at the Cape, so called 
because suited to the growth of rye. It 



238 



NAMES AND THEIR HISTORIES 



is intersected by a chain of hills called the 

ROGGEFELD QERGEN. 

Rohilkhand is a district west of Oudh, 
inhabited by the Rohillas or ' highlanders ' 
(Baliichi, roheld, a 'mountaineer,' from 
rohu, a ' mountain '). In the seventeenth 
century the name Roheld was applied to 
the Afghans who came from their hills to 
take service under the Mogul Emperors at 
Delhi. Early in the eighteenth century 
some of these adventurers established 
themselves in the province of Katehur, 
which came to be known as Rohilcund 
or Rohilkhand {khand, a ' district '). 

Rohrbach, ' reed beck,' is the name of 
thirteen rivers in Germany. 

RoUand, an island near Kerguelen Land, 
was named by Kerguelen from his ship 
the Rolland. 

Rome is the French name of the city 
called Roma in Latin and Italian. Among 
the various guesses as to the meaning of 
the name, the most probable refers it to 
the word gruma or groma, a technical 
name given to the point in a city or camp 
where the cardo crossed the decumanus, 
the two cross roads spreading themselves 
at their junction into a sort of forum. 
Constantinople was called New Rome 
when it became the seat of Empire. The 
ROMAGNA, an Italian province which 
ultimately became part of the patrimony 
of St. Peter, acquired its appellation not 
from Rome, but from its long adherence 
to the Eastern Empire of New Rome, 
whence also the names of Roumania 
{q.v. ) and Rumelia. The imperial name 
of Rome has been absurdly given to more 
than twenty insignificant places in the 
United States. Romans (Dr6me) was 
the Monasteriutn Romanum, founded by 
St. Bernard. Dedications to St Romanus 
explain the names of the French villages 
St. Romain, (Yonne), and St. Rome 
and St. Romano (H^rault). On An gust 
9th, the feast of St. Romanus, the Cabo 
DE San Roman at the entrance of the 
Gulf of Maracaybo was discovered by 
Alonso de Hojeda in 1499. The name of 
the Russian chancellor. Count Romansoff, 
has been given to Cape Romansoff at 
the northern end of the Japanese island 
of Yesso, to two Polynesian islands, and 
to a chain of hills in Arctic America. 
Romanshorn, in Canton Thurgau, was 
called Romanicomu and Rumanishorn 
in the eighth century, either from the 
personal name Romanus or from the Teu- 
tonic name Ruman [Hruommannu, equi- 
valent to Ruhmesmann). ROMA. a town 
in Queensland, was named after Countess 



Roma, who married Sir George Bowen, the 
first Governor of Queensland. Romsdal 
in Norway is the * valley of the Rauma.' 

Romfordi Essex, perhaps the 'roomy' 
or ' wide ford,' is pronounced Rumford, 
the spelling having probably been altered 
because it- was supposed to mean the 
Roman ford. Romford is now usually 
said to be the ford over the Rom, a name 
bestowed of laie years on the brook at 
Romford, the river -name having been 
evolved out of the town -name, in the 
same way that the river names Cam, Eden, 
and Penk have been evolved out of the 
town names Cambridge, Edenbridge, and 
Penkridge. [See Runcorn.) 

Rona, an island off Lewis, and Rona or 
RONAY, an island in the Sound of Skye 
(both called Rogney in O.N.), bear the 
name of St. Ronan, a bishop who died in 
737i from whom Sir Walter Scott invented 
the name St. Ronan's WelL 

Ronaldshay is the name of two of the 
Orkneys, distinguished as North and 
South Ronaldshay. South Ronaldshay is 
called in the Orkney Saga Rognvalsey, the 
' isle of Rognvald,' brother of Sigurd, who 
was Earl of Orkney in the ninth century. 
The name of North Ronaldshay has been 
assimilated ; in the Orkney Saga it is 
called Rinansfy, the • isle of St. Ringan ' 
(Ninian) of Whithorn, who lived in the 
fourth century. 

Rook's Island, between New Guinea 
and New Britain, was named by Dampier, 
in 1700, after Sir George Rook. 

Roosey, one of the Orkneys, was called 
intne thirteenth century //ro^^, ' Hrolfs 
island.' 

Rosalgat, a cape forming the most 
easterly point in Arabia, is a Portuguese 
corruption of the Arabic name Ras-al-hadd, 
which signifies the ' Cape of the End ' or 
boundary. 

Rosas, a town on the Catalonian coast, is 
a corruption of the classical name Rhoda 
or Rhodos» According to Strabo, it was 
a colony of Rhodians who had previously 
settled in Sicily. 

Roscommon, which means ' Coman's 
wood,' is an Irish coimty taking its name 
from Roscommon, the county town, 
where St. Coman built a monastery in the 
eighth century. The Irish ros (Welsh 
tiios) signifies in the South of Ireland a 
' promontory,' and in the .North a ' wood,* 
being glossed nemus. It is believed that 
it originally signified a 'rough plain,' and 
was applied to any rough promontory, 
such as the Ross of Mull. The Scotch 



GLOSSARY 



239 



county of Ross was originally only the 
peninsula of Easter Ross, of which the 
mountainous part was called Ardross, 
the ' height of Ross,' to distinguish it 
from Machair Ross, the level sea-board. 
Ardross is also the name of a district 
in Perthshire, and Ross is a district in 
County Monaghan. Rosneath is a cor- 
ruption oi Ros-neveih, the ' promontory of 
St. Nevydd/ a Welsh bishop in the sixth 
century. 
Ross Bay, Ross Point, and other names 
testify to the services of Sir John Ross and 
his nephew, Sir James Clark Ross, in 
Arctic and Antarctic exploration. 

Rotherham, in Yorkshire, stands on 
the River Rother, and Rotherfield, Sus- 
sex, takes it name from another River 
Rother, but Rotherfield in Hants (A. S. 
Hrytheran-feld) and elsewhere is the 
« cattle field ' (A.S. hrytk^r, an ' ox,' M.E. 
rotheren and rutheren, 'cattle'). The 
Scotch name Rutherford is doubtless 
the ' cattle ford.' being analogous to such 
names as Horsepord in Norfolk, and 
Swinford in Leicestershire. 

Rotherhlthe. Surrey, pronounced and 
sometimes spelt Redriff, is in A.S. /^t he- 
redes hpth, also Retheres hithe, Retherhithe^ 
Rethra hiih, and Hrjfthra hyth. It seems 
to have been originally so called from the 
personal name Ethered, and subsequently 
assimilated so as to signify first the ' boat- 
man's or rower's wharf' (A.S. rethra^ a 
'rower' or 'sailor,' and then the 'ox 
wharf ' (A. S. hryther, an ' ox ' ). The place 
seems to have given its name to the brook 
called the Ro&er, which here joins the 
Thames. 

Roto, which means a ' lake ' in Maori, is 
a common element in New Zealand names. 
Thus Roto Rua, a lake which lies in a 
deep circular crater, means ' hole lake ' ; 
Roto Kawa, whose waters hold alum in 
suspension, is the ' bitter lake ' ; Rotoma 
is the ' white lake'; Roto Mahana is the 
'warm lake'; Roto Makariri is the 
'cold lake'; and Roto Kakahi, the 
' mussel lake.' 

Rotterdam, in Holland, a name of the 
same class as Amsterdam, Saardam, and 
Edam, was so called from the dam or 
embankment at the confluence of the 
River Rotte with the Maas. In 1643 Tas- 
man gave the name of his native town to 
Annamocka in the Friendly Group, which 
he called Rotterdam Island. 

Rouen, the chief town in Normandy, is 
a corruption of the Celto- Latin name 
Rotomagus, which became Rotomum, 
Rodumum, and finally Rouen. 



Roumania is a modem kingdom on the 
Lower Danube, comprising the former 
Turkish principalities of WaUachia and 
Moldavia. The kingdom was so named 
because the people, who speak a Neo- 
Latin dialect derived from the colonists 
settled by Trajan in Dacia, designate 
themselves as Rumeni or Romani 
(Romans). - Rumelia or Roumelia, a 
principaht^ lying on either side of the 
Balkans, is the Latinised form of the 
Turkish Rum-ili, ' the land of ROm,' 
that is of Constantinople or New Rome. 
The Turkish word Hi vmeans a ' tribe ' or 
' district ' ; Bosnia, for instance, being 
called in Turkish Ili-Bosna, the ' district 
on the Bosna. Roum or RCm is the 
Turkish name for European Turkey, 
Europe being supposed to be subject to 
the Emperor of Constantinople or New 
Rome. The last seat of Greek Empire 
was Erzeroum {q.v.) called by the Turks 
Arzi-rum, the 'lands of Rum,' from arazi, 
plural ofarz, ' land,' an Arabic loan word. 

Rousillon, one of the old French pro- 
vinces, derived its name from a small 
bourg near Perpignan, formerly called 
Castel Rosselh or RosceHontt now Rus- 

CINO. 

Roventlial, the easternmost cape in the 
Falkland Islands, bears the name of a 
Dutch officer who first sighted it in 1721. 

Roveredo, a town in the Trentino, on 
the Brenner route, is from the Low-Latin 
roboretum, an ' oak grove.' 

Rowlett Narro'W, on the west coast 
of Patagonia, and Cape Rowlett, Tierra 
del Fuego, bear the name of the purser of 
H.M.S